The Nature
and
Scope of
Sociology
Chapter I
(A Big Step Towards the Study
of Society)
The Sociological Perspective
Sociological
Perspective
• casts a light that
enables you to gain a
new vision of social
life...
Seeing the
Broader
Social Context
 Seeing the broader context of
social life involves looking at:
a. The social location ...
Foundation
of Sociology
.
Sociology emerged about
the middle of 19th century,
when social observers
began to use scientifi...
There are three assumptions that
explain the foundation of Sociology:
The first is that, human
behaviours follows a patter...
Definition of
Sociology
The word Sociology came from two prominent
languages of early advanced civilization.
“Socious”, a ...
Sociology and Other
Sciences
Hence, sociology is
defined as the
scientific study of
society and human
behavior. As a
scien...
Goals of Science
 The goals of science are: to explain
why something happens; to
generalize or to go beyond the
individua...
NATURAL SCIENCE vs. SOCIAL
SCIENCE
The NATURAL
SCIENCES
attempt to
comprehend,
explain, and
predict events in
our natural
...
SOCIOLOGY has many similarities to OTHER
SOCIAL SCIENCES:
A. Like political scientists, sociologists
study how people gove...
SOCIOLOGIST DIFFERENT from other
SOCIAL SCIENCES
a. Unlike political scientists and economists,
sociologists do not concen...
Pioneer’s in the Study of
Sociology
The early scholars who
contributed significantly
for the development of
this young sci...
A. AUGUSTE COMTE
(1798-1857)
Born after the
French revolution
of 1789
He proposed the
Philosophical
position of
Positivism...
HARRIET MARTINEAU (1802-
1876)
• She translate the book
of Comte’s work by
English
• Her book ‘Society in
America’ examine...
KARL MARX (1818-
1883)
Considered as one
of the thinkers of
the modern times.
Marx was a native
German and later
exiled in...
HERBERT SPENCER
(1820-1903)He proposed that
there is the
parallelism between
how society evolves
in the same manner
as ani...
EMILE DURKHEIM (1858-
1917)
•He was the only studied
thoroughly the discipline in
the school of higher learning.
•He concl...
Egoistic
Suicide
Resulted from too little social
integration.
Those individuals who were not
sufficiently bound to social ...
Altruistic
Suicide
Was a result of too much
integration
It occurred at the opposite
end of the integration
scale as egoist...
Anomic
Suicide
Was of particular interest to
Durkheim, for he divided it into
four categories:
Acute
Economic
Anomie
Spora...
MAX WEBER (1864-
1920)
If Marx proposed class struggle
as central force in social
change, Weber disagreed, he
rather hold ...
OTHER SOCIOLOGISTS
Albion Small, founder of
the department of
sociology at the
University of Chicago,
established the Amer...
The Development of Sociology in the Philippines
• SERAFIN M. MACARAIG, the first Filipino to acquire a
doctorate degree in...
1. It is the study of society and
human behaviour?
2. Who developed the idea and coined the
term “Sociology” ?
3. Who was ...
6.-7. Who are the two Filipino
Social Scientists were among the
first teachers of Sociology in the
Philippines?
8. What wa...
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
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The Nature and Scope of Sociology

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The Nature and Scope of Sociology include all the followings:
* The Sociological Perspective
*Seeing the Broader Social Context
*Foundation of Sociology
and many mores :)
Hope that this my Slides will help you to understand all the information :))

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The Nature and Scope of Sociology

  1. 1. The Nature and Scope of Sociology Chapter I (A Big Step Towards the Study of Society)
  2. 2. The Sociological Perspective Sociological Perspective • casts a light that enables you to gain a new vision of social life. It provides a different way of looking at life, and provides an understanding of why people are the way
  3. 3. Seeing the Broader Social Context  Seeing the broader context of social life involves looking at: a. The social location of people-their culture, social class, gender, religion, age and education b. The relationship of one group to another. c. The external influences (people’s experiences) that are internalized and have become part of ones thinking and motivations.
  4. 4. Foundation of Sociology . Sociology emerged about the middle of 19th century, when social observers began to use scientific methods to explain social phenomena.
  5. 5. There are three assumptions that explain the foundation of Sociology: The first is that, human behaviours follows a pattern or order similar to the patterning of natural phenomena. This assumptions claimed that one has to observed the everyday activities of his fellows to determine that certain acts are performed in a more or less The second factual basis of Sociology is that man is a “social creature”. With this context, man has a natural tendency to associate himself in groups and because of associations, social phenomena occur as a product of cause and effect thesis Sociology grew out of social upheaval. The industrial revolution had just begun, and people were moving to cities in search of work. Their ties to the land-and to a culture that provided them with “ready-to-hand” answers were broken. Life no longer looked the same, and tradition, which had provided the answers to social life, no longer could be counted on.
  6. 6. Definition of Sociology The word Sociology came from two prominent languages of early advanced civilization. “Socious”, a Latin word, meaning, companion, or society and from the Greek word “logos”, meaning to study. From this coined words, i could be further deduced that, sociology is the study of society and human behaviour. The concern of Sociology is not only to identify social phenomena but also to identify the cause of occurrence of these phenomena, and the delivery of the long term solution to the same, under positive perspective, it is not ambitious to claim that sufferings could be reduced through sociology.
  7. 7. Sociology and Other Sciences Hence, sociology is defined as the scientific study of society and human behavior. As a science, systematic methods are used to obtain knowledge.
  8. 8. Goals of Science  The goals of science are: to explain why something happens; to generalize or to go beyond the individual case and making statements that apply to a broader group or situation by looking for patterns, recurring characteristics or events, and to predict-to specify what will happen in the future.
  9. 9. NATURAL SCIENCE vs. SOCIAL SCIENCE The NATURAL SCIENCES attempt to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment. The SOCIAL SCIENCES -examine human relationships -Attempt to objectively understand the social world.
  10. 10. SOCIOLOGY has many similarities to OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCES: A. Like political scientists, sociologists study how people govern one another, specially the impact of various form of government on people’s lives .b. Like economists, sociologists are concerned with what happens with the goods and services of society, but sociologists place their focus on the social consequences of production and distributionc. Like anthropologists, sociologists study culture, and have a particular interest in the social consequences of material goods, group structure, and belief system, as well as in how people communicate with one another d. Like psychologists, sociologists are also concern with how people adjust to the difficulties of life.
  11. 11. SOCIOLOGIST DIFFERENT from other SOCIAL SCIENCES a. Unlike political scientists and economists, sociologists do not concentrate on a single institution. b. Unlike anthropologists, sociologists focus primarily on industrialized societies while many anthropologists remained focused on trival societies. c. Unlike psychologists, sociologists stress factors external to the individual to determine what influences people.
  12. 12. Pioneer’s in the Study of Sociology The early scholars who contributed significantly for the development of this young science are as follows:
  13. 13. A. AUGUSTE COMTE (1798-1857) Born after the French revolution of 1789 He proposed the Philosophical position of PositivismHe theorized that the methods of physical science are regarded as the accurate means of obtaining knowledge and therefore social science should adhere to the same. He developed the idea and coined the term “Sociology” He was the founder of Sociology
  14. 14. HARRIET MARTINEAU (1802- 1876) • She translate the book of Comte’s work by English • Her book ‘Society in America’ examines religion, politics, child rearing, and immigration in the young nation • She emphasized the impact that the economy, law, trade, and population could have own the social problems of contemporary society. • She spokes out in favour of the rights of women’s, the emancipation of the slaves, and religious tolerance • Her’ views, intellectuals and scholars should not simply offer observations of social conditions; they should act upon their convictions in a manner that will benefit society
  15. 15. KARL MARX (1818- 1883) Considered as one of the thinkers of the modern times. Marx was a native German and later exiled in England. He even proposed the Theory of Evolution or “class conflict theory” to achieve its end. His sociological application of change, which was later adopted in politics known as communism, made him disgusted over many debates about his thesis applied in politics.
  16. 16. HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903)He proposed that there is the parallelism between how society evolves in the same manner as animal species do
  17. 17. EMILE DURKHEIM (1858- 1917) •He was the only studied thoroughly the discipline in the school of higher learning. •He concluded therefore that suicide is not an ordinary phenomenon. •He proposed four types of suicide, based on the degrees of imbalance of two social forces: social integration and moral regulation
  18. 18. Egoistic Suicide Resulted from too little social integration. Those individuals who were not sufficiently bound to social groups were left with little social support or guidance, and therefore tended to commit suicide on an increased basis.
  19. 19. Altruistic Suicide Was a result of too much integration It occurred at the opposite end of the integration scale as egoistic suicide.
  20. 20. Anomic Suicide Was of particular interest to Durkheim, for he divided it into four categories: Acute Economic Anomie Sporadic decreases in ability of traditional institutions (such as religion, guilds, pre- industrial social systems, etc.) to regulate and fulfil Chronic Economic Anomie Long term dimunition of social regulation. Durkhiem identified this type with the ongoing industrial revolution, which eroded traditional social regulators and often failed to replace them. Acute Domestic Anomie Sudden changes on the microsocial level resulted in an inability to adapt and therefore higher suicide Chronic Domestic Anomie Referred to the way marriage as an institution regulated the sexual and behavioural means-needs balance among men and women. Marriage provided different regulations for each, however.
  21. 21. MAX WEBER (1864- 1920) If Marx proposed class struggle as central force in social change, Weber disagreed, he rather hold that it was religion ( Catholicism vs. Protestantism) that encourage social change. His conclusions that Protestantism more likely will embrace and open to change and encourage greater economic development- was in fact the core of capitalism-his controversial finding is a subject of debate among sociologists until today.
  22. 22. OTHER SOCIOLOGISTS Albion Small, founder of the department of sociology at the University of Chicago, established the American Journal of Sociology. W.E.B. Du Bois, a black American, conducted research on race relations in the U.S.. Talcott Parsons demonstrated with models how the parts of society harmoniously work together. . Robert K. Merton stressed that sociologists need to develop middle- range theories as explanations of human behaviour that go beyond the particular observation or research but avoid sweeping generalizations that attempt to account for everything. Wright Mills urged sociologists to get back to social reform.
  23. 23. The Development of Sociology in the Philippines • SERAFIN M. MACARAIG, the first Filipino to acquire a doctorate degree in Sociology and Published a book entitled An Introduction to Sociology in 1938. • FR. VALENTIN MARIN introduced sociology in the Philippines., with the opening of criminology program in the Pontifical University of Santo Tomas in 1950’s. •CONRADO BENITEZ and LUIS RIVERA were among the first teachers of sociology in the Philippines. • In 1952, Filipino pioneers in sociology organized the Philippine Sociological Society which main trust is to collect , interpret and proposed possible solutions to different Philippine sociological phenomena • In 1957, the COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL (CDRC) was created to conduct and support social science researchers. • In 1960, Fr. Frank Lynch, SJ, founded the Institute of the Philippine Culture at the Ateneo De Manila University. •In 1972,Xavier University was given credit as the first school,
  24. 24. 1. It is the study of society and human behaviour? 2. Who developed the idea and coined the term “Sociology” ? 3. Who was the first Filipino to acquired a doctorate in Sociology? 4. What book he published and in what year? 5. Who introduced Sociology in the Philippines?
  25. 25. 6.-7. Who are the two Filipino Social Scientists were among the first teachers of Sociology in the Philippines? 8. What was the first school in the Philippines which offered a bachelor degree in Sociology? TRUE or FALSE: 9. Sociology came from the two prominent languages of early advanced civilization. 10. Social Science attempt to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment.
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