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The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
The Nature and Scope of Sociology
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The Nature and Scope of Sociology

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The Nature and Scope of Sociology include all the followings: …

The Nature and Scope of Sociology include all the followings:
* The Sociological Perspective
*Seeing the Broader Social Context
*Foundation of Sociology
and many mores :)
Hope that this my Slides will help you to understand all the information :))

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  • 1. The Nature and Scope of Sociology Chapter I (A Big Step Towards the Study of Society)
  • 2. The Sociological Perspective Sociological Perspective • casts a light that enables you to gain a new vision of social life. It provides a different way of looking at life, and provides an understanding of why people are the way
  • 3. Seeing the Broader Social Context  Seeing the broader context of social life involves looking at: a. The social location of people-their culture, social class, gender, religion, age and education b. The relationship of one group to another. c. The external influences (people’s experiences) that are internalized and have become part of ones thinking and motivations.
  • 4. Foundation of Sociology . Sociology emerged about the middle of 19th century, when social observers began to use scientific methods to explain social phenomena.
  • 5. There are three assumptions that explain the foundation of Sociology: The first is that, human behaviours follows a pattern or order similar to the patterning of natural phenomena. This assumptions claimed that one has to observed the everyday activities of his fellows to determine that certain acts are performed in a more or less The second factual basis of Sociology is that man is a “social creature”. With this context, man has a natural tendency to associate himself in groups and because of associations, social phenomena occur as a product of cause and effect thesis Sociology grew out of social upheaval. The industrial revolution had just begun, and people were moving to cities in search of work. Their ties to the land-and to a culture that provided them with “ready-to-hand” answers were broken. Life no longer looked the same, and tradition, which had provided the answers to social life, no longer could be counted on.
  • 6. Definition of Sociology The word Sociology came from two prominent languages of early advanced civilization. “Socious”, a Latin word, meaning, companion, or society and from the Greek word “logos”, meaning to study. From this coined words, i could be further deduced that, sociology is the study of society and human behaviour. The concern of Sociology is not only to identify social phenomena but also to identify the cause of occurrence of these phenomena, and the delivery of the long term solution to the same, under positive perspective, it is not ambitious to claim that sufferings could be reduced through sociology.
  • 7. Sociology and Other Sciences Hence, sociology is defined as the scientific study of society and human behavior. As a science, systematic methods are used to obtain knowledge.
  • 8. Goals of Science  The goals of science are: to explain why something happens; to generalize or to go beyond the individual case and making statements that apply to a broader group or situation by looking for patterns, recurring characteristics or events, and to predict-to specify what will happen in the future.
  • 9. NATURAL SCIENCE vs. SOCIAL SCIENCE The NATURAL SCIENCES attempt to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment. The SOCIAL SCIENCES -examine human relationships -Attempt to objectively understand the social world.
  • 10. SOCIOLOGY has many similarities to OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCES: A. Like political scientists, sociologists study how people govern one another, specially the impact of various form of government on people’s lives .b. Like economists, sociologists are concerned with what happens with the goods and services of society, but sociologists place their focus on the social consequences of production and distributionc. Like anthropologists, sociologists study culture, and have a particular interest in the social consequences of material goods, group structure, and belief system, as well as in how people communicate with one another d. Like psychologists, sociologists are also concern with how people adjust to the difficulties of life.
  • 11. SOCIOLOGIST DIFFERENT from other SOCIAL SCIENCES a. Unlike political scientists and economists, sociologists do not concentrate on a single institution. b. Unlike anthropologists, sociologists focus primarily on industrialized societies while many anthropologists remained focused on trival societies. c. Unlike psychologists, sociologists stress factors external to the individual to determine what influences people.
  • 12. Pioneer’s in the Study of Sociology The early scholars who contributed significantly for the development of this young science are as follows:
  • 13. A. AUGUSTE COMTE (1798-1857) Born after the French revolution of 1789 He proposed the Philosophical position of PositivismHe theorized that the methods of physical science are regarded as the accurate means of obtaining knowledge and therefore social science should adhere to the same. He developed the idea and coined the term “Sociology” He was the founder of Sociology
  • 14. HARRIET MARTINEAU (1802- 1876) • She translate the book of Comte’s work by English • Her book ‘Society in America’ examines religion, politics, child rearing, and immigration in the young nation • She emphasized the impact that the economy, law, trade, and population could have own the social problems of contemporary society. • She spokes out in favour of the rights of women’s, the emancipation of the slaves, and religious tolerance • Her’ views, intellectuals and scholars should not simply offer observations of social conditions; they should act upon their convictions in a manner that will benefit society
  • 15. KARL MARX (1818- 1883) Considered as one of the thinkers of the modern times. Marx was a native German and later exiled in England. He even proposed the Theory of Evolution or “class conflict theory” to achieve its end. His sociological application of change, which was later adopted in politics known as communism, made him disgusted over many debates about his thesis applied in politics.
  • 16. HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903)He proposed that there is the parallelism between how society evolves in the same manner as animal species do
  • 17. EMILE DURKHEIM (1858- 1917) •He was the only studied thoroughly the discipline in the school of higher learning. •He concluded therefore that suicide is not an ordinary phenomenon. •He proposed four types of suicide, based on the degrees of imbalance of two social forces: social integration and moral regulation
  • 18. Egoistic Suicide Resulted from too little social integration. Those individuals who were not sufficiently bound to social groups were left with little social support or guidance, and therefore tended to commit suicide on an increased basis.
  • 19. Altruistic Suicide Was a result of too much integration It occurred at the opposite end of the integration scale as egoistic suicide.
  • 20. Anomic Suicide Was of particular interest to Durkheim, for he divided it into four categories: Acute Economic Anomie Sporadic decreases in ability of traditional institutions (such as religion, guilds, pre- industrial social systems, etc.) to regulate and fulfil Chronic Economic Anomie Long term dimunition of social regulation. Durkhiem identified this type with the ongoing industrial revolution, which eroded traditional social regulators and often failed to replace them. Acute Domestic Anomie Sudden changes on the microsocial level resulted in an inability to adapt and therefore higher suicide Chronic Domestic Anomie Referred to the way marriage as an institution regulated the sexual and behavioural means-needs balance among men and women. Marriage provided different regulations for each, however.
  • 21. MAX WEBER (1864- 1920) If Marx proposed class struggle as central force in social change, Weber disagreed, he rather hold that it was religion ( Catholicism vs. Protestantism) that encourage social change. His conclusions that Protestantism more likely will embrace and open to change and encourage greater economic development- was in fact the core of capitalism-his controversial finding is a subject of debate among sociologists until today.
  • 22. OTHER SOCIOLOGISTS Albion Small, founder of the department of sociology at the University of Chicago, established the American Journal of Sociology. W.E.B. Du Bois, a black American, conducted research on race relations in the U.S.. Talcott Parsons demonstrated with models how the parts of society harmoniously work together. . Robert K. Merton stressed that sociologists need to develop middle- range theories as explanations of human behaviour that go beyond the particular observation or research but avoid sweeping generalizations that attempt to account for everything. Wright Mills urged sociologists to get back to social reform.
  • 23. The Development of Sociology in the Philippines • SERAFIN M. MACARAIG, the first Filipino to acquire a doctorate degree in Sociology and Published a book entitled An Introduction to Sociology in 1938. • FR. VALENTIN MARIN introduced sociology in the Philippines., with the opening of criminology program in the Pontifical University of Santo Tomas in 1950’s. •CONRADO BENITEZ and LUIS RIVERA were among the first teachers of sociology in the Philippines. • In 1952, Filipino pioneers in sociology organized the Philippine Sociological Society which main trust is to collect , interpret and proposed possible solutions to different Philippine sociological phenomena • In 1957, the COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL (CDRC) was created to conduct and support social science researchers. • In 1960, Fr. Frank Lynch, SJ, founded the Institute of the Philippine Culture at the Ateneo De Manila University. •In 1972,Xavier University was given credit as the first school,
  • 24. 1. It is the study of society and human behaviour? 2. Who developed the idea and coined the term “Sociology” ? 3. Who was the first Filipino to acquired a doctorate in Sociology? 4. What book he published and in what year? 5. Who introduced Sociology in the Philippines?
  • 25. 6.-7. Who are the two Filipino Social Scientists were among the first teachers of Sociology in the Philippines? 8. What was the first school in the Philippines which offered a bachelor degree in Sociology? TRUE or FALSE: 9. Sociology came from the two prominent languages of early advanced civilization. 10. Social Science attempt to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment.

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