Another key collaborative task emphasised in the MoU between KeMU and OER Africa is around the review and amendment of institutional policy – with the end objective of jointly defining on OER policy for KeMU.The purpose of such a policy is two-fold: on the one hand, such a policy will facilitate KeMU’s collaboration with other higher education providers in the joint development and sharing of distance education materials (as appropriate);On the other hand, most African universities have some experience of the introduction of promising innovations – and some experience of innovations which have failed to fulfil their promise.Often, this failure may be attributable to the absence of a policy framework to guide either the implementation or indeed the sustainability of what might have been...
A key part of this joint initiative with OER Africa is accordingly the mapping of all current institutional policy related to materials development and the elaboration of an over-arching Policy Framework on OER. A key task here is to ensure that KeMU’s academic staff are provided with enough background information on OER to be integral to the formulation of an OER policy framework that is relevant and useful to you.It should take cognisance of the particular needs of KeMUIts should ALSO, facilitate collaboration with other distance education providers to JOINTLY produce and adapt high quality distance learning materials for use in their respective institutions.
A second question is WHY the concept of OER is so potentially powerful for education in Africa?This access, at low or no cost, to the means of producing educational resources allows educators to develop their capacity and in producing educational materials as well as the skills and competences necessary to integrate these new resources into high quality learning programmes. The principle of allowingadaptation of materials also allows learners to be active participants in educational processes – they can now learn by doing and creating, not just by passively reading and absorbing. In short, OER has the potential to build capacity in African education systems, of both learners and educators.
The next logical question would then be, how do we capture this potential for education in Africa?This is the issue we shall be interrogating over the next hour and a half – how the potential of OER, so powerful as to have influenced what can now be described as a full fledged OER Movement, can be liberated for the benefit of Higher education in Africa.We at OER Africa believe that collaborative partnerships of people working in communities of practice that focus on the Creation, Organization, Dissemination, and Use of OER, is a powerful means of turning this potential to the benefit of Africa’s HE systems.
Like Open Educational Resources, New Licensing frameworks emanated as a logical consequence of a clear need felt by many educators and non-educators alike, to share their work with others, without insisting that these others incur huge costs, whilst retaining the right to be recognised as the creators of their own work. The Creative Commons or CC licensing approach was developed by Professor of Law, Larry Lessig of Stanford University in 2001. This is the most developed of several alternative licensing framework s. Prof. Lessig borrowed from the concept of the commons – an open space in most traditional European villages – where any villager could graze their cattle or simply enjoy the tranquillity of this commonly held land.As one of the most comprehensive licensing frameworks, CC licenses are most often used for OER work.
Creative Commons provides free, easy-to-use legal tools that giveeveryone from individual creators to major companies and institutions a simple, standardized way to pre-clear copyrights to their creative work.CC Licences take account of different copyright laws in different countries or jurisdictions and also allow for different language versions. Four basic conditions underlie this licensing framework:[read slide]
The creator or author of a work can choose any one of the following four conditions to license their work.You can chooseAttributionShare-Alike
Non-commercial and finally, no derivative works, ORYou can mix and match them to suit your particular needs[The aspect of CC licensing that is most controversial is the non-commercial (NC) clause. There are several reasons for this, including at the most basic level, what ‘non-commercial’ in fact means. Since CC licences are a new phenomenon within copyright law, little previous case history exists to assist in interpreting this clause. ]
In the absence of a stipulated license, copyright restrictions automatically apply; an inherent challenge of copy-right is that whilst it automatically protects the rights of an author to be recognised as the owner-originator of their intellectual property, it also automatically prohibits the re-use or adaptation of works – even if the author had wished or intended to share their work with others.CC licenses let people easily change their copyright terms from the default of “all rights reserved” to “some rights reserved.”Creative Commons licenses apply on top of copyright, so you can modify your copyright terms to best suit your needs.
If someone wishes to ensure that their IP is recognised AND that it can be shared by others, they can access the Creative Commons site and make use of a licence generator . This license generator suggests the most appropriate licence based on a user’s response to specific questions regarding how their work can be used. There are six main license combinations:[see this slide and next]
If you’ve created something and want people to know that you’re happy to have them share, use, and build upon your work, CC’s legal infrastructure gives you flexibility (for example, you can choose to only pre-clear non-commercial uses) and protects the people who use your work (so that they don’t have to worry about copyright infringement,;If you’re an artist, student, educator, scientist, or other creator looking for content that you can freely and legally use, there are many millions of works — from scientific and academic content to songs and videos— that you can use under the terms of the CC copyright licenses.
OER Africa – An Introduction (Kenya Methodist University, Meru) January 2010
OER AfricaAn introductionKenya Methodist University Meru, Kenya 27th January, 2010
Who we are OER Africa is an innovative initiative of Saide, headquartered in Nairobi and established to play a leading role in driving the development and use of OER in Africa. OER Africa brings together all of SAIDE’s OER-related activities under a common conceptual framework designed to ensure that the full value proposition of OER is unleashed to the greatest possible effect in African education. Seed funding from the William & Flora Hewlett Foundation and a wide variety of projects and partnerships running across Africa, to deploy African experts and expertise to harness the concept of OER to the benefit of education systems on the continent and around the world. KeMU Policy Review & OER 2 Workshop
What is the Vision of OER Africa? Vibrant and sustainable African education systems and institutions that play a critical role in building and sustaining African societies and economies, by producing the continent’s future intellectual leaders through free and open development and sharing of common intellectual capital. KeMU Policy Review & OER 3 Workshop
What is the Mission of OER Africa? To establish dynamic networks of African OER practitioners by connecting like-minded academics from across the continent to develop, share, and adapt OER to meet the higher education needs of African societies. By creating and sustaining human networks of collaboration – face-to-face and online – OER Africa will enable African academics to harness the power of OER, develop their capacity, and become integrated into the emerging global OER networks as active participants rather than passive consumers. KeMU Policy Review & OER 4 Workshop
KeMU – OER Africa MoU Intent of this MOU is to create a framework that will assist both parties create a working partnership to enable joint pursuit of collaborative activities and projects… … specifically in the area of Open Educational Resources for Health (Health OER) …more generally in areas where there are demonstrable intersections of interest. KeMU Policy Review & OER Workshop 5
KeMU – OER Africa Activities Purpose of these activities & projects will be to develop quality, innovative, educationally sound educational programmes and re-deployable educational resources for meaningful education and to deliver these programmes using appropriate e- learning platforms where appropriate. Emphasis on the creation of policies that support the creation and sharing of Open Educational Resources (OER). OER Africa to run sensitization workshops at KeMU to help to ensure that academic staff are brought up to date with, and participate in the review of policy frameworks. (Oct ‘09, Jan ‘10) KeMU Policy Review & OER Workshop 6
Objective of Policy MappingOver-arching Policy Framework on OER which: takes cognisance of the particular circumstances, Vision and Mission of each participating university and; facilitates collaboration with other distance education providers to produce and adapt high quality distance learning materials for use in programmes. KeMU Policy Review & OER 7 Workshop
Why Open EducationalResources?Concept: Educational resources for use by educators and learners, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees. New licensing frameworks remove copying / adaptation restrictions OER hold potential for reducing the cost of accessing educational materials. KeMU Policy Review & OER 9 Workshop
What Potential Lies in OER? Access to the means of production enables development of educators’ competence in producing educational materials Access to instructional design necessary to integrate such materials into high quality programmes of learning. Principle of allowing adaptation of materials enables learners to be active participants in educational processes KeMU Policy Review & OER 10 Workshop
How do we Capture thisPotential? Through the potential of a collaborative partnership of people... working in communities of practice focussed on the four main elements of the OER evolutionary process: Creation, Organization, Dissemination and Use. KeMU Policy Review & OER 11 Workshop
Dispelling Some Myths Content = education Good content will overcome institutional capacity constraints OER should be a process of voluntarism OER will make education cheaper in the short- term Openness automatically equates with quality OER is about e-learning KeMU Policy Review & OER 12 Workshop
What is the most commonly usedAlternative License Framework? Most developed alterative licensing approach is that developed by Larry Lessig of Stanford University in 2001, called Creative Commons (CC). CC licences most often used for OER work and provide various options. The CC approach provides user-friendly open licences for digital materials and so avoids the automatically applied copyright restrictions. KeMU Policy Review & OER 14 Workshop
How do CC Licenses Work?CC licences are based on four specific conditions: attribution, share alike, non-commercial and no derivative works KeMU Policy Review & OER 15 Workshop
What are the CC LicenseConditions? (1)Creators choose a set of conditions they wish toapply to their work. Attribution Share AlikeYou let others copy, You allow others todistribute, display, and distribute derivative worksperform your copyrighted only under a licensework — and derivative identical to the licenseworks based upon it — but that governs your work.only if they give credit theway you request. KeMU Policy Review & OER 16 Workshop
What are the CC LicenseConditions? (2) Non-commercial No Derivative WorksYou let others copy, You let others copy,distribute, display, and distribute, display, andperform your work — and perform only verbatimderivative works based upon copies of your work, notit — but for non-commercial derivative works basedpurposes only. upon it. http://creative commons .org KeMU Policy Review & OER 17 Workshop
How do CC Licenses ProtectIntellectual Property?All CC Licenses assert the author’s right overcopyright and the granting of copyright freedomsand require licensees to: Obtain permission should they wish to use the resource in a manner that has been restricted; Keep the copyright notice intact on all copies of the work; Publish the licence with the work or include a link to the licence from any copies of the work; Not change the licence terms in anyway; Not use technology or other means to restrict other licences’ lawful use of the work. KeMU Policy Review & OER 18 Workshop
What are the various CC Licenses? Based on your choices, CC will suggest a license. formulation that clearly indicates how other people may use your work. Attribution (By) Attribution — Share Alike Attribution — No Derivatives http://creative commons .org KeMU Policy Review & OER 19 Workshop
What are the various CC Licenses?. Attribution — Non-Commercial Attribution — Non-Commercial — Share Alike Attribution — Non-Commercial — No Derivatives http://creative commons .org KeMU Policy Review & OER 20 Workshop
What can Creative CommonsDo for Me? CC licenses give you flexibility e.g. you can choose to only pre-clear non-commercial uses or to combine several license conditions CC Licenses protect the people who use your work As long as they abide by the terms you have specified, they don’t have to worry about copyright infringement. Relevant content is available to you under various CC Licenses If you are looking for content that you can freely and legally use, there is a giant pool of CC-licensed creativity available to you. KeMU Policy Review & OER 21 Workshop
INTRODUCINGhttp://www.oerafrica.org/Default.aspx?alias=www.oerafrica.org/healthproject KeMU Policy Review & OER 22 Workshop