SARE Cover Crops Powerpoint

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SARE Cover Crops Powerpoint

  1. 2. * Cover crop work starting in 1985, Univ. of MD * PhD (1993) on vetch/rye mixtures before corn - nitrogen and water * SARE outreach coordinator since 1995 [email_address] Andy Clark Corn no-tilled into hairy vetch
  2. 3. Grain / row crop farmers? Vegetable growers? Organic? other? Use cover crops? About you? Crimson clover
  3. 4. Grants and outreach to advance sustainable innovations to the whole of American agriculture. What is SARE? Red clover frost-seeded into wheat
  4. 5. SARE Grant Types Since 1988, SARE has invested in 4,000+ projects nationwide <ul><li>Farmer/Rancher </li></ul><ul><li>Research & Education </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate Student </li></ul><ul><li>Youth and Youth Educator (NCR) </li></ul>Go to www.sare.org for your region’s contact information. Photo by Carol Flaherty
  5. 6. <ul><li>Sustainable pest and weed mgmt </li></ul><ul><li>Clean energy </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Stewardship of land and water </li></ul><ul><li>Systems research </li></ul><ul><li>Community development </li></ul><ul><li>Crop diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Soil quality </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient management </li></ul><ul><li>Rotational grazing </li></ul><ul><li>Cover crops </li></ul><ul><li>… and much more </li></ul>Photo by Troy Bishopp The SARE Portfolio
  6. 7. <ul><ul><li>Up to $10,000 for individual producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to $15,000 for producer organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due 12/3/2009 </li></ul></ul>Producer Grants
  7. 8. 20 Years of Impact 79 percent of producers said they improved soil quality through their SARE project 64 percent of producers said their SARE project helped them achieve higher sales 75 percent of educators surveyed led at least one program to share innovations Photo courtesy Karl Kupers
  8. 9. SARE Outreach a library of practical, how-to books (in print or download for free) media outreach a portfolio of in-depth reports on current topics conference sponsorships countless online resources, including project reports
  9. 10. SARE’s 3rd edition of <ul><li>Farmer and research results & experiences </li></ul><ul><li>How-to information </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific background </li></ul><ul><li>Specific cover crops </li></ul><ul><li>Available online </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>How to use book (p. 7) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of cc (p. 9) </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting cc (p. 12) </li></ul><ul><li>Building soil fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Managing pests </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotations </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation tillage </li></ul><ul><li>CHARTS (p. 62) </li></ul><ul><li>Cover crop chapters </li></ul>Managing Cover Crops Profitably Cereal Rye
  11. 12. <ul><li>Soil : erosion, organic matter, soil moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients : add or scavenge </li></ul><ul><li>Manage weeds & pests </li></ul>Benefits of Cover Crops Ryegrass overseeded into kale
  12. 13. <ul><li>More time / management </li></ul><ul><li>Spring / fall workload </li></ul><ul><li>Weed potential </li></ul><ul><li>Harbor pests </li></ul><ul><li>Soil moisture use </li></ul><ul><li>How to kill / timing of kill </li></ul>Cover Crop Drawbacks Rye & Vetch in Tomatoes
  13. 14. <ul><li>Winter vs. summer </li></ul><ul><li>Legume vs. non-legume </li></ul><ul><li>Annual, biennial, perennial </li></ul><ul><li>Intercropped </li></ul><ul><li>Cover crop mixtures </li></ul>Types of Cover Crops
  14. 15. Non-legume Cover Crops Grasses, brassicas, mustards, buckwheat <ul><li>Reduce erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Large amounts of residue </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Suppress weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Scavenge nutrients (N) </li></ul><ul><li>May immobilize N </li></ul><ul><li>Do NOT add N </li></ul><ul><li>See soil fertility chapter </li></ul>Cereal Rye
  15. 16. <ul><li>Annuals : hairy vetch, </li></ul><ul><li>field peas, cowpeas </li></ul><ul><li>Perennials : red & white clover, </li></ul><ul><li>medics, alfalfa </li></ul><ul><li>Biennials : sweetclovers </li></ul><ul><li>Fix nitrogen (N) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Less residue, shorter time </li></ul><ul><li>Less organic matter </li></ul>Legume Cover Crops Ryegrass overseeded into kale
  16. 17. <ul><li>Define problem or use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add N; manage nutrients; reduce erosion; mulch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify niche in rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter vs. summer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full season; short window </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labor and equipment needs! </li></ul>Selecting a Cover Crop No-till soybeans into rye
  17. 18. <ul><li>How will I seed the cc? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the weather then? </li></ul><ul><li>How much biomass? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it winterkill? </li></ul><ul><li>How will I kill it? </li></ul><ul><li>How will I plant into it? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I have the time to do this? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s my contingency plan? </li></ul>Answer the Hard Questions
  18. 19. Top Regional Cover Crop Species
  19. 20. Performance and Roles
  20. 21. Potential Disadvantages
  21. 22. Talk to local experts – farmers, educators Lots of Ohio literature! Read cover crop chapters in Managing Cover Crops Profitably Midwest CC Council (mccc.msu.edu) Selecting a Cover Crop
  22. 23. <ul><li>See OSU Fact Sheet SAG-5-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Scavenges lots of N (planted early) </li></ul><ul><li>Biofumigation: suppresses weeds, disease and nematodes - tentative </li></ul><ul><li>Alleviates compaction (plow layer) </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of biomass </li></ul>Oilseed Radish Oilseed radish
  23. 24. <ul><li>Needs 60 days frost-free </li></ul><ul><li>Plant after small grain, vegetable, corn silage, sweet corn, early soybean </li></ul><ul><li>N scavenging may improve with small N application at planting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very dependent on conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Winterkills </li></ul><ul><li>Great, mellow seedbed </li></ul>Oilseed Radish Winter-killed oilseed radish
  24. 25. <ul><ul><li>Where’s the Nitrogen? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jury is still out on this. Hundreds of pounds of N before winterkill, but much of the residue is gone in spring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter/spring is the leaching season. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the residue breaking down (freeze/thaw) and N moving through the soil – using root channels? </li></ul></ul>Oilseed Radish
  25. 26. Maryland (unpublished) research: radish breaks plow pan better than rye (winter) New York research: Sorghum-sudangrass great at alleviating compaction (summer) Cover Crops and Compaction Oilseed radish Cereal rye
  26. 27. Rich Bennett, Napoleon, OH No-till RoundupReady beans into rye. See p. 104 Eric and Anne Nordell Trout Run, PA Sweetclover, buckwheat, vetch/rye for weed control in vegetables. See. p. 38 Farmer Cover Crops Profiles

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