© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
PDCA
P...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2
Objectives
1. Understand the principles and key concepts of
pr...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3
Outline
1. Introduction to Problem Solving
2. Concept of Probl...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 4
Methods to Increase Productivity
How to Increase
Productivity?...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5
Inefficient Processes Create Waste
Waste
Improve processes
by ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6
Waste in processes adds cost, without
delivering customers wha...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7
The Blind Men and an Elephant
Problems are often perceived dif...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8
Kaizen versus Problem Solving
• Problem solving
 Centers on t...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9
What Problem Solving IS NOT
• A kaizen event where people are ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10
Impact of Problem Solving
ProblemSolving
(ProcessImprovement)...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11
Problem Solving Philosophy
Problem solving involves identifyi...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
“The problems that exist
in the world cannot be
solved by the le...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13
Concept of Problem Solving Teams
• A Problem Solving Team is ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14
Topics Discussed by Problem Solving
Teams
• Productivity
• Qu...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 15
Problem solving structure parallels the formal
organizational...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 16
Problem Solving - Organizational Roles 2
Role Description
Pro...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17
Process Management
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18
The PDCA Approach to Problem Solving
• A systematic
approach ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19
The 8 Steps of PDCA Problem Solving
Select the Theme
Plan the...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20
Step 1: Select the Theme
• A theme is an area of focus which ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21
Step 2: Plan the Schedule
• Assess the complexity of the proj...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 22
Step 3: Grasp the Present Situation
• Start out by collecting...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 23
Step 5: Analyze the Cause & Determine
Corrective Action
Sympt...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 24
Where Are the Tools Used?
Phase Problem Solving Steps Applica...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
"As much as 95% of
quality related
problems in the
factory can b...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26
Problem Solving Tools
• Seven basic tools
 Stratification
 ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27
Example: Use of Pareto Chart to compare
‘Before’ and ‘After’ ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28
Cause & Effect Diagram (Manufacturing)
EffectCauses
cause
Mac...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 29
How to Construct a Cause & Effect Diagram
1. Develop and agre...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 30
10 Common Mistakes 1
1. Project is not aligned to organizatio...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 31
Critical Success Factors 1
1. Ensure buy-in by project champi...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 32
Copyrights of all the pictures used in this presentation are ...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
About
Operational Excellence
Consulting
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 34
About Operational Excellence
Consulting
• Operational Excelle...
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
To download this presentation,
please visit us at:
www.oeconsult...
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PDCA Problem Solving Technique & Tools by Operational Excellence Consulting

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In this training presentation, you will be able to teach employees on the structured Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) approach to problem solving. Many world class companies such as Toyota uses the PDCA problem solving process for relentless pursuit of continuous improvement. When combined with the basic quality tools, this approach identifies problems, analyzes root causes and generates solutions. Teach your staff to put effective solutions in place to prevent similar problems from recurring in the future.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Understand the principles and key concepts of problem solving
2. Learn how to apply the PDCA approach and basic quality tools to problem solving
3. Learn how to prepare an A3 problem solving report
4. Understand the roles of problem solving team
5. Define the critical success factors for effective problem solving

CONTENTS

1. Introduction to Problem Solving
- Methods to Increase Productivity
- Three sources of Productivity Loss
- Impact of Problem Solving
- Problem Solving Philosophy
- Benefits of Problem Solving

2. Concept of Problem Solving Teams
- Philosophy & Objectives of Problem Solving Team
- Fundamentals of Problem Solving Activities
- Problem Solving Team’s Maxims
- Organizational Roles
- Ingredients for Problem Solving Team Success

3. Overview of Process Management
- Process Ownership
- Process Definition & Documentation
- Process Measurement
- Process Improvement
- Process Control

4. PDCA Approach to Problem Solving
- Problem Solving Techniques
- The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Approach
- Problem Solving Process – Step-by-step
- Example & Practice Tips

5. Problem Solving Tools
- Seven Basic Problem Solving Tools
- Examples of the Basic Tools
- Practice Tips
- Other Useful Tools

6. Project Reporting Using A3 Storyboard
- Introduction to A3 Storyboard
- Relationship Between PDCA and The A3
- Steps of A3 Storyboarding
- Examples

7. 10 Common Mistakes

8. Critical Success Factors

To download this complete presentation, please go to: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg

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PDCA Problem Solving Technique & Tools by Operational Excellence Consulting

  1. 1. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. PDCA Problem Solving Technique & Tools
  2. 2. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2 Objectives 1. Understand the principles and key concepts of problem solving 2. Learn how to apply the PDCA approach and basic quality tools to problem solving 3. Learn how to prepare an A3 storyboard 4. Understand the roles of problem solving team 5. Define the critical success factors for effective problem solving Copyrights of all the pictures used in this presentation are held by their respective owners. NOTE: As this is a PREVIEW, only selected slides are shown. To download the complete presentation, please visit: http://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  3. 3. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3 Outline 1. Introduction to Problem Solving 2. Concept of Problem Solving Teams 3. Overview of Process Management 4. PDCA Approach to Problem Solving 5. Basic Problem Solving Tools 6. Project Reporting Using A3 Storyboard 7. 10 Common Mistakes 8. Critical Success Factors
  4. 4. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 4 Methods to Increase Productivity How to Increase Productivity? Quantitative Approach More People More Machines Work Longer Qualitative Approach Work Harder Eliminate Waste & Simplify Focus of Problem Solving
  5. 5. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5 Inefficient Processes Create Waste Waste Improve processes by eliminating waste! Input (Man, Machines, Materials) Transformation Process (Method) Output (Products, Services)
  6. 6. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6 Waste in processes adds cost, without delivering customers what they want Over-production Producing more than what the customer needs Inventory Building and storing extra services/products the customer has not ordered Transportation Moving product from one place to another Over-processing Adding excess value when the customer does not require it Motion Extra physical/mental motion that doesn’t add value Intellect Not using employees full intellectual contribution Waiting Employees waiting for another process or a machine/tool Waste Defects Scrap, reworking, retesting and re-inspection
  7. 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7 The Blind Men and an Elephant Problems are often perceived differently by different people. It is a snake! It is a wall! It is a branch!
  8. 8. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8 Kaizen versus Problem Solving • Problem solving  Centers on the fundamental notion of “gap” or “deviation” from standard (e.g. cost, quality, delivery) • Kaizen  Focuses on achieving a new standard or level of performance Standard – what should be happening Current situation – what is actually happening Gap = Problem
  9. 9. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9 What Problem Solving IS NOT • A kaizen event where people are taken away from their “real jobs” for 3-5 days at a time • An exercise to place blame on a person or department • A project only for the Subject Matter Experts or “high-fliers” • Another one of those “extra curricula activities”
  10. 10. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10 Impact of Problem Solving ProblemSolving (ProcessImprovement) Time Original Zone of Control New Zone of Control Performance Sporadic Departure from Standard Holding the Gain - Control
  11. 11. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11 Problem Solving Philosophy Problem solving involves identifying and eliminating all activities that are waste. Current State Future State Solve Problems Expose Problems “True North” Value Added Time = Lead Time Full of Waste, Variation, and Constraints
  12. 12. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “The problems that exist in the world cannot be solved by the level of thinking that created them.” - Albert Einstein
  13. 13. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13 Concept of Problem Solving Teams • A Problem Solving Team is a group of employees performing similar or related tasks, who get together on a regular basis, to discuss a topic or theme affecting their work or workplace.
  14. 14. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14 Topics Discussed by Problem Solving Teams • Productivity • Quality • Cost • Delivery • Housekeeping • Safety • Service
  15. 15. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 15 Problem solving structure parallels the formal organizational structure
  16. 16. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 16 Problem Solving - Organizational Roles 2 Role Description Problem Solving Facilitator Is a manager or executive who motivates, helps, trains and guides Problem Solving leaders and members. Problem Solving Team Leader Guides and leads the Problem Solving team. Problem Solving Team Member Is a member who together with colleagues form the Problem Solving team.
  17. 17. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17 Process Management
  18. 18. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18 The PDCA Approach to Problem Solving • A systematic approach to problem solving • Provides the framework for a team to carry out improvement • Used together with the common QC tools Plan DoCheck Act
  19. 19. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19 The 8 Steps of PDCA Problem Solving Select the Theme Plan the Schedule Grasp the Present Situation Establish the Target Analyze the Cause & Identify Corrective Action Implement Corrective Action Evaluate the Result Standardize & Follow-up PLAN ACT CHECK DO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  20. 20. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20 Step 1: Select the Theme • A theme is an area of focus which is aligned to your organization’s strategic objectives. • Examples of themes: Customer Satisfaction, Productivity, Quality, Cost, On-time delivery, Safety, Morale, etc. • Review existing KPIs to look for poorly performing processes, e.g. high rejects or scrap, poor on-time delivery, high customer complaints, etc.
  21. 21. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21 Step 2: Plan the Schedule • Assess the complexity of the project and plan the schedule using a Gantt Chart.  Break down the schedule to include all the 8 steps of problem solving, and assign team members’ responsibilities (e.g. who does what and by when)  Estimate the time required for each of the step • Discuss with the process owner to determine urgency of the project, deadline and resources. • Balance the need to carry out day-to-day work and executing the problem solving project.
  22. 22. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 22 Step 3: Grasp the Present Situation • Start out by collecting as much data/information as possible and making it visual in any way possible. • Some useful tools for analyzing the problem are (see the next section on how to apply the tools):  Process mapping or flow charting  Graphs  Trend or Run charts  Pareto diagrams  Cause and effect diagrams
  23. 23. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 23 Step 5: Analyze the Cause & Determine Corrective Action Symptoms  Result or outcome of the problem  What you see as a problem (Obvious) Causes  “The Roots” – system below the surface, bringing about the problem (Not Obvious) Symptoms Causes The Problem  Gap from goal or standard Problem Infection Fever Achy, weak, tired
  24. 24. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 24 Where Are the Tools Used? Phase Problem Solving Steps Applicable Tools Plan 1. Select the Theme Brainstorming / Matrix Diagram / Selection Criteria / Team Consensus 2. Plan the Schedule Gantt Chart 3. Grasp the Present Situation Data Collection / Flowcharting / Pie Chart / Check Sheet / Pareto Diagram / Bar Chart / Histogram 4. Set the Target Pareto Analysis / Conduct Experiments / Check Past Trends 5. Analyze the Cause & Identify Corrective Action Brainstorming / Cause & Effect Diagram / 5 Whys / Tree Diagram / Control Chart / Scatter Diagram / Alternative Solutions Do 6. Implement Corrective Action Arrow Diagram / Process Flowchart / Pictures / Diagrams Check 7. Evaluate the Result Collect New Data / Check Sheet / Pareto Comparison / Bar Chart Comparison / Radar Chart / Target Variance Act 8. Standardize & Follow Up In the standardization plan, document the new procedures. Display in notice board or website or conduct briefings. Show the follow-up actions to be taken.
  25. 25. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. "As much as 95% of quality related problems in the factory can be solved with seven fundamental quantitative tools.” Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa
  26. 26. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26 Problem Solving Tools • Seven basic tools  Stratification  Check Sheet  Control chart (Run chart)  Pareto Chart  Cause & Effect Diagram  Histogram  Scatter Diagram
  27. 27. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27 Example: Use of Pareto Chart to compare ‘Before’ and ‘After’ a process improvement Restaurant Complaints Before After 33% Reduction in Wait Time
  28. 28. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28 Cause & Effect Diagram (Manufacturing) EffectCauses cause Machines Measurements Materials Methods Mother Nature Manpower (Environment) Problem Statement
  29. 29. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 29 How to Construct a Cause & Effect Diagram 1. Develop and agree on a problem statement (effect) 2. Brainstorm a list of possible causes; remove symptoms and solutions related to the stated effect 3. Identify major categories of causes (e.g. Man, Machines, Material, Method, Measurement, Environment) 4. Place each cause in a category (same cause can occur in several category) 5. Ask “Why does this happen?” for each cause 6. Design data collection strategy to verify and prioritize main causes
  30. 30. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 30 10 Common Mistakes 1 1. Project is not aligned to organization’s objectives 2. Not agreeing on the goal or outcome 3. Trying to “boil the ocean” 4. Not utilizing the power of the Gemba 5. Not measuring the performance metric
  31. 31. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 31 Critical Success Factors 1 1. Ensure buy-in by project champion and team members 2. Select a project that is not too difficult to execute and can be completed in less than a year 3. Keep stakeholders informed of the project status 4. Manage stakeholders’ expectations
  32. 32. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 32 Copyrights of all the pictures used in this presentation are held by their respective owners.
  33. 33. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. About Operational Excellence Consulting
  34. 34. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 34 About Operational Excellence Consulting • Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and effectiveness. • One of our unique strengths is going beyond a tools-focused approach to seamlessly integrate people, processes, technology and continuous improvement initiatives to suit the specific needs and situations of our clients. • We provide corporate learning programs and management advisory services to assist our clients to achieve breakthrough in business performance and effectiveness. Our aim is to support our clients in designing, managing and executing lasting beneficial change.
  35. 35. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. To download this presentation, please visit us at: www.oeconsulting.com.sg END OF PREVIEW

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