+

What do you want to see? Assessing students’ skills
Ph.D. candidate
Yusuke Ishimura
+

2

Connection to This Class

Students’ research
process in a real
environment

Very
personal, messy
process

GLIS 679 Y...
+

3

Research Questions
What are Japanese students’ information behaviours during
their research tasks as compared to Can...
+

4

Conceptual Framework

Information behaviour model
(Process oriented)
Information
needs

Information
seeking

Informa...
+

5

Data Collection

Interviews
• Reveal context of behaviour

Flowcharts
• Visualisation of entire process

Portfolios
...
+

6

Data Collection Timeline

Assignment
schedule
Portfolio
(Ongoing)

Interviews

Start

Start

1st interview
- Guidanc...
Length of stay

Psychology

5 years

Male

Economics

6 months

Female

Political Science

5 years

Female

Marketing

6 m...
+

8

Sample Flowchart

GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
Information Behaviour & Literacy

Low IL skills

Feedback

Informatio
n needs

Informatio
n seeking

Informatio
n use

Fee...
+

10

Finding Focus


Starting points
•
•
•



Process characteristics
•
•
•



Class topics
Previous knowledge
Person...
+

11

Starting Points: Quote
“I picked that one [out of 15 topics provided by the professor]
because Diefenbaker and Eise...
+

12

Characteristics: Quote
I think I'm thinking more in terms of keywords than anything else, not in
full sentences, at...
+

13

Action: Quote
“To start my research, I went to Wikipedia to get a general overview
and see what kinds of references...
+

14

Action: Quote
“Yeah. The best strategy, I've always found, is to find 1 book, at least.
Papers are really good, the...
+

15

Locating Information


Searching library catalogue
•
•



Single/multiple/changing keywords
Browsing by LCSH

Sea...
+

16

Sample Search

GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
+

17

Reasons: Quote
[Y] It’s interesting you’re searching for subject headings. Where did you learn this kind of stuff?
...
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18

Reasons: Quote
[P13] Yes. Thank you. I learned a bit about Boolean, I’m not very versed in Boolean, but I learned i...
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19

Information Selection
Relevance to students’ paper content
Content quality
Content coverage



Looking at book ele...
+

20

Information Extraction/Organisation


Highlighting



Using sticky notes as markers
•
•



Colour coding by them...
+

21

Writing Process


Writing paper based on outline



Writing paper section by section



Filling in information b...
+

22

Writing Process: Quote
[Y] I see. I kind of feel you have specific ideas in your head, but you don’t know where you...
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23

Factors Affecting Research Process


Trial & error



Motivation toward research



Serendipity (or by chance)

...
Low IL skills

Time allocation

High IL skills

+

24

GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010

Information
needs

Information ...
+

25

Findings (so far)


Process and IL skills are not isolated
•

Seeking information versus using information



Stu...
26

+

What are your questions?

GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
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What do you want to see? Assessing students’ skills

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  • Today’s talk: dissertation investigating conducting research & IL skills…
  • This is very daunting methods, my approach is not recommended for everyone, but you will be able to see various kind of evidences you can see during research processImplications for librarians for teaching students IL skills and development of the skills
  • Japanese students in Canada. In my presentation “today,” I am more talking about undergraduate students in general.
  • IB – IL similar, but differentIB: inter-related, dynamic useful to know about process: No outcomeIL: Specify outcomes of behaviour, but often discreteUsing both concepts is important to obtain complete picture of students’ process
  • Scrap [space] book collect any kind of evidence related to research (ideas, potential topic, how they seek information incl. keywords used, resources consulted, outline created, and final products)Students’ made flowcharts
  • Find focus based on…Could not articulate their topics yet.
  • Here’s example of staring point.
  • Are these examples familiar? If you think about what you did when you were undergraduates?
  • List of actions students did
  • Nationality & ethnicity in Poland in the early Polish socialist party
  • With citation information
  • Find more info. And seek to improve research techniqueIt seems that librarians are often missing
  • What do you want to see? Assessing students’ skills

    1. 1. + What do you want to see? Assessing students’ skills Ph.D. candidate Yusuke Ishimura
    2. 2. + 2 Connection to This Class Students’ research process in a real environment Very personal, messy process GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010 How? Why? What IL skills? Complete picture of the research process Implications for librarians
    3. 3. + 3 Research Questions What are Japanese students’ information behaviours during their research tasks as compared to Canadian students? • What factors (e.g., personal, social, and linguistic) are involved in information behaviour during the research task? • What are their actual behaviours in relation to information literacy standards? • What differences and similarities in behaviour exist between the two groups of students? GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    4. 4. + 4 Conceptual Framework Information behaviour model (Process oriented) Information needs Information seeking Information use Corresponds with Outcomes Outcomes Information literacy standards (Quality oriented) GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010 Outcomes Users’ context Potential effects - Cultural - Educational - Linguistic - Personal - Psychological - Social
    5. 5. + 5 Data Collection Interviews • Reveal context of behaviour Flowcharts • Visualisation of entire process Portfolios • Collect evidence GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    6. 6. + 6 Data Collection Timeline Assignment schedule Portfolio (Ongoing) Interviews Start Start 1st interview - Guidance for the study - Past experience Flowchart Assignment submission End 2nd interview - Contemporary experience - Reflection on meaning Making flowchart Portfolio analysis Analysis Full analysis starts GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    7. 7. Length of stay Psychology 5 years Male Economics 6 months Female Political Science 5 years Female Marketing 6 months Female Religious Studies 6 months Female Education - Female English literature - Male History - Female History - Male History - Female Political Science - Female Linguistics - Female Political Science - Male Canadian Selected paper discipline Female Japanese Gender History - GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    8. 8. + 8 Sample Flowchart GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    9. 9. Information Behaviour & Literacy Low IL skills Feedback Informatio n needs Informatio n seeking Informatio n use Feedback High IL skills + 9 GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010 Informatio n needs Informatio n seeking Informatio n use
    10. 10. + 10 Finding Focus  Starting points • • •  Process characteristics • • •  Class topics Previous knowledge Personal interests Often vague Start with brainstorming Information availability is key Action • • • • • Searching catalogues Searching databases Searching Google Searching Wikipedia Talking with instructors GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    11. 11. + 11 Starting Points: Quote “I picked that one [out of 15 topics provided by the professor] because Diefenbaker and Eisenhower are both very long names. If I write a paper that uses those names a lot, it makes [my paper] longer.” [P20] GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    12. 12. + 12 Characteristics: Quote I think I'm thinking more in terms of keywords than anything else, not in full sentences, at least not at first. For example, thinking of things like: • historiography of conservation • Utah • John Muir • Parrots (Southern USA) [P12] GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    13. 13. + 13 Action: Quote “To start my research, I went to Wikipedia to get a general overview and see what kinds of references they used. On the Wikipedia webpage for 'preventive diplomacy' it lists the UN mission to Macedonia as a notable example of successful preventive diplomacy.” [P16] GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    14. 14. + 14 Action: Quote “Yeah. The best strategy, I've always found, is to find 1 book, at least. Papers are really good, they're various focused and everything, but if you have 1 book that something to do with your topic, it gives you this big background . . . I just read it really quickly because I can sort of you can skip through something or skim really, really quickly through some parts… Yeah, just read the big bulk of it and from there, that gives you all the issues or things you are looking for. And theoretically, it would give you the articles where he [the author] went to. If it’s a good book, it will mention the other people who talked about it and like the other rival scholars or something.” [P10] GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    15. 15. + 15 Locating Information  Searching library catalogue • •  Single/multiple/changing keywords Browsing by LCSH Searching journal databases • Single/multiple databases • Single/multiple/changing keywords • Advanced search options  Browsing shelves  Searching Google (including Scholar & Books)  Citation chaining GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    16. 16. + 16 Sample Search GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    17. 17. + 17 Reasons: Quote [Y] It’s interesting you’re searching for subject headings. Where did you learn this kind of stuff? [P10] I was on the classic catalogue and I saw “subject begins with.” I clicked on it. It makes a lot of sense. [Y] I see. You just noticed the option is there. And then OK, like what this function is. And just try it? [P10] Yeah. [Y] And then you realize. [P10] Also like from there, I, that’s sort of, that’s in my mind and I tried that a few times, like Poland history. Like OK. So there’s the Poland history page. Then later, I see a book and noticed a LC subject like Poland socialism and something else, I cannot remember what found this one. And then it would be like, oh click on that and go to the subject I was looking at. This was great and this is nice. [Y] I am just wondering are you familiar with LC subjects, what a LC subject is? [P10] I have no idea. GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    18. 18. + 18 Reasons: Quote [P13] Yes. Thank you. I learned a bit about Boolean, I’m not very versed in Boolean, but I learned it in high school. [Y] OK. So at least you learned how to search. [P13] It was a bit more advanced training, it was a good high school, I guess. I know that a lot of people have to learn that a lot in a university, but I didn't take any of courses specifically. [Y] I see. When you came to McGill, did you look at all the online tutorials to learn how to search? [P13] I was worried about my research skills being bad and I took 1 and they again told me about Boolean and then they also explained McGill's facilities. It was like a "welcome to the library" thing. We have online journals, here's how to access online journals, and we can go through departmental studies if you want. Here's Canadian history and here's a list of journals and then you search multi-journals. I think that's valuable...and I think I was lazy in my past research in that I typically go straight to JSTOR if I am in history or English. Just go straight to JSTOR but I know that doesn't have access to everything. And recently I've been kind of been falling on a crutch of using Google Scholar a little much. It's getting better for something. GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    19. 19. + 19 Information Selection Relevance to students’ paper content Content quality Content coverage  Looking at book elements • • • Title Table of contents Index Looking at content of journal articles  • • • • Title Abstract Main text Citation count GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    20. 20. + 20 Information Extraction/Organisation  Highlighting  Using sticky notes as markers • •  Colour coding by themes/topics Specific kinds of sticky notes Typing notes • • Paraphrasing •  Summarising Copying Making digital notes GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    21. 21. + 21 Writing Process  Writing paper based on outline  Writing paper section by section  Filling in information based on own ideas GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    22. 22. + 22 Writing Process: Quote [Y] I see. I kind of feel you have specific ideas in your head, but you don’t know where you want to put it in. [P18] Yeah, Yeah. [Y] At least you know what you want to use. Just put information and then at later stage, print out and think about flow and structure? [P18] Yeah, because like I was staring the computer screen for so long, sometimes it's so hard, and scrolling and just all looks the same. So to have it on paper I find, you know, OK I don’t need any of this... so then if I have the sheets laid out--well, like this paragraph on page 8 and then like this paragraph on page 2, so like they need go together. So I can see that better when it’s laid out. And sometimes not for this paper but sometimes I have really in trouble do like highlighting and color code organization, but this was, I didn’t find this like super hard to kind of put together because I kind of all along kind of knew the things I was gonna talk about. So it’s just like you know, I wanna like a logical order. So. GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    23. 23. + 23 Factors Affecting Research Process  Trial & error  Motivation toward research  Serendipity (or by chance)  Past learning experience • High school • Past classes/assignments at McGill  Time management skills  Librarians(?) GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    24. 24. Low IL skills Time allocation High IL skills + 24 GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010 Information needs Information use Information seeking Information needs Information use Information seeking
    25. 25. + 25 Findings (so far)  Process and IL skills are not isolated • Seeking information versus using information  Students shows certain levels of IL skills  If certain approaches work… •  Students don’t change until the approach fails Librarians’ presence rarely seen GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010
    26. 26. 26 + What are your questions? GLIS 679 Y. Ishimura Nov. 11, 2010

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