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Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students
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Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students

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Presented in the Reference Renaissance Conference in Denver (August 2008)

Presented in the Reference Renaissance Conference in Denver (August 2008)

Published in: Education
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  • 1. Reference as teaching: Breaking barriers for international students McGill University Yusuke Ishimura and Megan Fitzgibbons August 4, 2008
  • 2. Agenda
    • Background
    • Students’ Challenges
    • Educational Theories
    • Application to Specific Barriers
    • Conclusion
  • 3. International Student Population Source: Institute of International Education (2008); Citizenship and Immigration Canada (2007) 73,386 30,895 453,787 343,777 564,766
  • 4. Major Places of Origin China Japan India South Korea Taiwan
  • 5.
    • To promote campus internationalization and building connections to other countries
    • To obtain financial contributions to universities and local community
    • To stabilize enrollment levels
    Rationales for Recruiting International Students
  • 6. Students’ Challenges
    • Insufficient assistance to overcome unique difficulties originating from cultural and linguistic differences
    • Lack of knowledge of how to find and use information to accomplish their purposes
  • 7. Research Questions
    • What are barriers in relation to reference transactions?
    • How can librarians use learner-centered teaching strategies to overcome these barriers?
  • 8. Reference and Teaching Learner-centered teaching Learning experience through interaction with librarians
  • 9. Learners’ Perspectives
    • Thinking outside the box
    • Philosophy NOT procedure
  • 10. McAlpine’s Model Summative assessment Source: McAlpine, L. (2004). Designing learning as well as teaching: A research-based model for instruction that emphasizes learner practice. Active Learning in Higher Education , 5 (2), 119-134. Reproduced with permission. Engagement Informing Practice
  • 11. Barriers Encountered
    • Communication difficulties
    • Gaps in library skills and knowledge
  • 12. Communication Difficulties
    • Desire to have multilingual librarians
      • Stress when speaking English
    • Quiet and choppy English
      • Nervousness
      • Fear of making mistakes
    • Different communication system
    • Rarely approach librarians
      • Negative image
      • Skepticism about help
      • Lack of awareness of services
  • 13. Solutions to Communication Difficulties Barrier Causes Teaching phases Best practices Language difficulties Nervousness Anxiety Cultural shock Limited vocabulary, fluency Engagement ATTITUDE! Empathy, sensitivity, patience Awareness of potential difficulties in “normal” speech Avoid baby talk Make a positive first impression Write down key points Rephrase if needed Nonverbal misunderstanding Different cultural norms Engagement Combine verbal and nonverbal signals Observe students’ reactions and match behavior to their needs
  • 14. Solutions to Communication Difficulties (cont.) Barrier Causes Teaching phases Best practices Negative view of librarians Previous bad experiences Skepticism Engagement Be approachable Listen! Observe students’ emotions, reactions Confusion about reference interview Lack of experience Information overload Engagement, informing Neutral questioning Follow up to check understanding Avoid “litanies of facts” Give students time to think Lack of knowledge of services Lack of experience Familiar with different system, expectations Engagement, informing Use handouts Don’t make assumptions about students’ knowledge Anticipate questions
  • 15. Library Skills and Knowledge
    • Keyword selection for searching
    • Spelling suggestions
      • Google versus online catalog
    • Classification system
      • LC versus DDC
  • 16. Solutions to Gaps in Library Skills Barrier Causes Teaching phases Best practices LC classification Other systems used in home countries (DDC, closed stacks) Informing, practice Demonstrate shelving order Explain how to browse Lack of searching abilities Linguistic limitations Lack of instruction Reliance on familiar sources (e.g., Google) Informing, practice, assessment Explain search techniques, with practical examples Facilitate practice Provide search technique handouts (a time saver!) Unfamiliar with organization of information in libraries Familiar with different resources Overwhelmed by too many choices Informing, practice, assessment Point out key resources Provide feedback on searching Explain expectations for using scholarly sources
  • 17. Conclusion: Application to Specific Barriers A formula:
  • 18. Bibliography
    • Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2007). The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11 (3-4), 290-305.
    • American Library Association (1989). Presidential committee on information literacy: Final report, Available from http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlpubs/whitepapers/presidential.cfm
    • Andrade, M. S. (2006). International students in English-speaking universities. Journal of Research in International Education, 5 (2), 131-154.
    • Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. (2002). Making Canada more attractive to international students. Retrieved March 29, 2008, from http://www.aucc.ca/_pdf/english/reports/2002/foreignstu_e.pdf
    • Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (2007). Trends in higher education: Volume 1: Enrolment, Available from http://www.aucc.ca/_pdf/english/publications/trends_2007_vol1_e.pdf
  • 19. Bibliography - 2
    • Baron, S., & Strout-Dapaz, A. (2000). A close encounter model for reference services to adult learners: The value of flexibility and variance. The Reference Librarian, 33 (69/70), 95-102.
    • Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2006). The monitor : Third quarter 2006. Retrieved July7, 2008, from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/monitor/pdf/issue-15e.pdf
    • Curry, A., & Copeman, D. (2005). Reference service to international students: A field stimulation research study. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 31 (5), 409-420.
    • De Souza, Y. (1996). Reference work with international students: Making the most use of the neutral question. Reference Services Review, 24 (4), 41-48.
    • Dervin, B., & Dewdney, P. (1986). Neutral questioning: A new approach to the reference interview. RQ , 25 , 506-513.
    • Institute of International Education. (2007). Open doors: Report on international educational exchange. New York: Institute of International Education
  • 20. Bibliography - 3
    • Ishimura, Y. (2007). Information literacy in academic libraries: Assessment of Japanese students' needs for successful assignment completion in two Halifax universities. Unpublished master’s thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
    • Jiao, Q. G., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2001). Sources of library anxiety among international students. Urban Library Journal, 11 , 16-26.
    • Lee, J. J., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education, 53 (3), 381-409.
    • Leung, W. (2006, March 28). Canada losing out on revenue from international students . The Vancouver Sun, p. D1, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1011460931&Fmt=7&clientId=10843&RQT=309&VName=PQD
    • McAlpine, L. (2004). Designing learning as well as teaching: A research-based model for instruction that emphasizes learner practice. Active Learning in Higher Education, 5 (2), 119-134.
  • 21. Bibliography - 4
    • Owusu-Ansah, E. K. (2004). Information literacy and higher education: Placing the academic library in the center of a comprehensive solution. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 30 (1), 3-16.
    • Schroeder, R., & Mashek, K. B. (2007). Building a case for the teaching library: Using a culture of assessment to reassure converted campus partners while persuading the reluctant. In S. Walter (Ed.), The teaching library: Approaches to assessing information literacy instruction (pp. 83-110). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Information Press.
  • 22. Thank you for listening! What are your questions?

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