McAlpine’s Model Summative assessment Source: McAlpine, L. (2004). Designing learning as well as teaching: A research-based model for instruction that emphasizes learner practice. Active Learning in Higher Education , 5 (2), 119-134. Reproduced with permission. Engagement Informing Practice
Solutions to Communication Difficulties Barrier Causes Teaching phases Best practices Language difficulties Nervousness Anxiety Cultural shock Limited vocabulary, fluency Engagement ATTITUDE! Empathy, sensitivity, patience Awareness of potential difficulties in “normal” speech Avoid baby talk Make a positive first impression Write down key points Rephrase if needed Nonverbal misunderstanding Different cultural norms Engagement Combine verbal and nonverbal signals Observe students’ reactions and match behavior to their needs
Solutions to Communication Difficulties (cont.) Barrier Causes Teaching phases Best practices Negative view of librarians Previous bad experiences Skepticism Engagement Be approachable Listen! Observe students’ emotions, reactions Confusion about reference interview Lack of experience Information overload Engagement, informing Neutral questioning Follow up to check understanding Avoid “litanies of facts” Give students time to think Lack of knowledge of services Lack of experience Familiar with different system, expectations Engagement, informing Use handouts Don’t make assumptions about students’ knowledge Anticipate questions
Solutions to Gaps in Library Skills Barrier Causes Teaching phases Best practices LC classification Other systems used in home countries (DDC, closed stacks) Informing, practice Demonstrate shelving order Explain how to browse Lack of searching abilities Linguistic limitations Lack of instruction Reliance on familiar sources (e.g., Google) Informing, practice, assessment Explain search techniques, with practical examples Facilitate practice Provide search technique handouts (a time saver!) Unfamiliar with organization of information in libraries Familiar with different resources Overwhelmed by too many choices Informing, practice, assessment Point out key resources Provide feedback on searching Explain expectations for using scholarly sources
Conclusion: Application to Specific Barriers A formula:
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