Early Childhood Care and Educationfor Adivasi Children in India ?- National Advocacy Council for Development of Indigenous People (NAC-DIP the National Network of Adivasi Organisations)
A. Every year millions of infants around the world begin an extraordinary sprint – from defenceless newborns to becoming proactive young children ready for school.B. Every year, countless numbers of young children are stopped in their tracks – deprived, in one way or another, of the love, care, nurturing, health, nutrition and protection that they need to survive, grow and develop.C. Nearly 10 million children die before their fifth birthday each year.D. Over 200 million children are not developing to their full potential –solely because their caregivers lack the basic conditions needed for young children to survive and thrive.
PeopleIssue of 10% population with 622 Tribal Communities
ADIVASIS (STs) are the INDIGENOUSpeople with a distinct identityand culture that has territorialidentification, a harmonious andsymbiotic relationship with theearth as her children, internallyorganized on egalitarian andcommunitarian basis, withsystems of knowledge, language,self-rule, self-reliance &self-governance and nationhood”.
1. More than 370 million tribal people live in worldwide;2. Adivasis are living in more than 100 countries (roughly);3. Over 5000 distinct Indigenous communities in this world;4. There are 4000 culture/ traditions in AROUND THE WORLD worldwide (3500);5. About 7000 languages at international level among this over 5000 languages are from the indigenous communities ;6. Nearly 10% of the Indian population are Adivasi Communities
Distinctive Culture Unique way Geographic of life al Isolation /Equality Traditional language, Worshiping song/musi Nature cADIVASIS / TRIBESINDIGENOUS PEOPLE Shyness Depending of contact on Natural with resources outsiders Backwardne Living in ss and unreachabl Poverty e areas Traditional beliefs & Practices
According to Government; Primitive Traits… Geographical isolation… Distinct culture with traditions, language… Shy of contact with community at large… Economically backwardness…
There are 105,295 villages and 57 Urban Areas/Towns which have more than 50% Scheduled tribes population in the country. Total population of Scheduled Tribes is 84,326,240 as per the Census 2001 which accounts for 8.2% of the total population of country. There is no proper surveyand majority of the STs live in rural areas and remote areas. India still has 27% of its land asnatural forest with rich minerals by living more than 15% of its population; historically protected with sustainably by the adivasis.
Central Zone Indigenous People The Central Zone (46%) is reeling under State oppression due to the MAO movement, conflict due to the influence of MNCs and forced displacement due to developments, religious fundamentalism resulting in loss of livelihoods, property, identity and language. A mass Exodus of the Indigenous due to the genocide policy against Maoists in Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and migration for employment, forced labour, human trafficking, development exploitation are the real
Western Zone Indigenous People In the Western Zone (27.6%) the Indigenous People suffered of mass displacement, denial of lands and livelihoods due to Dam constructions and Special Economic Zones, Industries and because of the liberalization economy. Land alienation, isolation, violence and forced migration are very high. Schemes and projects of the state are adapting exclusive approach.
North & Eastern Zone Indigenous People As both the North Eastern zone (12.4%) and the North Western zone (2%) are situated along the international borders of China, Myanmar and Bangladesh in the North-East, and Pakistan and China on the north west, these zones experience internal and external terrorism, are the hub of State atrocities due to Armed Forces Special Power Act (AFSPA) and political unrest, ethnic conflicts, human trafficking for tourist & hospitality industry and extreme poverty.
Indigenous people in Islands Ever since the Tsunami calamity in 2004, the Islands of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep (0.1%) and even the mainland eastern coastal areas are continuously facing threat in various forms. Indigenous identity, language and birth rights are threatened by many rules and regulations that deny them their right to enjoy their customary rights, livelihood resources and traditional & customary
Southern Zone Indigenous People Southern zone –Tamilnadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Pondicherry (11.5%) is heavily affected by the dominant culture hegemony, displaced due to conservation laws and forced to become environment migrants and bonded labourers, child labourers, loss of traditional identity, extreme poverty illiteracy, lack of acceptance to their indigenous knowledge, continues atrocities & human rights violations are
ECCE & ADIVASI CHILDRENCreating learning opportunity with mother tongue shall improve theunderstanding power, can reduce drop-outs, will improve in regular schooling and can reduce family expenditure.
40.1% of Tribals areData on Poverty among STs: displaced 76% of the – Govt. 71% of the Adivasis Reports. adivasi are do not unable to have read and permanent write. Houses. 83% of the Tribals do 64% of the not have Tribals are Tribal Children poorest of toilet/sanit ation the poor. Facility. 53.1% of 63.5% of STs do not the Tribals have do not have Drinking access to Water Electricity.
The Indian tribes has exposed to literacy onlyLiteracy Data among STs after 1992 due to National Policy on Education. As per Report the Literacy Rate of STs is 29.6% (Literacy Rate: Male 40.7% and Female 18.2) Illiteracy rate of STs is 70.4% at all India level Enrolment Rate: Classes I-V (primary level;) 90.7% and Classes VI-VIII is 43.2% School-drop rates of the STs: Classes I-VIII is 77.7%
Health Data on Adivasi People Only 17.1% is the Institutional Deliveries among Adivasis Childhood Vaccination rate is 26.4 % only Child Mortality Rate among STs is 46.3% Over 56% of the Adivasi children are under nourished Percentage of Adivasi Women with Anemia 64.9% Lack of support for tribal healing systems and Non recognisation of traditional medicinal knowledge
Some Facts;- We claim that - nearly 10 % of total population –survey is ? Age group of 0-6 children is over 1.6 crores There are several programmes such as Tribal Development Programmes Tribal Sub Plans Education – Ekalaiva schools Modified Area Development Area project Special programme for PTGs (75) Structure – MOTA, NSTC, STFDC, TRIFED, etc
Sixty Tribal Districts under IAP-It is aimed at quick resolution ofproblems concerning healthcare, drinking water, education and roads.Sl. State Districts (Each district gets Rs.30 crores in every year) – where it goes? Govt says that it is for integrated area development programme?!1 Andhra Pradesh (2) Adilabad, Khammam2 Bihar(7) Arwal, , , Jamui, Jehanabad, Nawada and Rohtas3 Chhattisgarh (10) Bastar, Bijapur, Dantewada, Jashpur, Kanker, Kawardha, Koriya, Narayanpur, Rajnandgaon and Sarguja4 Jharkhand (14) Bokaro, Chatra, Garhwa, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Kodarma, Latehar, Lohardaga, Paschim Singhbhum, Palamu, Purbi Singhbhum, Ramgarh, Saraikela and Simdega5 Madhya Pradesh (8) Anuppur, Balaghat, Dindori, Mandla, Seoni, Shahdol, Sidhi and Umaria,6 Maharashtra(2) Gadchiroli, Gondiya,7 Orissa (15) Bolangir, Debagarh/Deogarh, Gajapati, Kalahandi, Kandhamal/Phulbani, Kendujhar/Keonjhar, Koraput, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj, Nabarangapur, Nuapada, Rayagada, Sambalpur, Sonapur and Sundargarh8 Uttar Pradesh (1) Sonbhadra9 WB(1) Paschim Medinipur
Census Report 2011• Total Children in India in the age group of 0-6 is 15,87,89,287• Male Children in the age group of 0-6 is 8,29,52,135• Female Children in the age group of 0-6 is 7,58,37,152Census Report 2001• Total Children in India in the age group of 0-6 is 16,38,37,395• Male Children in the age group of 0-6 is 850,08,267• Female Children in the age group of 0-6 is 7,88,29,128Difference is 50,48,108?Education/Literacy Rate:Total Literacy Rate 74% General (Male 82%, Female 65%)Illiterate population in India is 27,29,50,015 personsTribal literacy is less than 33%
Children in India Children constitute about 40% of India’s population. Nearly 46.40 cores, But India’s infant mortality rate of 120 per cent thousand put it in the 27th from the top in a list of 130 countries around the world. About 30,000 children go blind every year because of the deficiency of vitamin A. 22.7 million children in the age of 6 to 11 years are illiterate. Over 16 million children work in India and most of them exploited very much in all aspects. Thousands of children kidnapped every year and many of them forced into beggary. In all these unfavourable situation the girl child is badly affected including in trafficking. The National Policy for children refers to health and nutrition of children and mothers, nutrition education of mothers, free and compulsory education of children up to the age of 14 and recreation and cultural and scientific activities. Adivasi children are the most marginalised and victims of trafficking. Nearly 70% of ST children do not have educational rights.
Issues faced by children 0-6 age groupAdivasi Lack ofChildren are Anganwadithe most centres in Tribalvulnerable andextremely villages.marginalized in Poor performanceIndia and who of ICDS centers/does not have and their workersanyopportunities No schools inin accessing tribal areas –pre school or especially inplay school remote villagesand lack ofquality, Tribal Childrentechnical and educational rightsprofessional is neglected by alleducation!
HEALTH & ADIVASI CHILD RIGHTSUNICEF estimates that in the year 2000 about 24,20,000 children in Indiadied before reaching at the age of five. It estimates that about half of thesedeaths of children under five are associated with malnutrition and illhealth.
A. Article 21(A): Right to Education (less than 10%) B. Article 29: Cultural and Educational Rights (35% of funds are returning to Delhi) C. Article 45: Provision for free and compulsory education for all (Teachers are posted in remote villages on the basis of Punishment) D. Article 46: Promotion of educational & economic interests of SC/STs and other weaker sections (Eg. No anganwadis, ICDS in 60 important locations) E. Article 47: Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health (eg: 80% of women and 70% of children suffered from anemia in tribal hill areas). F. Projection –image- False statement by the state about the development of its citizens. Eg India is shining, India is developed, India is 12th wealthiest and yet 41% are poor! National legal Constitutional Provisions for protecting Childframework Rights
Article 02: No child should be discriminated for any reasons Article 03: The BEST INTEREST of the child in all actions-including legislations/plans Article 06: Every child has the inherent right to life Article 05: Parents have a primary responsibility for the growth of their children Article 09: State shall provide all systems & facilities to the parents to help their kids Article 13: A child has a right to information Article 15: All Children have a right to association and assembly Article 24: Every child has the right to food and nutrition Article 28: Every child has the right to educationInternation Article United Nations Convention on the Rights of the The 29: Children have the right to knowledge on the natural environment alframework ChildUNCRC
In the first years of life, children establish the cognitive, emotional and social foundation upon which they can build their futures. Early childhoodNeed of ECCE for Adivasis care and education is the most significant developmental period of life. A baby who is visually stimulated, continuously engaged in interactive activities, hugged, cooed to and comforted is more likely to fully develop cognitive, language, emotional and social skills, all of which are vital for success in school, in the community and subsequently in life. Yet, nearly half the world’s children – especially girls from marginalized populations – are likely to miss out on programmes that can develop these skills in early childhood.
Right to Survival and Developmentof the Tribal ChildrenTribal Children needs support and care with theirenvironment and quality nutrition and care withfriendly environment for developmentAbout 39 million people in India suffer from foodinsecurity. Nearly 10 million children under theage of five die every year of largely preventablediseases. The number of children dying eachyear due to malnutrition – currently 3.5 million –is likely to increase as a result of overexploitation on nature.
Right to Basic Educationand Gender Equality1. Play school in all tribal hamlets with ECCE policy – trained workers2. Free, compulsory quality education for all children – with good infrastructure3. Mother-tongue based multi-lingual education for growth and success and for mainstream4. Enforcement of the RTE act in all areas – focusing girl children in tribal areas5. Support and good facility for teachers who stay in tribal/remote areas
Right to learn with Tribal LanguageAs a child’s first exposure to education, there is debate around thelanguage used for instruction and communication. Tribal children havelimited contact with the state language, and tend to speak in their ownlocal dialect. Government schools use the state language for teachingand communication, which is most often not familiar to a tribal child at thepre-primary and primary levels. They are thus unable to fullycomprehend classroom teaching and activities, read in the statelanguage or understand the texts properly.Advantages: Tribal language instruction makes the process of education andlearning easier and more natural.By affording a sense of assimilation, such a practice can aid inreducing drop-outs.This can also help increase a child’s participation in learning processesat school.This will give confident in accepting and learning all other languages.
Right to Protectionfrom Exploitation &DiscriminationProtecting children from violence,exploitation and abuseImplementing Prevention of AtrocitiesAct to prevent trafficking anddiscriminationExploring all possibilities for thequality and equality educationTraining to the parents and youthagainst terrorism and conflicts whichshall create better environment for thenext generation
Protecting the physical and mentaldevelopmentof children is the most important of all investments in the socialand economicdevelopment of our
NACDIP is a network ofadivasi organisationsworking to ensurejustice and equality.This involves innetworking, advocatingfor their economic,social rights, articulatefor govt’s accountabilityin their policies/schemes/ laws andimplementingempowermentprojects to challengeinequality, enhancingchild rights education,promotion of humanrights and using legalprovisions with people’sparticipation.
MISSION OF NACDIP To create a common platform for uniting all the indigenous communities of India to assert their constitutional rights, undertake issues affecting their life and livelihoods, advocate with the association of different forums with united action for the equality and dignity of the Adivasi communities.
BhuriyaCommitteeunited us andleaded towardsPESA then FRAthen RTE andnow on ECCE
Campaign onPESA, FRAPOA Coveredover 180 NGOs& 16 states withstate andcentraldepartments,along withadivasimovements.Our actions 31.49 lakh claims have been filed.created some 12.30 lakh land titles have been distributed.results that are More than 14,000 titles are ready for distribution.visible at the 28,08,494 claims have been disposed of (89.17%).
Increasingschoolattendance,reducingdrop-outs &promotion ofeducationaldevelopmentby providingopportunitiesthat wouldopen up awindow ofscope in theworld for thetribal children.
ProtectingHuman rights ofthe Adivasis andrespecting theirright to a life ofdignity, right tofreedom, self-determinationand traditionalidentity. Focuson UDHR,ICCPR, UNO,ILO and fight forFundamentalRights
1. EQUALITY & SOCIAL JUSTICE(Article 14, 29, 46 of the Constitution):The state shall promote with special carethe educational and economic interests ofthe weaker sections of the people, and, inparticular, of the scheduled tribes andshall protect them from social injusticeand all forms of exploitation.
2. SELF-DETERMINATION(Article 244-1 of the Constitution):Over 51267 villages that is being theoriginal inhabitants by adivasi familieswhich need immediate recognisation as perthe PESA 1996 act and autonomy from theforest & revenue departments.
3. RIGHT TO LAND & FOREST(Article 19, 244, 275, 339 of the Constitution):More the 90 per cent of the tribals aredependent on agriculture, forest and alliedactivities. There are a number of social andreligious rituals connected with land whichestablish emotional ties between the tribalsand their land. Hence, by using the FRA2006, each adivasi families must be given10 acres of land and right to NTFP.
4. CONSULTATION & PARTICIPATION(ILO convention 107 & 169):Many of the tribal areas have rich natural resourcepotential, bulk of which remains to be explored. In someareas, large scale industries and big mining complexeshave been established and all these are forcing fordisplacement. The pattern of development in these areas,however, has not been in the best interest of the tribalcommunities. Hence, there should be consultation withtribal people’s participation in sharing of benefits, profitsand on all decision-making process.
5. INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT(Article 23, 24, 275 of the Constitution):More than six decades after independence, themajority of adivasi families in this country areliving with no basic facilities-no shelter, no rationcard, no hospitals, no roads, no transports, noschools and no community certificates. People areevicted from their homelands in the name ofdevelopment or conservation. Tribals are voicelessand they are forced as bonded labourers. Laws suchas the BLA 1976, POA 1989 have to be realized.
6. PEOPLE’S BASED APPROACH:(Article 338-A of the Constitution):National Commission for Scheduled Tribes(NCST), National Commission for HumanRights (NCHR), National ST Finance &Development Corporation (NSTFDC),Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) andMinistry of Women and Child DevelopmentMonitoring the programs and consulting thepeople on the impacts of schemes/policies.
7. ECCE FOR ADIVASI CHILDREN:(National ECCE policy)NACDIP demands that the government must bring anational policy on ECCE with separate chapter forthe rights of Tribal Children covering all areasincluding scheduled and non-scheduled areas.
Over 16 million children work in India and most of them exploited very much in all aspects- many of them are We need to walk more! SC/STs. Thousands of children kidnapped every year and many of them forced into beggary. In all these unfavourable situation the tribal girl child is badly affected including in trafficking. No importance to Adivasi Culture and Non-Recognisation of Tribal Mother Tongue. Early Childhood care and development is depended on the community will/support. Government policy Vs bureaucrats. The National Policy for Early Childhood Care and Education is not focusing tribal culture and identify and it must have separate chapter to refer health and nutrition of children and mothers, education of tribal children with mother tongue with multi-lingual with values of adivasis.
The proposed ECCE must include our concerns in view with the adivasi children. 1. Need community-based Educational Policy for the rights of Tribal Children. 2. Education and Curriculum should be designed with adivasi culture and it should also coop-with new skills. 3. Special component plan should be developed for the rights of children age group 0-6 for early childhood care. 4. People’s Gram-shabas should be given authority for monitoring the ICDS, Anganwadi/Balwadi centers. 5. Playschool with tribal culture and identity should be treated as State Duty as Prime Responsibility.