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  • 1. Note: The following observations were made of teachers in Virginia by Jeanette Gordon. The teachers were given a pre-observation form to complete if they chose to. If they did not answer some of the questions, those were deleted. They also had the option of using a different format of their choice to communicate prior to the lesson. PRE-OBSERVATION FORM ESL Teacher: Tammi Wooden (5th grade) Gen Ed Teacher: Courtney Graves Observation Date/Time: Feb. 14, 08 (10:15-11:00) No. of students: 19 Grade and ELP levels (if applicable): 5th grade (6 ESL, 3 tag, 3 SpEd) Subject: Science Co-taught lesson: Yes Co-planned lesson What “big idea” or “Essential Understanding” do you want students to understand in this lesson? Many processes contribute to changes on the earth’s surface. What critical content do you want students to know? Changes to the earth’s surface occur over time. What is the content objective? (How will they demonstrate what they know and understand?) Write cause and effect statements to tell how plate movement affects the development of volcanoes, mountains, and earthquakes. Draw and label the four layers of the earth. What is the language objective? TSWBAT list and give examples of processes that change the earth’s surface. Use think-pair-share to summarize the major processes that form volcanoes, mountains, and earthquakes. What modifications will you use for the ELLs and/or struggling learners? Models, visuals, analogies, TPR to explain converge, diverge, subduct. Visual posters and stories to activate background knowledge. What are the roles and responsibilities of the collaborating teachers? Classroom teacher gives direct content instruction. ESL teacher offers support/small group instruction to reinforce concepts. 10. Is there any other information you would like me to know, such as what to look for? 1
  • 2. This is the first time we have co-taught together. We are still working out ways in which collaborative instruction would be most effective RUNNING RECORD OF THE CLASS OBSERVED Observations Comments Students were asked to move quickly and quietly to the rug after having their science books and workbooks ready on their desks. The students moved quickly and quietly. While they were waiting for students to come back from math, T asked students to read a song related to science. A girl volunteered. T had the boys choral read. The girls then choral read the song. The students then read the song together. T Ladies and Gentleman we still need to wait for the math students Who can tell me what this song has to do about what we have been studying. S Rivers deposit sand. Who can tell me what deposit sand means? S Drop off sand. S Take sand and put it somewhere else. S Erosion T Does it say erosion in the poem? S No T How do you know it is about erosion? S explanation T asked an elaboration question S It is the process of rocks mixing together into smaller rocks. T Mixing together? S Mixing together with sediment. T asked S to explain sediment T What else is a connection’ S Weathering T What were the four ways that cause weathering that we studied? T Water T Ice T Mass Movement T Wind T is using the time productively rather than just waiting for others to return. The song was related to the content for the day and was at a lower reading level than the science text. SIOP Comprehensible Input Rereading of developmentally appropriate material is the best way to develop fluency. Hence, the activity would be very helpful for students with lower literacy skills. The repetition of such material is very non-threatening to ELLs and provides modeling. All students are reviewing the content. SIOP Review and Practice Review of previous day Effective vocabulary instruction, with multiple ways to explain a word. Students knew a lot about the topic and there were many volunteers. They were easily using the content vocabulary and were very comfortable talking. I was not able to keep up when recording the discussion since it was moving quickly. The vocabulary related to the content is very visible, and there are related posters. 2
  • 3. Some Ss looked at the vocabulary on the front of the class Today we’re going to learn more about the processes that change the earth. What are the ones we studied so far? Deposition Weathering Erosion What are the 3 layers of the earth? Threw a rubber model of the earth layers to a student. S said core. T asked S to tell something about it. S It’s liquid. T Is the whole core liquid? T The outer part. (I couldn’t record all of the questions and answers.) When one student talked about pushing, the teacher asked, “What is pushing called?” S Force Comment by a student looking at the model. I didn’t know the core was that big? The child threw the model back to the teacher, and she threw it to call on others. Other students were asked to give the 3 layers and describe them. Examples: T What is the name of the layer? T He just gave us one fact about the crust. Can you repeat the fact he gave us? S It’s floating on top of the mantle T That leads directly to what we are going to be learning about today. T The liquid layer of the earth is in constant motion. T What is that related to? S The water is in constant motion. S It’s wavy. It’s like a current? T What is the earth’s crust made up of? T Think about it, put your hands down. Keep your hands down and think. There is a giant hint behind me. A girl came back from math. She was told to get her math book out and to go into the hall to tell the other returning students what they were to do. The student did this quietly. Because the student went into the hall to tell them what they needed to do, the class would not be disrupted by each student returning. The students quietly got their science books out and joined the group as they came in. SIOP Review and practice Building Background Comprehensible Input The teacher is clarifying vocabulary. She is connecting prior learning to future learning. The use of the model both supports content and is fun for the students. The students are very familiar with the terms, and it is evident that they have had a lot of practice sharing what they are learning orally in class. The teacher is asking students to identify similarities and differences between past learning and new learning. Rather than calling on the students that were raising their hands, and there were many, the teacher asked them to lower their hands and think. This wait time gave other students the time they needed. There were a few who still did not know. The teacher asked students to whisper the answer. All students could answer, and she called on one that needed more support to now answer the question. This is a very effective strategy that I will share with teachers. SIOP Interactions 3
  • 4. Some students raised their hands. The teacher asked students to whisper to a partner who did not have his/her hand up. All students then were able to raise their hands. T Remember that yesterday we said that the mantle was made up of plates. Some said Rock. T Is it rock or plates? Tell me. T said it is plates, not rocks and explained that rocks don’t move easily, but plates do, T reminded them how long it took a plate to move and asked more questions. Eventually the students decided that the plate could be made up of rocks. T If you remember… she summarized prior learning. The teacher is consistently asking reflective questions. SIOP Review Building Background The characteristics of the layers of the earth are critical for comprehension of the new content. Students were asked to look at a picture for 1 minute. They were to then go their table and write as fast as they can to write what they saw. One student got up right away and went to write. Another student started to go, and the teacher told her to take her seat, to listen to the directions. Students were asked to write their predictions. One student asked if it is my prediction or my hypothesis. T answered whether it would be a prediction or a hypothesis. She helped clarify that in science it is often a hypothesis but that this was more of a prediction. Students quickly began writing their predictions. All but one was on task. The teacher asked if he was writing. He then began to write and persisted during the time allowed. All students were very engaged in their writing. I was not able to see the picture, but the teacher later told me that it was a very graphic visual of a major volcanic eruption. (Mount Vesuvius, I think.) The teacher gave the students think time. The topical words clearly visible make it easier for all students to write. There is a sense of urgency in the class. Students are on task quickly, persist during the time given. There is immediate accountability. SIOP 4
  • 5. Some were referring to the words posted around the white board. When time was called, the students put their pencils down. Students were asked to turn to the person next to them and share their written predictions. Put your left finger on your nose if you heard one that was really cool that was different than your own. Tell me about it. Interactions Humor and movement promotes interest and engagement. Students are recognizing “cool” ideas that a partner has. Think-pair-share a partner’s idea. Today we are going to see if we can recall the processes that change our earth. What are they again? We will also compare and contrast earthquakes and volcanoes. SIOP Lesson preparation is very evident. The objectives that will be covered during this class period are communicated to the students. Additional language objectives will be met during the following class. Take out your books turn to p. ? T What is the word in red? S Volcano Teacher pointed to it on the board and all repeated it. Why did the writer put it in red S Because it is the main idea. T Because it is the main idea. T We are going to look for the supporting details. Point to the word “you” show that everyone is ready. A student reads the passage out loud. T Reread that paragraph to yourself silently. Raise your hand if you think you found a detail that is important to list. Students reread and many raised their hands to share. Examples: S Mountains are formed by lava and ash. S Magna reaches the earth’s surface. T That is the definition of lava isn’t it? Other details were giving one about a plate boundary. T What is a plate boundary? No answer Explicit focus on text structure demonstrates effective literacy instruction. Suggestion: I would only use the word “main idea” for a complete sentence. Students are always asked to find the main idea on standardized tests. The answer must always be a complete sentence. Volcano is the topic Have students identify the main idea of a passage in a complete sentence first and then give the details, also in complete sentences. SIOP comprehensible input. Evidence of vocabulary support by connecting to what is known and encouraging reflective thought. Use of visuals to promote understandings. Comparison to boundaries of countries. 5
  • 6. T What is a plate? Student answered. T What is a boundary? S answered. T so what do you think a plate boundary means? S discussed and teacher demonstrated with her hands. S read a long paragraph. The teacher asked them to reread before raising their hands with details. She also demonstrated plate movement with her hands. The students imitated the movement. T A continental plate and oceanic plate collide What do you think happens when they collide? How are volcanoes forming? Use the notes on the board to tell me how volcanoes are forming. Many students are raising their hands. S Two different plates collide together to form a volcano. T Thumbs up if you think it is a good idea? T Who can add more information? S It’s pushing up. Students began discussing force, motion and energy. At frist the reading appears to be a round-robin kind of reading where students take turns reading a paragraph. That is not a recommended practice in a classroom. However, this teacher has modified that in ways that make it very effective. First the students were prepared in multiple ways before they read. A student volunteers to read. However, the teacher first asks all students to put their finger on the first word of the paragraph and uses humorous strategies to engage them in following along. The reading serves as a model. The students then reread the paragraph to themselves. They are immediately accountable for what they are reading. Hence, EVERYONE in the class seemed to be following along during the first reading and all were rereading. When they shared the main idea and details, it was evident that they had been taught to restate the ideas in their own words. I was impressed with student engagement and their ability to orally share the most important information about what they are reading. Their contributions are recorded, and they are asked questions about the information. T There are 3 graphic sources on page 3 I will give you 30 seconds to preview the resources. Who can tell me about one? Did you find a detail? T I like the graph of the major earthquakes? T What information can you get from the graph? S answer… T Were you alive during any of those earthquakes? T She asked all students to point to the Again the teacher is explicitly teaching the students ways to effectively use text material. The student was taking a little time to figure out the answer. Other students raised their hands. She directed them to point to what graphic source they liked the best to give the other student more time to answer. 6
  • 7. graphic source that they liked the best while a student was preparing to answer. S yes 2001 TYes, the year was 2001 Further discussion of the graph. T I saw that you pointed to the picture. Why did you like it? He described the details of the picture. T That is an amazing picture. Why is the picture there? Another S It demonstrates the destruction of the earthquake. T Put your finger on the word “The” at the beginning of the next paragraph. One student read. All students looked for a detail. When they shared back, the teacher reminded them to share in their own words rather than looking at the book. An earthquake is “shake your shoulders like an earthquake” That is our last paragraph. Everyone get your self ready to read. This is our last paragraph. One student read. All reread to look for an important detail. Examples: S Most earthquakes area too small to be felt. T related comment and additional info. When a student had trouble saying an idea, the teacher pointed to a key word on the word wall. S was able to add a detail. T OK Take your plates again. T demonstrated with her hands, and all students copied. This time they aren’t colliding they’re brushing past each other. Ss discussed the differences between the two movements studied in the lesson. They began to discuss cause and effect. Following teacher questions, they eventually were saying that The use of time in this class is exemplary. The teacher helps students recognize that a picture is used not just to communicate a specific event but to make a broader point. . The teacher is very aware that as students continue to read the complex science text that some will begin to tire. She employs humor and movement to engage them. SIOP Comprehensible Input Whenever the content is complex, hand movements, vocabulary support and discussion supports what is being read. Understanding by Design Explicit focus on the “essential question” The teacher helps students connect prior learning to new learning. The big idea is reinforced. 7
  • 8. Friction causes heat and heat is a form of energy. T What is the question of our whole unit? Ss What processes change the earth. T What forces Change the Earth? Look at the poster. Ss summarize the processes studied thus far. T What are the similarities between an earthquake and a volcano? Ss examples: They both shake the earth. They can both destroy things. They both have to do with plates. T On a scale of 1 to 5 How similar is an earthquake to a volcano? Ss rate with their fingers. No five? S no T So how are they different? S We can hear a volcano first. S An earthquake destroys things, but a volcano doesn’t. T If we were close to a volcano and the lava and ash came over us, would it destroy something? S oh yeah. The teacher reviewed the concepts of Earths plates Oceanic plates, continental plates Show me your plates. They used their hands to demonstrate plate movement for a volcano and for an earthquake. Identifying similarities and differences has been identified by Marzano’s research to be the most effective instructional strategy. SIOP review and practice Open your Learning Logs I learned Write what you just learned about volcanoes. I learned I know Be sure you use complete sentences because that is what we will start with tomorrow. S How do you spell collide? T There are several places you can The lesson incorporates all four domains of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Students know that the next day they will be accountable for sharing in class in some way. This promotes dedication to the task. The teacher is encouraging independence and use of the 8
  • 9. look. Someone started to tell him. She said no. The teacher then remembered he didn’t have his glasses today. She told him a page number where he could look it up. All students were writing quickly and quietly. She encouraged them to write key words. classroom resources. This practice also prevents students from distracting others with unnecessary questions. Collaborating teacher gave them the homework. Write a Venn comparing and contrasting the assignment. Who can repeat for everyone the directions? A student repeated. Another asked a clarifying question. The ESL teacher is speaking to the whole class which helps raise her status in the class. It is very important that the ESL teacher is sees as able to teach the whole class, not just working with a few students. Raise your hand if you can tell me a process that changes the earth. Weathering Line up for lunch Who can tell what weathering is? A student answered and lined up. They continued this way until all had been shared. Examples: S Mass movement. T Who can give me an example of mass movement? S A creek S Erosion S Who can explain erosion She continued to give questions that all had to answer. As soon as each answered a question, that person left for lunch. Every student gave an answer. A student that forgot the word crust was reminded of how the egg was used as an example? He then remembered crust. SIOP Review and practice The practice of having students each share something that they learned as they leave for lunch is a great way to review as well as involve every student in restating something important that s/he learned. Analogies are being used to teach the content and promote retention. 9
  • 10. POST-OBSERVATION FORM How did you feel about the lesson? I thought it was fine. Note: I was very impressed with the use of time as well as the instructional strategies. Courtney, I want to thank you for agreeing to model in our next workshop the reading strategies that you used when the students were reading the textbook. Not only was it very effective as you implemented it, but I think it provides the kind of modeling that would make it easy for students to go into Numbered-heads-together in a very successful way. How did student behaviors compare with what you expected? They were just what I expected. Do you think the content objectives were met? For the time we had yes. They will be continued tomorrow. Do you think the language objectives were met? They will also be continued tomorrow. Do you feel that the ELL modifications were adequate? Tammi brought in the Rigby big book which had the song at lower level or reading, but the resource is beneficial to everyone. We discussed the many things that they are doing in the class that provide support for ELLs. In this particular class, the ESL students are intermediate or above, so they are able to participate in the class without needing an alternative lesson from Tammi during the reading. The reading is difficult for them, but because they have a lower reading first, lots of visuals, restatements of the text ideas in student language, and notes written on the board with few words, they seem to be able to follow the lesson. If a co-taught or co-planned lesson, were you satisfied with the collaborative roles and responsibilities? The teachers are just beginning their collaborative teaching and are still working out what is the best way to do this. Because the students returned with Tammi from math later, she was not able to do a brief intro at the beginning of the lesson that she had intended. She did help with the summary at the end. Courtney is already incorporating so many of the strategies recommended for ELLs into her instruction because she feels they help everyone. Tammi is providing one-on-one support to ELLs as they participate in the whole class activities. We briefly discussed that if they had lower-level ELLs that she would need to work with them in different ways during the activities with the text. I did not mention it at the time, but it is important for Tammi to identify second language errors that the ESL students are making and to provide support for that. I 10
  • 11. am sure she is doing that based on their writing. It is helpful to find ways to incorporate some explicit guidance and practice with the kinds of grammar errors that would never be addressed with native speakers but which are common for second language learners. What will you do the same and what will you do differently if you do this lesson again? They said that normally they have the students write what the teacher writes on the board as students share their details from the text. Because I was visiting the class, they wanted to try to progress further in the lesson so I could see a broader picture of their instruction. I agreed that having the students record what was being written would be very beneficial and that they should definitely continue that. Do you have any questions you’d like to ask me? They asked me if I had suggestions for their collaboration. I said that I liked that the ESL teacher is also teaching the whole class. We discussed that since the science book is very difficult for the students to continue to seek resources at a lower reading level. That is already being done through the Rigby big book and the notes recorded on the board. However, a lower level reading related to the same thing can be very helpful. I made suggestions about using the term main idea only for complete sentences. We discussed this. See related notes in the comments section. We discussed that since not every student is volunteering to share, accountability could be further enhanced by using Numbered-heads-together to share their main ideas and details first in their teams. The teacher would call a number and those students would stand. The teacher could ask who wanted to share the main idea, and then the other students standing could share the details. What they have been doing so far would serve as effective modeling for this task. All would get even more opportunities to talk, and all students would be accountable. We also discussed providing additional guidance for having the students complete a Venn diagram to compare and contrast a volcano and an earthquake. Students often need support with the aspects of comparison that would be the most important. It is also helpful to write the similarity and the related differences on the same line. This was modeled the following day in the workshop. Feedback from the teacher to observer: What did I do that was useful for you, and was there anything I did that got in the way of your learning or thinking? Time ran out, but please do give me any feedback that may help me in my observations of other teachers. PRE-OBSERVATION FORM 11
  • 12. Teacher: Jedd Stein (5th grade Mainstream teacher) School: Lyles-Crouch Traditional Academy Observation Date/Time: 2/14/08…..8:15-9:00 am No. of students: 18 Grade and ELP level/s: 5 Subject: Math What “big idea” do you want students to understand in this lesson? In this lesson my students will learn how to name, locate, and plot points on a coordinate grid. They will also match number stories to appropriate graphs. What critical content do you want students to know? See above. What is the content objective? (How will they demonstrate what they know and understand?) I have two content objectives for this lesson. First, my students will be able to use ordered pairs to name, locate, and plot points on a coordinate grid. Secondly, the students will be able to read number stories and match them to correct graphs. They will demonstrate their comprehension of both strategies by successfully completing workbook pages in their math journals. Additionally, they will explain to partners how they arrived at certain answers. What is the language objective? My language objective is that my students will be able to explain to a partner how to name and locate various points on a coordinate grid. What modifications will you use for the ELLs? I will explain directions orally as well as having them written down. Additionally, students will be working in partners with other classmates which has proved beneficial this year. I will also be walking around and monitoring student progress. What strategies will you use to accomplish your objectives? As mentioned, students will be working in partners after a brief mini-lesson. I will also be using our class overhead, elmo, and smart board throughout this lesson. What are the roles and responsibilities of the collaborating teachers? Ms. Andrews will be circling to help students comprehend the skills being taught. What led up to this lesson and what will follow the lesson? 12
  • 13. We are following our districts pacing guide as well as a guide put together by teachers who have taught 5th grade math for several years. Everyday Math is a spiral curriculum so our students have had some experience with the concepts being taught throughout this lesson. Depending on how the lesson goes, I will either re- teach or move on to our next lesson on area and perimeter. Do you have any concerns? Not really. I look forward to your observation and feedback. RUNNING RECORD OF THE CLASS OBSERVED Observations Comments Collected signed folders Told students what they would be doing during the day He told students that he would be gone the following day. “People love coming here because you are excellent students.” Students are seated in cooperative groups Students are very orderly during the introductory activities Math Objectives T Who can tell me what SWABT will be S read “Use ordered pairs to name, locate, and plot points on a coordinate grid.” S “Read number stories and match them to the graphs.” Language objective S Explain to a partner how to name and locate various points on a coordinate grid. Students read the objectives SIOP Lesson planning is very evident. Explicit communication of both content and language objectives Open SRBs to pg. 2008 One student confused about which book. T explaianed Students quickly and quietly opened their books. He called on a student to read from the text page which was also displayed using the Elmo. A student volunteered. There’s a funny word there “plane’ He gave an example of plane as airplane. He discussed the meaning of the word plane. T What is it when a word sounds the same Very effective use of technology. The overhead is set up in front of the room. He used the overhead to give directions when students first entered the room to welcome them and explain what is to be handed in. Later the Elmo was used to show the book to assure that all students were on the correct page and in the right place. 13
  • 14. and means something different? We did that last week. S Homophone T Is horizontal this way or that way and demonstrated with his hands. Students demonstrated horizontal with their T When you do a grid is x this way or y S answered correctly T You can remember that because y has a tail. T said that you always need to move on the x axis first. One student shared how another teacher had taught them. (couldn’t hear) He said I’m going to share another way to help you remember. Do you want to hear it? Most all S YES He demonstrated with an analogy for painting his house. I need to climb a ladder to paint the wall. However, before I can go up the ladder to paint, I first have to put the ladder where I want it. I move it first to the right or left and then I climb. He had a student come up and be the ladder. He tried to climb the ladder before moving it. Then he demonstrated moving the student first and then climbing. The Ss were amused He wrote plane on the overhead Plane is a flat surface that extends forever. What do the arrows on the illustration mean? S the arrows mean it keeps going. Are plane and plane spelled the same or different? They are spelled the same. T wrote the next word on the overhead. S were consulting their book. S read the definition and the teacher explained the word. Coordinate grid Who can tell me what that is? SIOP Comprehensible Input and Building background The teacher is using many visual techniques to promote understanding. Marzano’s research supports the use of analogies. Comparing the known to the unknown also promotes comprehensible input The teacher uses humor often. I did not have time to record all of it. Often it is conveyed through tone of voice. Vocabulary instruction reflects recommended practices. The words are explained examples. Suggestion: Having students compare plane with the top of the desk and the wall could help them differentiate between plane and a fixed shape. Students are very comfortable asking questions. Verbal irony was used, but it was not said in a sarcastic tone. All students understood that he was encouraging more of them to try to answer. Suggestion: In a later workshop I will introduce Marzano’s 6 step process of Building Academic Vocabulary. In that method, they explain the term and give examples, students restate in their own words. I would 14
  • 15. Wow, I’m impressed 4 of you know it. Students looked in their book more could answer. S Coordinate grid, used to name points in a plane. S When I look in the back in the glossary it says, “ …” T That is a poor definition because it uses the word it is defining to define it. In a Coordinate grid, we have something called an ordered pair Several students raised their hand. Emily what do you think it is? Emily answered, He said let me give you and example (2, 4) (10, 5) These numbers tell you where to go on a coordinate grid. Remember, you have to move the ladder over before you can go up. Gave negative examples. Used arrows to indicate direction. S asked for the definition of ordered pairs. He drew a vertical and horizontal axis. and numbered them. Can someone come up and point to them. One student went up and pointed to the vertical axis. do that before having them read the definition. The teacher indented ordered pair under Coordinate grid which helped students visually understand that ordered pair was a concept related to the coordinate grid. T doesn’t’ just call on students with their hands up. He restated. SIOP comprehensible input Review Reviewed the analogy and explained again with various examples and use of arrows. Students were engaged and on- task. He used the Elmo to project a grid on the smart board and was able to zoom in and out as needed to clarify. He asked for student volunteer to come up and show 7, 3 S demonstrated S had asked if it made any difference if the ordered pair was written differently. He then did 3, 7. A student demonstrated. T So does it make any difference in how they are written? The grid on T uses humor during the class which reduces anxiety. 15
  • 16. Ss YES Let’s look at our book. He showed the page using the Elmo. Come up and point to the locations on the smart board. S volunteers went and indicated on the board. The first student went on the vertical axis first. T correctly in a very non-threatening way. She did it and he said, “Great job”. The class seems a safe place to make errors. There was no indication that student felt badly about making an error first. She had corrected it with help and returned to her seat seeming pleased. Open math journals to p. 292 He showed the book on the Elmo “Plotting a turtle” Who would like to read plotting a turtle? The student read the explanation. It says, … (The task was to try to write the ordered pairs and plot them to look like a turtle.) Now, here’s the cool part. It says, start with the nose on the turtle. T It won’t look exactly like it, but let’s try. T Who can give me a point where I can put a dot. Remember it has to look like a turtle. Ss gave ordered pairs and told him where to put the dot. After I’ve done that, I’m going to draw a straight line. I should label that. He wrote the ordered pairs. S volunteered another and students told him where to go to put the dot. (The new point didn’t seem very logical.) T Should I draw the line from here to here? S No, that’s the tail. T Maybe I should wait to connect the dots until we have all the dots. He erased the first line. Students continued to give coordinates T It doesn’t have to look just like a turtle, We are just practicing. We’re going to start pop-corning someone, SIOP Building background The ladder example and activities on the smart board had prepared the students for the reading. SIOP (Modeling that leads to ) Practice and application T language makes the task seem even more interesting and fun. The students were asked to do a challenging task as they practiced the skill. Since the thinking is more complex and interesting, it increases motivation and challenges students who already understand the skill. Hence, the task is differentiated for a range of learners. If a student didn’t choose a very effective coordinate pairs for making the image, it was still OK because they were just practicing. T was responsive to student efforts and made adjustments to reflect their thinking. There was little similarity to a turtle, but the teacher was complimenting them on their success with plotting. Students called on each other which made the class more 16
  • 17. because not everyone is raising their hand. Students began calling on each other for answers. The teacher connected the dots. Our turtle got hit by a car. T stressed the point of the lesson and said that even though it didn’t look like a turtle, they had met the first objective. student-centered. We’ve met our first objective. What is our second objective? The objective was read again. Using the Elmo, the teacher showed that they would have to match each number story to a graph. They were then to explain their answer. I’m going to put you in partners and have you work together. You know how this works. I will just put you with a partner and no one will complain. Do this page with your partner, The workbook included practice of both objectives. Talk about the answer and then we will share back. You have ten minutes to do this. Students began work very quickly and quietly. We then left for the debriefing. When we returned, they were all on task with the substitute. When we were leaving, the teacher stayed a moment to talk with me about something. The students were told to line up and go into the hall. They did that very quickly and quietly. When we left and walked down the hall, ALL of the students were standing in an orderly way and quietly waiting without any adult supervision. I complimented them on their orderliness. SIOP Very effective focus on the objectives. SIOP component Interaction The learning environment in this class and the school is VERY conducive to learning. Time is being used well. Consequently, I focused on the lesson sequence and didn’t record the time. 17
  • 18. POST-OBSERVATION FORM How did you feel about the lesson? I think it went well. I feel they grasped the concepts. A few of them really struggle. I called the ones that struggle to go to the smart board. How did student behaviors compare with what you expected? That’s the way they are. I like to kid and crack a joke. It needs to be fun. One of the ESL students had a friend come over to help her with something she didn’t understand. Do you think the content objectives were met? He discussed that the objectives for the period were met, but that they would now need to practice. Do you think the language objectives were met? The students had just started that portion of the lesson when we left. Do you feel that the ELL modifications were adequate? The teacher said that he always supports with he says orally with writing, visuals, demonstrations with his hands, and use of analogies. He specified that he has students that support his two ESL students and that they have been just wonderful in helping them. During the lesson, one ESL student was very comfortable asking for support. Were you satisfied with the collaborative roles and responsibilities? During the class the ESL teacher is not present. However, Jedd expressed great satisfaction with the support Alice is providing the ELLs during the language arts time when she works with them independently on tasks that reflect the objectives of the class. What will you do the same and what will you do differently if you do this lesson again? I really liked how it went. Maybe more analogies to demonstrate over and up, maybe more focus on negative numbers. However, we need to do more with negative on another day for them to understand that because it is confusing for them. Do you have any questions you’d like to ask me? He asked if I had any suggestions. We discussed that before the students were to read in their book that he had explained the ideas first if visual ways and with examples before they read. I felt they then had more understanding of what they read. I encouraged him to use that same strategy with the definitions of the terms. He was definitely explaining the words and giving examples, not just using the terms of the formal definition. I 18
  • 19. recommend that he do that before the students read the definition of the words. I would also have them restate the definition in their own words to a partner based on his explanation prior to reading the definition. Marzano’s 6 step process for Building Academic Vocabulary would also encourage students to represent the vocabulary word visually. I will share that in the next workshop, but you can see a flash presentation of it at the following site: http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/six_step_flash.html We also discussed how to focus on an understanding about all grids: I understand that grids can be used to communication location and trends to others in effective and efficient ways. I understand that people need standard ways of communicating the information. We discussed ways to teach the reason for a grid in hands-on discovery ways: Example: Put a dot on a piece of paper and tell someone else how to put their dot in the same spot. (They will measure which is fine, but help them see that use of a grid is faster.) Have them put a dot on a circle and have them try to describe to a partner how to put the dot on the same spot on a different circle. Measuring with rulers isn’t very effective. Give them a compass and have them try to figure out what else would be needed. Why are degrees used rather than linear measurement? Students can put a dot on a Styrofoam ball (or marshmallow) and try to figure out how to give directions to someone else how to put a dot on the same place on another similar object. Often students don’t get the point of why they are doing what they are learning and how it was developed. I asked, if I could use Jedd’s lesson objectives as an example in the teacher’s workshop. He agreed, and I felt it was helpful to others. Feedback from the teacher to observer What did I do that was useful for you, and was there anything I did that got in the way of your learning or thinking? Time was up, and we didn’t have time to do this. I would appreciate any feedback you would like to give that would help me. Jeanette Gordon PRE-OBSERVATION FORM Teacher: Gina Miller (ESL 5th grade pull-out) No. of students: 6 ELP level/s: Developing to bridging Subject: social studies 1. What “big idea” do you want students to understand in this lesson? Proper sequencing in writing creates a logical product. 19
  • 20. 2. What critical content do you want students to know? Is your story following the plot you designed? 3. What is the content objective? (How will they demonstrate what they know and understand?) SWBT sequence a selection in a logical order (a person’s life). 4. What is the language objective? SWBT discuss how writing is affected by the sequence. 5. What modifications will you use for the ELLs? These are all ELLs. 6. What strategies will you use to accomplish your objectives? Pair/share and sequencing and share out 7. What are the roles and responsibilities of the collaborating teachers? N? Inclusion class 8. What led up to this lesson and what will follow the lesson? These students are doing research projects on famous Americans. I want to find a painless way for them to properly sequence these papers. 9. Do you have any concerns? The content was designed to create interest in a Civil War character, but I am afraid there is too much language. These kids are very high, but it is always a gamble. RUNNING RECORD OF THE CLASS OBSERVED Observations Comments T What did we do yesterday? We were studying plot. Everything we are doing is going to relate to a big idea of sequencing. Where does a biography start? S when the person is born. T what did we learn about autobiography? Students shared prior learning. If Hannah Montana wrote her autobiography now it would end at 16. Students discussed the difference between features in an autobiography and a biography. The teacher was explaining that a person might write an autobiography at one point in his her SIOP Review Note: The teacher was explaining that in an autobiography there wouldn’t be the death. She joked that someone else would have to complete the autobiography. (If someone else is telling the rest of the story, would that still be an autobiography? I wondered if kids might be a little confused.) 20
  • 21. life, then later. Let’s look at our objective. Students will discuss how writing can be affected by proper sequence. Students read the language objective. Language objective: SWBT sequence a series of life events to create the plot of US Grant. I went out and got the coolest information about US Grant. Before I share my pictures, tell me what you know. S He was the general of the union. Teacher recorded key words of key ideas. S He surrendered to Robert E. Lee S He surrendered at the court house. T For a new car was it World War II? S The Civil War T For a new car and a trip to Hawaii, who can tell us the dates of the War? S 18661 – 1865 T What else do you know? S He hated slavery. T He didn’t. Actually he had a slave, and his wife had a slave. S How is that possible if he fought the Civil War? T I’m glad you were thinking about this. One student thought he freed the slaves. The teacher asked what that was called and who did it. Ss Lincoln….Emancipation Proclamation. S That’s what set all of the slaves free. S Not all of them because the South didn’t acknowledge Lincoln. T Who was the president of the Confederacy? S Jefferson Davis S He went to college with Robert E. Lee. T What college did he go to? T They went to the same college. It’s called West Point Military Academy. SIOP Lesson planning Content and language objectives. The teacher’s enthusiasm for the information promotes anticipation and enthusiasm for the topic and what is coming later in the lesson. SIOP Review and practice . The students are reflecting on complex ideas and will discuss apparently conflicting values. Higher-order thinking is evident. Students aren’t just studying facts. They are being introduced to historical realities. SIOP review The teacher showed pictures of Robert E Lee and Grant. Students discussed what they thought a military academy would teach. The teacher uses humor to evoke interest and to involve the students in examples. 21
  • 22. S Fight S Guns The teacher gave the word tactics to elaborate on a student answer. She used interesting and humorous ways to evoke more thought. Tell me boring stuff that they would need to know? Do you think it would be important to know how far bullets and cannons would go? Ss yes S You would need to know about the land. T Would you need to know how many boots and jackets to order? This is a picture of a current West Point Graduate and the historical picture. Tell me how they are similar first. Students started telling differences. The teacher focused them on identifying the similarities. S I think one way they are similar is that they have weapons. S The colors are gray. T Lee didn’t fight for the US side, but what he learned at West Point Military Academy was so important to him that he held on to it for the rest of his life. T When you think about the Civil War, I want you to think about the fact that he could have fought for the Union, but he chose to fight for the South. He had to give up his job. The teacher elaborated on some of the consequences of his decision. The teacher explained the role of West Point that is the same today. Who is Uncle Sam? Uncle Sam is the United States. As students examined the uniforms they students noticed similarities. Anyone who went to West Point was an officer. Pushing students to think about applications of math, etc. can help them transfer the need for math to their own lives. Research about what works best in education finds identifying similarities and differences as providing the most benefit. The teacher’s language may lead students to reflect on how their education may stay with them for the rest of their lives. That might be an idea to explore with them. The teacher is helping students to connect past events to today. Lots of Building Background and creating meaning Suggestion for another day. Show a picture of Uncle Sam and discuss how the image has been used to represent the US. 22
  • 23. What’s the difference the between an officer and a soldier? Students discussed the roles of soldiers and officers and how George Washington did things with the men. What do you think bravery means. Not scared of anything. Sacrifice Teacher introduced the historical information cards she had prepared. T We are going to put them into a __? Students took quite awhile before the kids remembered the word sequential One girl got the word sequence and others were able to add to it. They were very engaged in figuring out the answer. Comprehensible Input Teacher is focusing on vocabulary as needed throughout the lesson. I would expand on the meaning of bravery. Students often think it means a person is not scared. In reality it often means taking the action that is needed even when a person is afraid. How very important it is to remember that ELLs may not know words that may be very familiar to other students. Sequence., sequential The teacher expressed great excitement about some of the information she had found out about Grant. She gave each student an interesting event in the life of Grant. Each student was to read his/her own card. They were to then pair with a partner and use “kid words” to explain the information on the card. They couldn’t’ read it, rather needed to say it in their own words. The teacher’s enthusiasm is catching. Summarization strategies are one of the strategies that promotes the most learning for students. Students were then asked to arrange themselves in the order of the sequence. They seemed very engaged in the activity. The teacher discussed the events that seemed unusual. Grant never ate meat because he was afraid of blood. Grant was calm enough during battle to calmly record notes in his journal. In addition to summarizing the information in their own words, they had to recall it from oral explanations and discuss it with each other. POST-OBSERVATION FORM How did you feel about the lesson? Pretty good. I was so excited about the information. I like to push myself that way with the history. They trust me on that. They’ll follow me anywhere because I’ll sell it. 23
  • 24. How did student behaviors compare with what you expected? That’s who they are. I’m a little more liberal in a small group with procedures. The kids don’t speak much in class, so I want them to feel comfortable here to just speak up. (I said that one of the characteristics identified by CREDE research is the practice of instructional conversations. Teachers ask important questions, and students discuss them among themselves. Interaction among the students is stressed without having the students raise their hands.) Do you think the content objectives were met? Yes, I think that moving their seats around helped them to understand the sequence better. Do you think the language objectives were met? We discussed all of the language that was generated during the activitiy. Do you feel that the ELL modifications were adequate? All of the students were ELLs and their was individual support on vocabulary as needed. One boy said, “I don’t know how to say this word in kid language.” Were you satisfied with the collaborative roles and responsibilities? They give me a pacing guide. It is much more than that. A pacing guide isn’t really fair because they really give us very helpful information. She showed me the pacing guide that the grade level teachers develop and give her each week. I use history to teach the language arts. We are focusing on plot and sequence in Language Arts, so I teach that with history content. I have some students who are dual identified in special education and ESL. What will you do the same and what will you do differently if you do this lesson again? The introduction took too long. I would have had only the same number of cards as students. (I said that I didn’t think that was a problem that the students could integrate those events into the sequence during the next class. Gina said that they were probably even more curious about those now.) Do you have any questions you’d like to ask me? Nope I decided to discuss the meaning of bravery, since I think many people often think it is not being afraid, rather than doing what needs to be done when afraid. We discussed sequencing ideas and discussion of strategies for helping students understand what is important enough to include in a timeline or biography. We also discussed why some apparently small events can be important to include because they are surprising (Grant was afraid of blood) or how some small events give insight into character. I said I would attach a related observation that Dana said I could share. Feedback from the teacher to observer 24
  • 25. What did I do that was useful for you, and was there anything I did that got in the way of your learning or thinking? Teacher: Heather McFadden (5th grade Mainstream) Observation Date/Time: Jan. 23, 08 1:00- 2:30 No. of students: 20 Grade and ELP level/s: 5th grade 2 advanced ELL 2 intermediate/advanced Subject: LA Heather did not email the pre-conference form prior to class. She was busy with a parent volunteer when I entered the room, so we did not have time to talk. What “big idea” do you want students to understand in this lesson? After the lesson she discussed that she was teaching the Concept of “summarizing”. She explains that she uses a strategy called, “Sum it up for $2.00”. Each student can spend up to $2.00 at 10 cents a word. Hence, they need to summarize in 20 words or less. RUNNING RECORD OF THE CLASS OBSERVED Observations Comments Teacher welcomed a student in Spanish. The teacher was wearing a Leigh. Many students had a Leigh. It is beach winter day, something they do periodically. What should you have out on your desks? Students answered. DLR and their vocabulary sheets, also their Movie Review plan and outline. Students answered. I understand you didn’t finish the story yesterday. The teacher wrote on the board. DLR Finish Babe Writing Prompt Students were orderly as they entered the class. They put their things away in an orderly way and quickly took their seats. It is evident that established routines are present in class. 25 25
  • 26. Group work stations. T Yesterday in Language Arts. Who can tell me what you did? S We talked about our outline and talked over what we did. T Did you understand your writing prompts? S We’re writing a movie review. We need to give details. Is it the best movie? Is it the worst movie? It’s going to be easier if we’re writing one of the extremes. You need to give specific answers. The substitute had given them some suggestions. Raise your hand if you finished your plan. Today you must finish your plan and your outline. (That’s more than usual since Monday was a holiday.) We’ll go over DLR at the end of class. We’ll finish Babe to the Rescue The sub taught us Did the sub go over the purpose of reading the story with you? No. The sub taught LA for – years and didn’t do that. I can’t believe it. We’re working on summarizing. The purpose is to summarize. What does summarize mean? Since there was a sub the day before, the teacher clarified with the students what they had done. Serves not only as a check but as a review and reinforces the goal of summarizing. SIOP components: Lesson Preparation Content and Language Objectives The students have a writing prompt every week to practice the state assessment writing. The focus on summarizing is very explicit. Students all seem to know what they are learning and why. It was obvious that the students had been explicitly taught strategies for summarizing. SIOP Component Strategies and Practice and Application SIOP component 26
  • 27. 2 students gave complete answers. Raise your hand if you’ve seen. –movie. Not everyone had. She then asked them about High School musical. All but one had. The teacher gave a nonexample of a summary and then an example of a summary. Building Background The teacher referred to a movie that had been seen by all but one of the students. The movie seemed to be of high interest to them. Using both examples and non- examples is an effective strategy for understanding a concept. The teacher showed a laminated summary chart for summarizing. Someone wanted But, So She then indicated which groups she would be meeting with. They reviewed why they hadn’t followed the schedule. T What happens if we can’t finish the outline today. T joked that she would fail 5th grade and then explained she would have the opportunity if needed on another day. SIOP Strategy Scaffolding is apparent here. Someone Wanted But, So is a summary strategy that is simple enough for many ELLs also. The teacher’s humor seemed to be understood and she was responsive to the concern of a student who worried about finishing two days tasks in one. Students were asked to turn to a partner and summarize what they had read. Most everyone was actively engaged in the task. SIOP component Interactive The teacher asked one team to share back. The teacher gave some hand cues to help students focus on a summarizing skill they had been taught. SIOP Practice and Application of summarizing as well as Strategy and Comprehensible Input if a student hadn’t understood well. The instructor was using the two dollar strategy to help students focus on summarizing with only 20 words. The teacher asked how many had seen the movie Babe. Many had. READ ALOUD to the whole class. 27
  • 28. T said that the movie was similar to the story so far and suggested they compare the two. The teacher read a section and asked the students to guess what a car behind a tree might mean. It appeared as if the class members were able to understand the story. (I wondered whether the two girls in the back were understanding). Read Aloud is often a time when different activities are needed for ELLs with lower skills. The teacher is encouraging higher- order thinking, comparing and contrasting as well as drawing inferences. The teacher stopped to focus on the word “flock” Several students raised their hands. Bryan, what do you think? Do we have any context clues, or do we have to figure it out? Another child predicted a group of sheep. Explicit guidance in using context clues to help understand a new word. The flock was all saying There’s one of our vocabulary words, confusion. Several students gave many examples. Then she said that their definitions were better than the one in the book, “a state-of-being perplexed or bewildered.” S-What do those words mean? The teacher clarified and gave a personal example. I have a great connection to this. Ms. ___ went to see Ms. ____’s baby. We got lost. We were confused. We couldn’t find the house. I like your definitions very well, but this is the one that is going to be on the test. Confusion means unsure, don’t know what was happening. Explicit focus on vocabulary. (The students have a vocabulary worksheet to use during reading,) Prior to reading, they predict the meaning of the word. During reading, the instructor focuses on the word and uses explanations and examples along with the definition. Students write the definition and compare their own predictions with the new word. The teacher recognized that the definition given was more complex than the word being defined. If assessment of comprehension of the word confusion is only to match the word with the definition, some students who understand the meaning of the word may not get it 28
  • 29. correct. Understanding is more important than memorizing the definition which the teacher understood. Suggestion: Assessing vocabulary by simply matching a word with a definition is not recommended as effective vocabulary assessment. Hence, I encourage the teacher to also assess in alternative ways. She seems aware of the problem. T The men had sticks and their arms outspread. Demonstrated with her hands. Why do you think, they have their hands outstretched? What do you think Babe’s going to do about it? Talk to your partner. Students started. She stopped them and reminded them they were having a conversation and needed to look at each other rather than at the ceiling. T modeled what not to do and asked if they would talk with their mother without looking at her. Ss laughed. T There’s no way you can be wrong about this. You’re just making a prediction. What do you think is going to happen next? S gave answer. T That’s a GREAT prediction. SIOP Comprehensible input Hand gestures. SIOP Interaction Modeling of expected behaviors promotes development of these skills. Modeling what to do as well as what not to do is an effective strategy for getting students to attend. When students continued they were more on task. Such encouragement and praise promotes risk-taking. S- I have a question. Why are all the sheep running toward the truck? T Repeated the question for other students to answer. Ss discussed ideas. Student-generated questions indicate genuine interest as well as a climate where questions are welcomed. 29
  • 30. T Why don’t the sheep just stand up for themselves and say we’re not going? S It’s the sheep’s instinct to go where the dogs train them. Discussion which included that the sheep might be afraid the dogs would eat them. T explained why the dogs wouldn’t eat them. T How is Babe’s approach different than Fly’s Approach? Remember Fly is the dog who kind of adopted Babe. How does Babe react? S He told them. T Did he tell them? S He asked them. Please. T What do you think the dog Fly would have done? S What does “nip” mean? T That’s a good question. T explained and gave an example about her own cat and used hand gestures to explain. When the word sensible came up, one student noticed that it was one of their words. After the discussion above, the teacher went back to the word sensible and wrote “having good judgment”. She gave examples that were familiar to the students, talking about her shoes. She then gave examples of sensible with regard to the behavior of crossing the street. The teacher clarified other difficult vocabulary as she read. Higher-order comparative question. Ss seem comfortable to ask questions. SIOP Comprehensible Input Ss recognize their word focus. Suggestion: How are confusion and chaos similar and different? Possibly have students rank 30
  • 31. What does “chaos” mean? Crazy, wild, disastrous, Their definition is “great confusion” and wrote it on the board. S Is one of the words confusion? The teacher gave additional familiar examples of chaos. degrees of confusion. Confusion is less than chaos Possibly teach the adjectives of confusing and chaotic T asked how the characters had changed from the beginning of the story to the end of the story. Partners shared with each other. Most students talked. The two in the back row did not, nor did the two in the second row near the door. The two by the door raised their hands when they were asked to share back. The two girls in the back did not. Higher-order question SIOP Interaction Suggestion: The only two girls in the back row seem to be the least engaged. Possibly seat them closer to the front. Get out your Reading Response journal. You’re going to summarize the story Babe to the Rescue. She gave a non-example and restated the need to write the most important information. SIOP Practice and Application Strategy The students are going to practice again in writing the strategy of summarizing. They also are moving from oral summaries to writing. Teacher checked off what they had done and restated what they needed to do. T realized that she would only have time to meet with one group and told which group to meet with her. Clarification of directions T demonstrated the ability to revise plans based on the time remaining. The T did not rush the vocabulary instruction, partner sharing or higher-order questions to keep to the original plan to meet with two reading groups. The teacher went to the table in the back for GUIDED READING The teacher cut an exotic fruit and showed it to a group of students who went to the table. They compared it with other Use of Guided Reading with students having the opportunity to read developmentally appropriate readings is a critical part of a differentiated classroom. SIOP Comprehensible Input 31
  • 32. fruit. Eat it and throw the rinds away. That’s an exotic fruit. Starfruit. Exotic was the word I chose. A few students ate some of the fruit and quietly went back to their seat. One student went to the table and the teacher explained to her exotic and showed. Star group was supposed to join her in 30 wseconds. All students were on task and quietly working as the “Star Group goined her. The reading group joined the table. The teacher then explained to this group that the other group had been reading. One student said, “thank you”, and T said, “You’re Welcom” with expression. All others said Thank you. The teacher mentioned that other students would all get to taste it, but they seemed content to continue working One of the Guided Reading groups had read a story where the word “exotic” had been discussed. The teacher brought an exotic fruit to class. Having all student taste the fruit was done in such an orderly way. It seemed evident that such sharing is not uncommon. The group that had studied the word “exotic” tasted the fruit first. Then the guided reading group tasted the fruit. The remaining students tasted it before the end of the class. T passed out the books to the students. They had post-it- notes in the books, so each needed their own book. T asked one student to read her reading response. The teacher asked the students to review what happened last time. They found the page. The teacher reread the last paragraph. T So what’s going on? Why did he bring the helicopter? There are two reasons. S He came to get the Panda. S He came to drop-off food. T reviewed key points. Review was included to help the students remember what they had read before. Building Background was included because she asked if their parents would let them do something like the character in the story was going to do. Students all read independently the section identified which maximizes reading time. This reflects best practice in Guided Reading. The use of post-it-notes provides additional focus to their reading as well as serves as an anchor activity if students finish before others. 32
  • 33. Lou Yee gets to go with the Panda to the zoo. Would your parents let you do that? Students discussed relating their own lives. Teacher read a passage and asked them to continue reading. Read the rest of this page. Read to the 3rd paragraph down. You all have post-its in front of you. Write down a question you have, a word you don’t know or a word you like. You have several options. T encouraged students to reread when they were done and not working. The students did that. Rereading at the independent reading level is highly effective for developing fluency. The other students were working on structured writing tasks. The task was to write a Movie Review. They were asked to make a plan using a graphic organizer. They were then asked to write their outline. This was also structured. It is evident that the students who are working independently are very clear about their tasks. They all worked quietly. Most of the students were actively engaged during the full time. SIOP Strategies and Practice and Application The students are getting strategic guidance for their writing tasks which have progressed in complexity throughout the year. They are also having ongoing opportunities to practice the type of writing that will be included on state assessment. Student interests and choices are incorporated into the structured writing tasks because they can write about a movie of their choice. The teacher said they would then go over their DLR at the beginning of the next class because time was up. Caution: DLR activities are often difficult to make meaningful and comprehensible for ELLs, particularly if they have lower ESL skills. 33
  • 34. Note: Lottie Baker the ESL support teacher, with agreement from Heather, joined us for the post observation POST-OBSERVATION FORM How did you feel about the lesson? I think overall it was good particularly because I’ve only been here one day this week. How did student behaviors compare with what you expected? There were about what I expected. They were on task for the most part. (One student was off task during Read Aloud sharing. I wondered if she was able to understand the story. I was told she is the student with the lowest ESL skills. She was involved during the Guided Reading.) Do you think the content objectives were met? I think they were. Note: Since time was limited, rather than completing the post-observation form, we discussed ideas for the collaboration between Heather and Lottie. I did not take notes during this discussion but will try to summarize the key concerns and suggestions. I am also adding additional support for the ideas discussed. At this time, the ESL students in class have some English skills. Hence, they seem to be able to participate in many classroom activities. The Guided Reading Groups seem to be appropriate for the ELLs based on my brief observation and teacher feedback. The Read Aloud is often more problematic. It is important for the ESL teacher to help determine to what extent the ELLs are able to process the story in the Read Aloud. This is a time when it is often more advisable to do alternative tasks with ELLs. Heather feels that the students are able to understand the story. I would suggest that the ESL teacher determine to what extent the Ells can retell the story. Some of the vocabulary may also be difficult for them. (I did not suggest this during the post-conference, but matching a word to a memorized definition would not be appropriate assessment for an ESL student, particularly if the definitions are more complex than the word being defined. Students can memorize definitions without understanding or being able to use a word. It is important that they are not using their educational energies on such tasks. Again I would recommend that the ESL teacher determine to what extent the vocabulary activities are of benefit to the ELLs. If it takes too long to clarify the meaning of words from the Read Aloud, it may be better use of the students learning time to focus on other vocabulary, perhaps vocabulary that is critical for following directions or reading in other content areas. Together we also discussed the use of DLR with ELLs. If the sentences are not comprehensible to the ELLs, this would not be a very helpful task for ELLs. We 34
  • 35. discussed how much more difficult it is or ELLs to understand sentences that are outside of a meaningful context. It is not easy for those who have not learned another language to recognize the complexity of this. A student can often be confused by sentences outside of a meaningful context that are much easier than they can understand when in a meaningful context. The writing tasks in the class are taught with lots of structure and guidance which is highly beneficial to ELLs. We discussed additional differentiation options if students have lower ESL skills than those in the class at this time. However, since the writing tasks progress in difficulty as the year goes along, students with lower ESL skills could be given additional time with the easier options. The teacher used very explicit guidance for teaching the skill of “summarizing” and providing some specific strategies for gaining proficiency in those skills. This is very helpful to ELLs. This is a task that can also be taught using easier readings, as is being done in the Guided Reading. An ESL teacher can also often support the same skills and strategies that are being taught to the mainstream students using simpler readings. Both teachers expressed openness to collaboration and an interest in serving the ELLs effectively. Because the ESL teacher has more opportunities to interact with the ESL students individually, it will be easier for her to determine the degree of comprehensible input that is occurring in the class and the appropriateness of the tasks and assessments. I would suggest following her lead. If ESL learners with lower skills are ever served in the classroom, additional modifications would be needed. I encourage both teachers to continue their collaboration efforts. PRE-OBSERVATION FORM Teacher: Patricia Brown Observation Date/Time: 2/14/08, 11:55 a.m No. of students: 23 Grade and ELP level/s: 5th grade: 2 Beginner ESL, 5 Int. ESL, 11 regular ed, 5 TAG Subject: Science What “big idea” do you want students to understand in this lesson? the Earth constantly changes What critical content do you want students to know? Heat energy from the upper part of the mantle causes movement of the plates that make up Earth’s crust. The plates move slowly in different directions with different results. 35
  • 36. What is the content objective? (How will they demonstrate what they know and understand?) SWBAT contrast the location of the plates at the time of Pangea with their location today by moving paper models of the plates. What is the language objective? SWBAT tell that heat from the mantle moves the plates. SWBAT explain the connection between the heat/energy cycle that moves the plates and the same cycle that moves ocean currents (our last unit.) What modifications will you use for the ELLs? simplified version of Pangea, writing down vocabulary, What strategies will you use to accomplish your objectives? hands on activity, video, numbered heads together What are the roles and responsibilities of the collaborating teachers? There is no collaborating teacher. What led up to this lesson and what will follow the lesson? Prior lessons: structure of the interior of Earth Subsequent lessons: earthquakes & volcanoes caused by plate movement Do you have any concerns? My partner & I have just reconstituted this class. She teaches the other half of our students math while I teach science. We decided last week that this science/math session is at the worst at this time of day: right before lunch, right after special, having started the day at 8:00. This class is our group of students who have a harder time learning concepts, and she was trying to teach them math at this time. We decided that since science is easier for them to “get”, we would change their math session to the earlier time. This way they are “fresher” for math and, perhaps, will be better able to succeed. Because of our grade level schedule, the TAG (Talented and Gifted) students who would normally be in the other, earlier science class, are now in this class. Thursday will be our second day on this schedule, so I will not have worked out any of the issues of teaching TAG + struggling learners + ESL students at the same time. RUNNING RECORD OF THE CLASS OBSERVED Observations Comments T reviews the student groups since she made a few changes. Review your numbers. Raise your hand if you are in the northeast corner of the table etc. until all had raised their hands. 2 students You’re roving reporters today. Talked about the word roving. Reviewed content and language objectives from the previous day. Teacher is integrating content into simple directions 36
  • 37. Rover spaceship connection The students were seated in groups of 4 3 is a nice prime number 3s stand up please. Tell me everything that you know about the core. S There is an inner and outer core. S The inner core is solid because --. S The inner core is solid because of the heat and the pressure. SThe outer core is like jello T Actually, it’s like water. It’s a liquid. T what else do we know? I see N… consulting his notes. S discussed the metal T Look back at what we made yesterday to remember what we said yesterday. The students had collaborated as a class to put together a wedge from each team that showed the layers of the earth. When one student was using his notes, the teacher commented on that and said that it was a good strategy. SIOP Review 1s you have the mantle. You have 15 seconds to consult with your team about the mantle. The ones then shared. The top is the asthenosphere. Convection currents happen there. Saying key information. SIOP Interaction T is using a variation of Numbered- heads Suggestion: Ask the question. Then have students share before they know which number will be called. All students then must focus because no one knows which number will be called. You won’t need your notes today. We are going to watch the video and engage with your brains. Relax your hands, not our brains. Pangea Say that please After the first video you are going to be able to tell me what pangea is Plate techtonics Asthenosphere Convection currents After the videos they will need to share what they learned and the questions they have. SIOP Comprehensible Input Use of videos to develop concepts and language prior to literacy tasks. 37
  • 38. Convection currents have to do with things going around. Teacher drew an exampled. S I’ve noticed a lot of things that start with the word tech. So what does “tech” mean? The teacher stopped and put several words starting with the prefix tech on the board. She said you know that I love looking at words, but let’s put them in our brains and let it settle for awhile. We’ll come back to this another day. Technology techtronics techno While I am setting up the video, I need the 1s to go get the paper and a marker. When several students were playing with their pencils, she asked the students to put their pencils on the floor. She asked the students to repeat the purpose of the video. The video showed students in a class exploring a globe. They were also putting together the pieces of the continents. The video discussed the concept of pangea. T 4s what’s pangea. SAll the countries (another student clarified, continents) T All of the continents were connected together. The teacher redid that portion of the clip to enable the students to see it again. The students got the materials quickly and quietly. Refocusing student attention: Repetition is helpful for the students to check and refine their understandings of the concept based on the discussion. The teacher then showed the portion of the video clip that explained Continental Drift. T Remember, we’re, just getting the ideas today. On Tuesday we’ll take the notes. A student said she had 2 things she wanted to say. If you lived at that time, ….and something about the supercontinent. S How can it move? T that’s an absolutely important question. That’s exactly what we are going to learn. S Why did they call it pangea? Suggestion: Students could use Roundrobin to share their observations and questions with each other prior to sharing with the class. Many students were very engaged and asking WONDERFUL reflective questions. It may, however, help to promote more language growth and 38
  • 39. S Why did it happen? T I don’t know. I’m going to look that up. S We talked about how the plates were moving. Isn’t that how the continents moved? S What happens if the plates go back together and crash into each other? T We’re also going to learn that. S When all of the continents are connected together, how did they cut it? T It wasn’t a “they” . No one cut them apart. The teacher recalled prior knowledge and explained. S Was there as much water back then? T I think so. Look back at what we made yesterday. The land changed, but I don’t think the amount of water changed. S Did it happen when the people started coming form South America? The teacher put the time of the Pangea on the board and compared that with the time when the people may have migrated from Africa. engagement of everyone if Roundrobin were used. The students are definitely reflecting on the content and asking genuine questions. Two students went up to the front. What they have here are what you are all going to get? Could you put the continents in the place where the continents are today? The students moved the visuals on the overhead to where they would approximately be today. Could you put Africa about where it is today? Roving person that you are, could you put them together as Pangea? Notice that there is a huge hint. Match up AA The teacher pointed out that there were letters on the manipulatives that would assist the students as they put the Pangea together. SIOP review of earlier content as they were doing the new activity. The teacher was asking two students to serve as rovers to watch student behaviors and report back about the positive student behaviors. It was insightful to have these students model, so they wouldn’t be left out of the activity. The modeling demonstrated both the task and promoted language. 39
  • 40. We’re going back 250, 000, 000, As the student was doing that, one student asked where Asia was. You saw up here how the continents looked when they were apart. The ones and the 2s are going to take a piece of blue paper. The 3s and the 4s are going to take a piece of blue paper. Simon says put your hands on your shoulders. Simon says put your eyes on Ms Brown. 1s and 2s put your continents into Pangea 3s and 4s put your continents into today. Suggestion: In addition to giving them a number, it is easier to give them a letter or an east, west, name. For example east pair and west pair, or east-west pair. Humor to gain student attention when they were losing focus due to the manipulatives on their desks. The roving reporters were to go around and observe. They moved from one group to the other. Suggestion: Have the roving reporters take notes on a specific social skill such as clarifying. If they are just walking around and watching, it will be difficult for them to really perform a meaningful job and stay on task. T used 5 4 3 2 1 to call attention. Roving reporters how did they look? They looked good. Glue sticks are closed. When we cut these we had some major continents lost. The teacher noticed that a team was missing a piece. It seems that students had helped prepare the manipulatives Teacher called attention and waited until all were paying attention before beginning. There were a lot of missed directions last time, so I want you to listen this time. I’s and 2s you are going to move ahead and do the part you didn’t do. Students were a little confused. If one of the partners moved it last time, SIOP Interactions The teacher is taking risks in applying some of the cooperative structures modeled in the workshop. It would have been helpful if during the workshop I had shared a 40
  • 41. you will move it this time. Some students are collaborating and talking. Some partners, only one is doing it. strategy for giving partner tasks in a way that causes less confusion that just using the numbers. POST-OBSERVATION FORM How did you feel about the lesson? The students didn’t seem as excited about the lesson as they usually do. (I didn’t take notes, but I think this is what Pat said. My perception is that the students were very interested. How did student behaviors compare with what you expected? I had expected that the TAG students would be helpful, but they seemed to be more disruptive than helpful today. I was surprised that the students were confused by the partner directions. In my other class, they didn’t have any trouble at all following those directions. I shared other ideas for giving the directions in a way that causes less confusion, but I didn’t model that in the workshop. Do you think the content objectives were met? Yes, I think so. Do you think the language objectives were met? The language objectives specified in the lesson will be met in a later class. We discussed language objectives and tried to refine understanding. We discussed cause-effect prompts to explain why the plates move and the convection currents. We also talked about incorporating more language into the Pangea activity. For example, prepositions of place could have been incorporated. One student could explain to his/her partner where to place the continents, and they could take turns describing and placing. Pat seemed very interested in ways to focus more explicitly on the language needed to explain talk about the science content: cause-effect, compare and contrast, etc. I said I would email her an example related to density and causes of wind. Do you feel that the ELL modifications were adequate? We discussed how she explains complex concepts to the students and discussed ways to teach density. Were you satisfied with the collaborative roles and responsibilities? Dana expressed satisfaction with her collaboration with Dana for language arts. She does not collaborate on science with the ESL teacher. 41
  • 42. We ran out of time and did not discuss the remaining questions. What will you do the same and what will you do differently if you do this lesson again? Do you have any questions you’d like to ask me? Feedback from the teacher to observer What did I do that was useful for you, and was there anything I did that got in the way of your learning or thinking? PRE-OBSERVATION FORM ESL Teacher: Alice Shairzay Observation Date/Time: Jan. 23 10:0 No. of students: 2 (that's not a typo!) Grade: 5th grade ESL pull-out Subject: LA Co-taught lesson: Yes or No Co-planned lesson: Yes or No What is the content objective? (How will they demonstrate what they know and understand?) Identify important events in their lives What is the language objective? List important events in time line What led up to this lesson and what will follow the lesson? We'll be reading a biography and students will be summarizing it. Is there any other information you would like me to know, such as what to look for? 1 student is literate in native language the other not both have recently been adopted by native English speakers. RUNNING RECORD OF THE CLASS OBSERVED Observations Comments The observer was a few minutes late. A student read the content and language objectives which were on the board. The teacher showed them an example of an historical time line. The girls went up to the board to examine the historical timeline and shared any of the information SIOP components Preparation Written content and language objectives. Key vocabulary/concepts UBD The students were aware at the 42
  • 43. they could about it. They realized that the numbers were dates and that they were in chronological order. The teacher used the term chronological. beginning of the lesson that they were creating the timeline. They would later interview each other and write each other’s biography. They also knew they would be reading a biography of Lincoln SIOP component Building background throughout the lesson. Inductive teaching was used to raise the thinking level, and to have the students identify first whatever they could from the example. Teacher shared her timeline with the students. It contains dates, events and pictures of the major events in her life up until the age of 11 since that is similar to the students’ ages. She explained the events and the pictures. T asked students to brainstorm important events in their lives. One student talked about a very difficult life in Russia prior to her adoption. She did not want to include those events which the teacher respected. The T helped students differentiate between common activities and major events in their lives. Additional SIOP components Comprehensible input though use of visuals, modeling, appropriate speech speed and language. Scaffolding from simple to more complex tasks. Interactions Students interacted comfortably with the instructor and with each other. The list of events on the board provided modeling of, not only the ideas but the spelling of some of the words they would need on their timeline. Cultural sensitivity Throughout the lesson the teacher demonstrated cultural awareness and respect. This kind of an assignment in a large class can be very problematic for some children. However, both girls were adopted from a foreign country by English- speaking parents. The teacher modeled how to make the timeline. Students folded the papers to have each portion of the paper be one event. T supported how to write 1995, not easy for the student. The teacher said 19, and the student answered how she would write that. 95 was more difficult for her, but the teacher gave her the time and Because of the small group the teacher could directly support each student. Personal knowledge of the students was reflected. Both girls are adopted, and it was evident that the teacher knows the parents and has knowledge of their 43
  • 44. support she needed. T Did I write complete sentences on the timeline? S No just important words. T Is there anything you want to include on your timeline that happened between when you were born and when you started school? T Repeated question S had trouble thinking about something. What do you think? T The teacher asked, You have a younger brother, don’t you? Yes, he is younger. They discussed that. The other student said she had a brother and sister, but she didn’t live with them or know them. T Is there anything important that happened to you in Columbia before you came to the US. Your mother said you went to Kindergarten. Do you remember that? T I went to a big class. Did you live with your mother and then with your father. She explained several moves and reasons for them. She moved to her grandmother. S A girl pushed me. Was that an important event? They discussed the kinds of events they wanted to include? Was she badly hurt, etc. If you went to school when you were five and you were born in 1995, what year would that be? S I want to tell about my ---student shared a story that I couldn’t hear very well. S My father teached me how to ride a bike. T That could be an important event. adoptions. The teacher included mechanics in the activity. “Is this a complete sentence?” There is strong evidence of building background, preparing to read a biography. The instruction is made comprehensible through modeling and visuals. The students seemed very comfortable sharing ideas and stories. The climate is welcoming and supportive. The teacher was very responsive to the stories and respectful of difficult circumstances that the girl did not want to include. Inclusion of an oral question related to math. Oral math questions are one of the areas of greatest difficulty for ESL students who are being assessed on the ACCESS test in Illinois, a WIDA state. The teacher commented on the excitement of learning to ride a bike. This could have been an opportunity to model back the correct past tense of teach. Ex. Your father taught you to ride a bike, How nice. The teacher could have used that word again as the girl began to write about learning to write the bike. 44
  • 45. Student wrote learned how to ride bike. T Do you want to include when you moved to the orphanage? S No. T That’s fine. The teacher asked her when she met her adoptive parents. S My mother sent me pictures, chocolates and a bear. Do you want to include that? Yes, I still have the bear. T to other student. Do you want to include how you met your mother and father? S No, T OK S Yes, They bring me a chocolate. She then related a story about that. Observer couldn’t hear until she said, “When I moved to the US, I looked in the refrigerator, and there was ice cream. While one student was orally sharing the other would write. How do you spell got? T sounded it out, and the student wrote it. The teacher explained what they will do tomorrow and what they can work on independently. Summarized what they are going to do tomorrow. You will exchange Your timelines. Both girls were actively engaged throughout the lesson. They seemed to take turns talking with the teacher about the events in their lives or writing. Extended discourse was very evident in the class. Both girls told complete stories about their experiences. Most of the interaction was between the teacher and a student. The questions by the teacher and the student responses will serve as good modeling for the students when they begin their interviews with each other prior to writing the autobiographies. SIOP component Practice and Application The lesson incorporated listening and speaking, as well as simple reading and writing tasks that helped prepare students for the more complex literacy tasks which will follow. The students will later read a biography about Abraham Lincoln. Additional SIOP components Strategies, use of a timeline Review and assessment through check of learning and restating of the objectives 45
  • 46. T What did we learn today? Students looked at the board. They reviewed the word timeline and events What are we going to do tomorrow? They put their timelines in their folder. T Are you going to work on it in Mr. Steins room? They were deciding whether to take it or not. T Let’s work on it tomorrow. POST-OBSERVATION FORM How did you feel about the lesson? I think it was fine. How did student behaviors compare with what you expected? It was a very typical day. We have a close relationship. Do you think the content objectives were met? Yes, Do you think the language objectives were met? Yes Do you feel that the ELL modifications were adequate? Since there are only 2 ELLs at similar levels, I can plan specifically for their needs. If a co-taught or co-planned lesson, were you satisfied with the collaborative roles and responsibilities? Mr. Stein teachers 5th grade, and I support him. I only have the students for 45 minutes. I take them out of part of language arts. I have been paying attention to the story they are reading in his class. We read a summary of it, and I teach some background vocabulary. I stay ahead of what he is doing. I wish that when they return to the class they could be included more in the activities that the class does. Mr. Stein is using cooperative learning the class so that helps. However, when the students return, they have missed the first 45 minutes. He and I can talk every day. We have agreed that I will give them work they can do in his class if they are not involved with the other students. What will you do the same and what will you do differently if you do this lesson again? 46
  • 47. Not really. I just wish I could pull them out for the full 90 minutes. It is not always easy for them to be involved in the classroom activities when they return because they miss the first half. Do you have any questions you’d like to ask me? She asked for ideas to teach the student that had no prior literacy skills. I suggested using the Language Experience Approach. I explained that and told her she could find LEA information in her binder in the section on reading strategies. I then told her a personal teaching experience to demonstrate how to use LEA with a student who has no literacy skills at all. Feedback from the teacher to observer: The teacher seemed receptive to the idea of using LEA and looked forward to trying it. What did I do that was useful for you, and was there anything I did that got in the way of your learning or thinking? Our time was up, so I didn’t have time to ask this question. If there is any additional information you would like to give me, Alice, please don’t hesitate to do so. Jeanette Gordon 47