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Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling

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    Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling Presentation Transcript

    • Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
      Jorge Gracia, Jochem Liem, Esther Lozano, Oscar Corcho,
      Michal Trna, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, and Bert Bredeweg
      Ontology Engineering Group, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Spain
      {jgracia, elozano, ocorcho, mtrna, asun}@fi.upm.es
      Informatics Institute. University of Amsterdam. The Netherlands
      {j.liem, b.bredeweg}@uva.nl
      ISWC, November 10th, Shanghai, China
    • Outline
      2
      Introduction
      Qualitative Reasoning Modelling and Simulation
      Application of Semantic Techniques
      Existing approaches
      Semantic Grounding
      Ontology-Based Feedback
      Types of feedback
      Techniques of OBF
      Some numbers
      Conclusions
      What’s going on...
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Introduction
      Conceptual representation of physical systems
      Prediction of the system behaviour through reasoning
      Simulation
      Qualitative (important landmarks no numerical details)
      Separation of structure and behaviour
      Multiple domains of application
      Environmental science
      Physics
      Economy
      ...
      3
      Qualitative Reasoning
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Introduction
      Learning by modelling approach
      Learners formally express and test their conceptual knowledge about systems in an educational context
      Desirable features:
      • Shared learning environment, where expert and learner models are uploaded
      • Quality feedback extracted from the common knowledge
      4
      QR in science and education
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • QR Modelling and Simulation
      5
      Influence:
      Natality determines δSize
      Knowledge Representation
      Scenario
      Quantity:
      The dynamic aspects of
      the system
      Proportionality:
      δSize determines δNatality
      Entity hierarchy
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Semantic Techniques
      Bridging the gap between the loosely and imprecise terminology used by a learner and the well-defined semantics of an ontology
      Relating the QR models created by other learners or experts in order to automate the acquisition of feedback and recommendations
      6
      How semantic techniques could help?
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Semantic Techniques
      7
      DynaLearn
      http://hcs.science.uva.nl/projects/DynaLearn/
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Semantic Techniques
      8
      Student
      Quality feedback
      Semantic repository
      OWL export
      Model
      Grounding
      Online ontologies
      Modelling tool
      The Web
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Existing approaches
      QR modelling and simulation tools: Betty’s brain, Stella
      Not grounding of terms to a common vocabulary
      Not quality feedback fromothermodels
      Conceptual modelling techniques: CmapTools
      Concepts maps for knowledge representation
      Collaborative use
      No use of Semantic Web tomaximizeinteroperability
      Not common shared vocabularies
      Semantic techniques to enhance collaborative learning: DEPTH (Design Patterns Teaching Help System)
      Focused on software engineering education
      Supports recommendation more rather than quality feedback
      9
      Related work
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Outline
      10
      Introduction
      Qualitative Reasoning Modelling and Simulation
      Application of Semantic Techniques
      Existing approaches
      Semantic Grounding
      Ontology-Based Feedback
      Types of feedback
      Techniques of OBF
      Some numbers
      Conclusions
      What’s going on...
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Semantic Grounding
      11
      Student
      Expert/teacher
      http://www.anchorTerm.owl#NumberOf
      Anchor ontology
      http://dbpedia.org/resource/Population
      http://dbpedia.org/resource/Mortality_rate
      grounding
      Semantic repository
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Semantic Grounding
      Ensure lexical and semantic correctness of terms
      Ensure the interoperability among models
      Extraction of a common domain knowledge
      Detection of inconsistencies and contradictions between models
      Inference of new, non declared, knowledge
      Assist the model construction with feedback and recommendations
      12
      Benefits of grounding
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Outline
      13
      Introduction
      Qualitative Reasoning Modelling and Simulation
      Application of Semantic Techniques
      Existing approaches
      Semantic Grounding
      Ontology-Based Feedback
      Types of feedback
      Techniques of OBF
      Some numbers
      Conclusions
      What’s going on...
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Types of OBF
      Ontology matching based feedback
      Improvements of terminology
      Missing and extra terms in the learner model
      • Missing hierarchical relations
      Semantic reasoning based feedback: Inconsistency between hierarchies of models
      Structure comparison based feedback: Differences between model structures
      14
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Modules of OBF
      15
      Learner Model
      +
      Reference Model
      Structure Comparison
      Differences between Model Structures
      Grounding-Based Alignment
      Semantic Reasoner
      Inconsistency between Hierarchies
      List of differences
      Preliminary
      mappings
      Improvement of Terminology
      Ontology Matching
      Missing/Extra
      Ontology Elements
      List of equivalent terms
    • Grounding-Based Alignment
      In the learner model:
      In the reference model:
      Resulting preliminary mapping:
      16
    • Ontology Matching
      Ontology matching tool: CIDER
      Input of the ontology matching tool
      Learner model with preliminary mappings
      Reference model
      Output: set of mappings (Alignment API format)
      17
      J. Gracia and E. Mena. Ontology matching with CIDER: Evaluation report for the OAEI 2008. In Proc. of 3rd Ontology Matching Workshop (OM’08), at ISWC’08, Karlsruhe, Germany, volume 431, pages 140-146. CEUR-WS, October 2008
    • Ontology Matching
      18
      Improvement of terminology
      Reference model:
      Learner model:
      equivalent terms with different label
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Ontology Matching
      19
      Missing and extra terms in the learner model
      Learner model:
      Reference model:
      missing term
      extra term
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Ontology Matching
      20
      Missing hierarchical relationships
      Reference model:
      Learner model:
      subclass of
      missing term
      equivalent terms
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Semantic Reasoning
      21
      Inconsistency between hierarchies
      Learner model:
      Reference model:
      Disjoint classes
      INCONSISTENT HIERARCHIES!
      equivalent terms
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Structure Comparison
      22
      Missing QR structures
      Learner model:
      Reference model:
      missing model structures
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Outline
      23
      Introduction
      Qualitative Reasoning Modelling and Simulation
      Application of Semantic Techniques
      Existing approaches
      Semantic Grounding
      Ontology-Based Feedback
      Types of feedback
      Techniques of OBF
      Some numbers
      Conclusions
      What’s going on...
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Experimental Evaluation
      Q1. Are Semantic Web resources suitable for grounding specific domain vocabularies?
      Q2. Are the state-of-the-art ontology matching tools suitable for the alignment of QR models?
      24
      Some Research Questions
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Q1 – Semantic Web resources
      25
      Coverage Study
      Tested 1686 different English words coming from DynaLearn glossaries
      What if we fix spelling errors and suggest nearby terms?:
      “fiterfeeding” “filter feeding”
      What if we combine several sources?:
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Q1 – Semantic Web resources
      Tested909English labels covered by DBpedia, randomly selected from DynaLearn glossaries
      Asked 8 expert evaluators, each one evaluated between 200-300 groundings. Each grounding was double-evaluated
      Question: For each grounded term, are all the relevant meanings that you have in mind contained in the set of grounding candidates? If yes, mark the relevant ones.
      Average accuracy: 83%
      26
      Accuracy Study
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Q2 - Ontology Matching
      Golden standard defined by experts
      Eight QR models grouped by pairs
      Semantic equivalences between them were identified
      Result: reference alignment file
      Separated ontology alignment: CIDER, Falcon
      Each produced alignment was compared to the golden standard
      27
      Model Matching Experiment
      W. Hu and Y. Qu. Falcon-ao: A practical ontology matching system. Journal of Web Semantics, 6(3):237-239, 2008
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Outline
      Introduction
      Qualitative Reasoning Modelling and Simulation
      Application of Semantic Techniques
      Existing approaches
      Semantic Grounding
      Ontology-Based Feedback
      Types of Feedback
      Techniques of OBF
      Some numbers
      Conclusions
      What’s going on...
      28
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Conclusions
      Support the creation of semantically networked models to share and reuse conceptual knowledge
      QR models are exported into an ontological language and grounded to an external common vocabulary
      Ontology matching techniques used to get quality feedback
      29
      Conclusions
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Outline
      Introduction
      Qualitative Reasoning Modelling and Simulation
      Application of Semantic Techniques
      Existing approaches
      Semantic Grounding
      Ontology-Based Feedback
      Types of feedback
      Techniques of OBF
      Some numbers
      Conclusions
      What’s going on...
      30
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • What’s going on…
      31
      Future Work
      • Run usability studies on our ontology-based feedback
      • Enrich our ontology matching based techniques with advanced metrics
      • Provide OBF results through the virtual characters
      • Model recommendation based on the community of users
      • Use our system in the academic domain to support semantic-guided learning
      • Publish this semantic data in the web of Linked Data
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • What’s going on…
      32
      OBF through virtual characters
      Differences in terminology 2/8
      The quantity Death rateof your model is equivalent to the quantity Mortalityof the reference model. More info.
      Do you want to rename the term as Mortality?
      YesNo
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling
    • Thanks for your attention!
      33
      Jorge Gracia
      Facultad de Informática
      Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
      Campus de Montegancedosn
      28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid
      http://www.oeg-upm.net
      jgracia@delicias.dia.fi.upm.es
      Phone: 34.91.3363670
      Fax: 34.91.3524819
      Some images under Creative Commons licence :
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/binkley27/2969227096/
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/tauntingpanda/14782257/
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/rainforest_harley/232636845/
      Semantic Techniques for Enabling Knowledge Reuse in Conceptual Modelling