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Reported by: Lorraine Mae E. Anoran
GRAPHS AND CHARTS
• In mathematics, a graph is an abstract
representation of a set of objects where some
pairs of the objects are connected by links.
•A chart is a graphical representation of data, in
which "the data is represented by symbols, such as
bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in
a pie chart".
Types of Charts
1. Time charts
- Is a tabular time chart that presents data in
2. Flow Chart
- Is a visual way of charting or showing a
process from beginning to end.
3. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
- Shows how one part of the organization relates
to other parts of the organization.
3. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST CHART
-used to show similarities and differences
between two things.
is a type of chart that contains both bars and
a line graph, where individual values are
represented in descending order by bars, and the
cumulative total is represented by the line.
4. PARETO CHART
3. PICTORIAL GRAPH
- Make use of picture symbols.
REAL OBJECTS, SPECIMENS AND SAMPLES
Realia includes such items as real
objects, specimens, artifacts, relics,
and even souvenirs.
Real objects are the things we
come in contact with everyday.
is a portion/quantity of material for use
in testing, examination, or study.
It can be a part of an object- for example, a piece of
coal, a piece of marble, the skin of a bird, a leaf, or a
piece of mineral.
A laboratory specimen is an individual animal,
part of an animal, a plant, part of a plant, or
a microorganism, used as a representative to
study the properties of the whole population of
that species or subspecies.
•A sample taken from a patient, most
frequently blood, urine, or semen.
•A piece of a type of rock or mineral taken from
the earth. This can be anything from
a jasper to a diamond.
Central Banks send so-called specimen
banknote (or specimens) to other banks
before issuing a new banknote.
DIAGRAMS, GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
Diagram – It is “any line drawing that shows
arrangement and relations as of parts to the
whole, relative values, origins and development,
chronological fluctuations, distributions, etc.”
What is a diagram?
TYPES OF DIAGRAMS
is a business tool used to organize ideas
-used to chart out, in increasing detail, the
various tasks that must be accomplished
to complete a project or achieve a specific
- Also called cause-and-effect diagram.
- are a visual representation of the material a student
is learning. The organizer assists the student in
brainstorming and/or organizing information to
make it easier to understand how ideas connect.