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Presented for the University of Wisconsin Libraries, 15 May 2013, Madison, Wisconsin (USA)

Presented for the University of Wisconsin Libraries, 15 May 2013, Madison, Wisconsin (USA)

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  • Charter universities, Venture philanthropists funding alternatives, non-traditional students to for-profit universities, traditional undergrads opting for community colleges, faculty going to ed tech start-ups
  • Hunter R. Rawlings III President, Association of American Universities Presentation to Chancellor Holden Thorp and the Board of Trustees University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill September 27, 2012 As prepared for delivery I was named president of AAU in March, 2011, 18 months ago. AAU has 35 public university members. Since I became president, 13 presidents and chancellors at those 35 schools have left their positions, most prematurely, some fired, some who resigned under pressure Lombardi is one of those who had to leave…John Lombardi, the president of the Louisiana State University System, a system that has ten campuses in the state with the largest having nearly 29,000 students told the library adminstrators:His concluding comment: “The football team is allowed to run a deficit of $3- to $7-million. And you’re not.”
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Reconfigured and Unbundled: The Research University and Its Library—Trends,… Reconfigured and Unbundled: The Research University and Its Library—Trends,… Presentation Transcript

  • Reconfigured and UnbundledThe research university and its library-Trends, influences, and external factors-For the University of Wisconsin Libraries15 May 2013Jim Michalko, OCLC ResearchWith ample borrowings from Lorcan Dempsey, Brian Lavoie, Constance Malpas of OCLCAND all those in the concluding references
  • DisclaimersWhere I workOutside inWhere you sitYou may know better…
  • Where• OCLC– non-profit membership organizationserving 72,035 libraries in 171 countries• Serves as the USA nationalbibliographic infrastructure
  • My work• Research Division within OCLC– Provide internal research and development workto advance OCLC products and services– Do work for the library community to deepenpublic understanding of the changing librarysystem– Work primarily with research libraries around the world in the OCLC ResearchLibrary Partnership on projects and process changeOCLC ResearchConstituencies
  • PerspectiveWhat you see depends on where you standWhat you see depends on where you sit
  • Where I sit• United States• Informed by Western European developments• System-wide view• Not inside of an operational library• Inform and lead library directions and future
  • Then (five years ago)
  • Risk ClustersLegacy TechnologyHuman ResourcesValue PropositionDurable GoodsIntellectual Property… a reduced sense of library relevance frombelow, above, and within… uncertainties about adequate preparation,adaptability, capacity for leadership in face ofchange… changing value of library collections and space;prices go up, value goes down – accountingdoesn’t acknowledge the change… managing and maintaining legacy systems is achallenge; replacement parts are hard to find… losing some traditional assets to commercialproviders (e.g. Google Books) and failing toassume clear ownership stake in others (e.g. localscholarly outputs)
  • Inherent Risks: High Impact & LikelihoodImpactLikelihood1. Availability of onlineinformation resources(Google, etc.) weakensvisibility and value oflibrary.2. User base erodes becauselibrary value proposition isdiminished andmarginalized.10. Difficulty identifying candidates for evolving librarymanagement roles.1 12211101492120Legacy TechnologyHuman ResourcesValue PropositionDurable Goods1911. Human resources are notallocated appropriately tomanage change in thecurrent environment.12. Current human resourceslack skill set for futureneeds (changingtechnology, etc.).14. Conservative nature oflibrary inhibits timelyadaptation to changedcircumstances.9. Recruitment and retentionof resources is difficult dueto reduction in pool ofqualified candidates.19. Library cannot adjust fast enough to keep up with rapidlychanging technology and user needs.20. Increased inefficiencies and expenses due to lack offunctionality of legacy systems and IT support.21. Due diligence and sustainability assessment of local or thirdparty services is not completed, tracked or analyzed.
  • Residual Risks (High)Impact1. Availability of onlineinformation resources(Google, etc.) weakensvisibility and value oflibrary.14. Conservative nature oflibrary inhibits timelyadaptation to changedcircumstances.14. Conservative nature oflibrary inhibits timelyadaptation to changedcircumstances.9. Recruitment and retentionof resources is difficult dueto reduction in pool ofqualified candidates.1These risks will remain high. Canthey be managed?Effective network disclosureLegacy TechnologyHuman ResourcesValue PropositionDurable GoodsMove new services ‘into the flow’2914Articulate compelling new vision toatrract a new generation of libraryprofessionals2. User base erodesbecause library valueproposition isdiminished andmarginalized.
  • Residual Risks (High)Impact1. Availability of onlineinformation resources(Google, etc.) weakensvisibility and value oflibrary.14. Conservative nature oflibrary inhibits timelyadaptation to changedcircumstances.14. Conservative nature oflibrary inhibits timelyadaptation to changedcircumstances.9. Recruitment and retentionof resources is difficult dueto reduction in pool ofqualified candidates.1These risks will remain high. Canthey be managed?Effective network disclosureLegacy TechnologyHuman ResourcesValue PropositionDurable GoodsMove new services ‘into the flow’2914Articulate compelling new vision toatrract a new generation of libraryprofessionals2. User base erodesbecause library valueproposition is diminishedand marginalized.
  • The Library is a Disrupted organizationInsidean institution – the University –that is being ReconfiguredCorollary:The library has no destiny independentof the organization (community) it serves
  • The way teaching happens,learning occurs,scholarship is practiced,research produced andnew knowledge createdDETERMINESwhether a university needs a libraryand what kind with what services
  • The Reconfigured universityConception of Higher EducationMode of PedagogyPractice of ResearchThe Library is a Disrupted organizationInsidean institution – the University –that is being Reconfigured
  • The Reconfigured universityConception of Higher EducationWhat‟s the crisis in higher ed?(subset of culture and global crises)What‟s a university?(Bologna/Paris, Nostalgia/History, Faculty Governance)What‟s an education? What‟s it for?(Newman vs. Utilitarians)What do we know about teaching and learning?(Metrics and assessment)
  • The Reconfigured universityConception of Higher EducationSame questions withthe inclusion of women and minorities;the advent of technical colleges, community colleges,land-grant universities; andthe implementation of the G.I. Bill.The running battle of abstract thinking and applied knowledgeQ. Is this time different?
  • State-based Public (Research) UniversitiesA. Likely to beConsider the de-fundingof public higher education
  • State-based Public (Research) UniversitiesA. Likely to be
  • 8.5%
  • <14.6%>
  • 45.6%
  • Colleges have threebasic business modelsfor attracting andkeeping students. Twowill continue to work inthe next decade, andone almost certainlywill not. Chronicle ofHigher Education
  • 1. Research/elite (Strong brand, connected tointernational network of science and scholarship;educate many of the political and business elite;flagship),2. Struggling middle (broad education. Not kept upwith distance and convenience agendas, highoverhead, limited research funding).3. Convenience (community colleges and for-profitproviders, focused on preparation for furthereducation or for a career)
  • Student Debtvia The „Cost Disease‟in Higher Education: Is Technology the Answer?William G. Bowen The Tanner Lectures Stanford University October 2012
  • The Reconfigured universityConception of Higher EducationDe-fundedToo expensiveShifting to private benefitMade us worry about regulation whenthe teaching and learning revolution really presentsthe university with the specter of irrelevance
  • The Reconfigured universityConception of Higher EducationMode of PedagogyNew models threaten both ends of the spectrum
  • http://www.downes.ca/presentation/304 via Merrilee Proffitt
  • The Reconfigured universityConception of Higher EducationMode of PedagogyNew models threaten both ends of the spectrumMOOCsare the network reconfiguration of teachingOnline Education not new so…
  • MOOCs have become a flashpoint for discussionof higher ed because they represent an easilygraspable, almost parodic version of what waspreviously invisible: elite university education.They have a unique power to drive publicperception of the entire sector.Alyson Byerly. Formerly known as students. Inside Higher Ed. October 29 2012.
  • Why now?
  • Broken University Business ModelplusDisruptive Technologies
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Disruptivetechnology.gif#file
  • 1. Research/elite (Strong brand, connected tointernational network of science and scholarship;educate many of the political and business elite;flagship),2. Struggling middle (broad education. Not kept upwith distance and convenience agendas, highoverhead, limited research funding).3. Convenience (community colleges and for-profitproviders, focused on preparation for furthereducation or for a career)
  • 1. Research/elite
  • 3. Convenience
  • http://www.mywcpa.org/colleges_universities.php
  • 1. Research/elite (Strong brand, connected tointernational network of science and scholarship;educate many of the political and business elite;flagship),MOOCs = Quality separated from price, create globalbrand, celebrate faculty2. Struggling middle (broad education. Not kept upwith distance and convenience agendas, highoverhead, limited research funding).MOOCs = nothing but pressure3. Convenience (community colleges and for-profitproviders, focused on preparation for furthereducation or for a career)MOOCs = broad access, non-traditional credentials,no frills
  • The Reconfigured universityConception of Higher EducationMode of PedagogyPractice of ResearchShaped by Fundingby Typeby MechanismsUS University-based research is in flux threatening the core of the research universityReason to existDiscoverDisseminateApply
  • The Reconfigured universityConception of Higher EducationMode of PedagogyPractice of ResearchHyper-competition and complexityCompliance and Indirect Cost RecoveryResearch Quality and ImpactPlanning and Decision SupportValue of the Research UniversityFragility of Academic research enterprise
  • The Reconfigured universityConception of Higher EducationMode of PedagogyPractice of ResearchThe Library is aDisruptedorganizationInside
  • http://librarydigitalprojects.com/2011/04/04/sources-for-disruption-of-library-services/Libraryhas beenDisruptionCentralFar alongthe disruptiontimeline
  • Place of the Library in UniversityWhy do Universities have libraries?It was more economical to have a physical collection than to send researchers orstudents to the information.It was useful to locate all the needed information resources for research andlearning physically close to the work.Local collections were assets and contributed competitively to scholarly outputConsider the town squarein the United States…
  • The network changes everythingWhat will it mean to unbundle andreconfigure the library within the University?The network has reconfigured whole industriesTravel, News, Book RetailingThe network is now the first option for researchers and learnersInformation environment is increasingly flatacademic collections increasingly alikediscovery is increasingly done outside of libraryinformation fulfillment comes to the desktop from many sourcesImpact on the university librarychanged the value of physical book collections and library spacechanged the relevance of the library assets and services to the University‟s outputs
  • Harvard Business Review (1999)
  • CORE COMPONENTSOF A FIRMCustomerRelationshipManagementProductInnovationInfrastructureBack office capacities thatsupport day-to-day operations“Routinized” workflows•Economies of scale importantDevelop new products andservices and bring them tomarket•Speed/flexibility importantAttracting and building relationshipswith customers“Service-oriented”, customization•Economies of scope important
  • Shift to engagementInstitutional innovationRightscale infrastructureReconfiguring libraries for the newenvironment – 3 imperatives
  • EngagementBuild around university directionsDistinctive servicesQuality and ScaleCost CompetitionAcademic vs. Career prepResearch FocusSource: Education Advisory Board report to CIC CIOs August 2012Shift to engagementInstitutional innovationRightscale infrastructure
  • Making the Service Turn:Identifying, Supporting, andSustaining Distinctive Servicesfor the 21st-Century ResearchLibraryScott WalterDePaul UniversityPresented at the OCLC Research“Libraries Rebound” Conference, Philadelphia, PAJune 5, 2012
  • The Service Turn“[In] an era wheneverything we know abouthow content is created,acquired, accessed,evaluated, disseminated,employed, and preservedfor the future is in flux, theresearch library must bedistinguished by the scopeand quality of its serviceprograms in the same wayit has long been by thebreadth and depth of itslocally-held collections.”Source: Walter, S. (2011). "Distinctive signifiersof excellence": Library services and the futureof the academic library [Editorial]. College &Research Libraries, 72 (1), 6-8. Retrieved fromhttp://crl.acrl.org/content/72/1/6.full.pdf+html
  • What Makes a Service “Distinctive”?• Does it represent a new approach to,or a new area of, library service thathas served as a “lighthouse,” i.e., aninnovation that has been broadlytaken up by other libraries?• Does it represent a unique or unusuallibrary service closely tied to adistinctive area of strength in thelibrary‟s collections or the campusacademic program?• Does it represent a unique or unusuallibrary service closely tied to adistinctive aspect of the campusmission, identity, or history?University of Michigan LibraryMPublishinghttp://www.publishing.umich.edu/
  • Space reconfiguredaround experience,expertise andcommunicationrather than collections
  • US Academic Library Expenditures as a percent ofTotal Post-secondary Education Expenditures$6.8 Billionin 2008OCLC Research 2013 Digest of Education Statistics 2010 April 2011 Tables 29 and 430
  • John Lombardi, Presidentat October 2011 ARL meeting• When people ask him for money, he said, his firstquestion is, “What will that project do to make theuniversity more competitive?• “If you can’t persuade me that the work you’redoing is going to make us more famous, we’re notgoing to be interested in investing in you,” he said.• “Is that wise and profound and good? No. It’sstupid. But that’s the way it is.”
  • ... a more fundamental level of innovation,institutional innovation – redefining therationale for institutions and developing newrelationship architectures within andacross institutions to break existingperformance trade-offs and expand therealm of what is possible …John Hagel III and John Seely BrownInnovationShift to engagementInstitutional innovationRightscale infrastructure
  • A new architecture of relationships:rightscaling
  • A new architecture of relationships:engagementUniversity PressOffice of ResearchITLearning and teaching supportE-researchWriting centreAcademic departments….
  • texttextGLSStrategic PlantexttexttexttextLibrary Coordinating CouncilUW faculty/ staff/studentsUW SystemCommittee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC)Association of Research LibrariesUW-MadisonCampus LibrariesCampus Administration/Deans, Directors, Provosts Executive GroupStakeholders Influencing Campus Libraries Strategic FrameworkProject Charter Campus Libraries Strategic FrameworkUpdated 5/1/13 - Version 9.1
  • InfrastructurePrint management exampleShift to engagementInstitutional innovationRightscale infrastructurePhysical spacePhysical collectionsSystemsRepositoriesOnline ServicesEtc.
  • Growing misalignment between investmentin print collections and practices of researchand learningReconfigure space around engagementrather than around collectionsStewardship and efficient access still(variably) importantInstitution:opportunity costs challenge
  • Manage down institutional collectionsCollectively managed – regional, nationalbased on existing/emerging infrastructureInclude different obligations:Mid-level HEIs look for third party orcollaborative solutionsResearch HEIs manage stewardshipresponsibility within broader framework ofdigital and cooperativeSystemwide:balance contributions
  • OPPORTUNITY
  • 0100,000200,000300,000400,000500,000600,000700,000800,000900,000Titles/EditionsHolding Libraries (WorldCat)WorldCat Holdings Distribution for Titles Held bythe University of Wisconsin-Madison Library (GMZ) - March 2013N = 4,541,965 titles22% held by <10 libraries20% held by 10-24 libraries31% held by 25-99 libraries27% held by >99 librariesOCLC Research, 2013
  • 0500,0001,000,0001,500,0002,000,0002,500,0003,000,0003,500,0004,000,0004,500,0005,000,000Jan 2010 Jan 2011 Jan 2012University of Wisconsin-Madison Library (GMZ) Holdings inWorldCat and HathiTrustGMZ Titles in WorldCat GMZ Titles Duplicated in HathiTrust30%37% 40%OCLC Research, 2013
  • 257,745 titles6%1,524,108 titles34%1,781,853 titles40%University of Wisconsin-Madison Library (GZM) TitlesDuplicated in Hathi Trust Digital Library – July 2012Public Domain In CopyrightOCLC Research, 2013
  • 0%10%20%30%40%50%60%0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000Partner Library Holdings (WorldCat)Overlap between OCLC Research Library Partner Collections andHathiTrust Digital LibraryN = 159* librariesJanuary 2011 overlap January 2012 overlapUniversity of Wisconsin would be hereMedian duplication 30.1%Median duplication 29.5%OCLC Research, 2013
  • 050,000100,000150,000200,000250,000300,000350,000400,000Titles/EditionsHolding Libraries (WorldCat)System-wide Print Distribution of University of Wisconsin-Madison(GMZ) Titles Duplicated in HathiTrust Digital Library - July 2012N = 1,814,084 titles14% held by <10 libraries19% held by 10-24 libraries33% held by 25-99 libraries34% held by >99 librariesOCLC Research, 2013
  • IULILIIUMEEMINUINMJCROAGOHLUPMOS2IPLCGUUIUIAYIAXNUILUIEYMEMIHJ8UMMMLLMNULDLGZHGZMGZLWIYGZI0%10%20%30%40%50%60%0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000TitlesDuplicatedinHathiTrustTitles Cataloged in WorldCatDuplication in CIC member library collections and HathiTrustJanuary 2012Health SciencesLawMedian 34%OCLC Research, 2013
  • A Master Plan for a Mega-region“[Midwestern universities ] worktogether on both regional andnational agendas, merging libraryand research resources, and sharingcurricula and instructionalresources with faculty and students.Aggregating these spires ofexcellence these institutions givesthe Midwest region many of theworld’s leading programs in a broadrange of key knowledge areas.” (p. 37)
  • Shift resource to engagement:evolving information services which improvethe student experience and enhance research.Internal/external institutional innovation:build new relationships within enterprise thatsupport research, promote learning, andexternally to create efficiencies.Rightscale infrastructure services:find appropriate level in the network.Shift to engagementInstitutional innovationRightscale infrastructure
  • The new ruleshttp://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/mmproceedings/160mm-proceedings.shtml#collsWendy Lougee at the 4 May 2012 ARL Membership Meeting Chicago, IL
  • Shared CollectionsCooperative GovernanceNetwork DisclosureLocal CollectionsLocal StewardshipLocal DiscoveryWarehouse of booksPreservation of what is ‘mine’Local ILSCollaboration spacesJoint stewardship of what is ‘ours’‘Cloud-based’ management svcsCollection sizeGate countSatisfactionSupport for research processesManagement of institutional IPImpactMetricsInfrastructureLibrary Organizationsupported byassessed withdefined by20th Century 21st CenturyConstance Malpas, OCLC Research
  • What you see depends on where you sitAnd now for a
  • Organized around traditional activitiesand emerging new servicesProvides 3 and 5 year estimates of shifts and changes
  • !?Thank you.
  • Toddler TestEvidence requestNostalgia sniff
  • SOME SOURCES• Research Libraries, Risk and Systemic Change• State Higher Education Executive Officers Finance Report 2012• The Cost Disease in Higher Education• The current health and future well-being of the American Research University• Unbundling the Corporation• ARL Membership Meeting 2012 (Spring): Wendy Lougee, Content & Collections:Rubrics and RubiksMy colleagues, Lorcan Dempsey, Constance Malpas,and Tam Dalrymple in the OCLC Library