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Print Books in Maine: a systemwide perspective

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  • Map is emblematic of important shifts in the way print books are managed and used. Produced in 1880s as part of a popular series of guide books – probably abundant at the time it was issued. Yet, 130 years on, we are aware of only 8 libraries that still hold it. 2 of those are located in Maine – here at the U of Maine, in special collections, and also at Colby College. This is because it represents an important part of local history.Princeton, Yale, Harvard and NYPL also have copies of it. Princeton’s copy – and probably several others – was transferred to storage long ago. It was later digitized by Google and subsequently contributed to the shared HathiTrust library. Because it is in the public domain, it is now available to anyone in the US with an internet connection. It “disappeared from sight” for a few years, as print inventory diminished and was moved off-site -- but is now more visible and accessible than ever before. A search for Farrar’s guide to Maine in Google retrieves this digitized version as the top ranked result. This book has survived the transition from abundance to scarcity through a combination of happy accidents (many individual libraries acquired it; some copies survived) and strategic thinking (scarce copies were moved to special collections and preservation storage facilities, one was selected for digitization and moved into a shared stewardship environment).We find ourselves at a critical juncture in the history of libraries and in the evolution of the book, when the print formats in which we have invested over many years, are increasingly at risk – many libraries have limited resources to invest in acquiring new print publications and the academic institutions that have traditionally assumed responsibility for preserving the retrospective collections are under pressure to reallocate library space for other purposes.Moosehead Lake like “shining like a silver platter at the end of the table” (p. 176)http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101063690349;page=root;view=1up;size=100;seq=228;orient=0;num=220
  • 14% of titles in the US extra-regional collection are not held in any of the 12 mega-regions.19% of titles in the US extra-regional collection duplicated in HathiTrust
  • Pepper, A. (Grassie) . (190). What Maine offers and why Maine is cool. Portland, Me.: Maine Central Railroad. [http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=loc.ark:/13960/t76t0t58w]Maine collection is well covered elsewhere in the system.“Unorganized Territory”  Unorganized Territory of Maine consists of over 400 townships (towns are incorporated, townships are unincorporated), plus many coastal islands that do not lie within any municipal bounds. The UT land area is slightly over one half the entire area of the State of Maine. Year-round residents in the UT number approximately 9,000, about 1.3% of the state's total population
  • So this leads to the question of which books Maine libraries should be concerned about preserving.WorldCat data indicates that about 30% of print books in Maine libraries are held by fewer than 100 institutions anywhere; about 10% are held by fewer than 25 libraries; and about 5% are held by fewer than 10 libraries.Faced with these figures, one must ask where Maine’s preservation efforts are best directed: toward securing resources that are scarce but may have a very limited audience, or assuming some share of responsibility for preserving materials in which libraries have collectively invested a great deal. There are good reasons on each side – but it’s probably not feasible to do both.
  • WorldCat data indicates that about 30% of print books in Maine libraries are held by fewer than 100 institutions anywhere; about 10% are held by fewer than 25 libraries; and about 5% are held by fewer than 10 libraries.Faced with these figures, one must ask where Maine’s preservation efforts are best directed: toward securing resources that are scarce but may have a very limited audience, or assuming some share of responsibility for preserving materials in which libraries have collectively invested a great deal. There are good reasons on each side – but it’s probably not feasible to do both.
  • WorldCat data indicates that about 30% of print books in Maine libraries are held by fewer than 100 institutions anywhere; about 10% are held by fewer than 25 libraries; and about 5% are held by fewer than 10 libraries.Faced with these figures, one must ask where Maine’s preservation efforts are best directed: toward securing resources that are scarce but may have a very limited audience, or assuming some share of responsibility for preserving materials in which libraries have collectively invested a great deal. There are good reasons on each side – but it’s probably not feasible to do both.
  • A look at state-wide library infrastructure in Maine. According to a database maintained by the state library, there are more than 450 libraries in Maine.Diffusion is collections is part of what makes traditional library organization work – a book for every reader, wherever they may be. Left – reduced to U Maine, SM, Bowdoin, Bates, Colby, Portland Public, Bowdoin, State Library, U of Maine has largest library collection in the stateChecking the data indicates that 1,889,002 out of 1,908,221 Maine print books are available somewhere in BOSWASH. I attached the list of OCLC #’s for the Maine-but-not-BOSWASH books if you want to browse. I looked at a few – some old stuff, some esoteric stuff, some old & esoteric stuff, etc. I was hoping there might be a lot of Maine-specific content, but didn’t run across any, but then again, I only looked at a handful.
  • So a view of system-wide duplication and state-wide infrastructure are two important components of a print preservation strategy. I want briefly to consider a third component – the elephant in the room that is mass digitization. Herbert, A. (1917). The elephant. London: Hutchinson & Co.. This edition held by 8 libraries, including Bangor Public Library.As of May 2012, we calculate that there are at least 704 thousand print books in Maine libraries that have been digitized and contributed to the HathiTrust shared repository. Based on the print book snapshot data we’ve been discussing, this represents about 37% of the state-wide print book collection
  • Herbert, A. (1917). The elephant. London: Hutchinson & Co.. This edition held by 8 libraries, including Bangor Public Library.As of May 2012, we calculate that there are at least 704 thousand print books in Maine libraries that have been digitized and contributed to the HathiTrust shared repository. Based on the print book snapshot data we’ve been discussing, this represents about 37% of the state-wide print book collection
  • We have been making a special study of the overlap between HathiTrust and North American libraries for the last several years. Initially, we focused on duplication in ARL libraries because these are generally the libraries that have contributed most of the library content in Google Books and because many of these libraries are beginning to rethink their print management strategies. As this graph shows, the duplication rate has grown over time and as of last June was calculated to be about 36% for ARL institutions.
  • We’ve also look at this overlap for other academic library types. This graph shows the overlap for liberal arts colleges in the Oberlin group – these are places like Bowdoin and Colby. This population is interesting for Maine, because 4 year liberal arts colleges are an important part of the HE community in Maine.
  • Based on analysis of about 70 Maine libraries in WorldCat.Reinforces fact there is a lot of diversity among libraries in Maine -- but also that they are all affected to one degree or another by changes in larger information environment. MSCS is a multi-type endeavor and this is one of its special strengths, since the preservation priorities and capacities of different libraries will vary.
  • Image from Farrar's illustrated guide book to Moosehead Lake and vicinity (1884).
  • Transcript

    • 1. MLALibraries United Print Books in Maine: Orono, Maine a system-wide perspective 21 May 2012 Constance Malpas Program Officer, OCLC Research with thanks to Brian Lavoie, OCLC Research
    • 2. Roadmap 1. North American print book collection: a ‘mega’ regional perspective 2. The view from here: print books in Maine 3. A new geography: digitized books in the library landscapeFarrar, C. A. J. (1884). Farrars illustrated guide book to Moosehead Lake and vicinity, the wilds of northern Maine, and the head-watersof the Kennebec, Penobscot, and St. John rivers: with a new and correct map of the lake region… Boston: Lee and Shepard.Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 2
    • 3. North American Mega-regions Defined by Light-based Regional Product (LRP) What if: regional print book collections were consolidated along these lines? what would those collections look like? how much of the North American print book would be covered? what would be left out?OCLC Research, 2012 (adapted from Richard Florida et al., 2008)Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 3
    • 4. Print Book Collections in North American Mega-RegionsOCLC Research, 2012Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 4
    • 5. US ‘extra-regional’ print book collection accounts for a third of all titles the North American print book collection Extra-regional collection characteristics:  abundant, but very highly diffused (avg. 13.8 holdings)  rich resource, includes distinctive titles not duplicated in any of the major mega-regions (14%)  relatively low overlap with digitized books in HathiTrust collection (19%)OCLC Research, 2012Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 5
    • 6. Key Implications • Aggregate print collections in existing mega-regions are undergirded by a robust infrastructure of shared interest and mutual benefit that can be leveraged to support cooperative management regimes. • Western Regional Storage Trust, CIC Shared Print Archive, ASERL Journal Retention Program • Preserving the North American print book inventory that is dispersed outside of mega-regions may require a different strategy, that leverages the aggregate capacity of state-based institutions. • Maine Shared Collections Strategy, Florida State-wide Academic Print CollectionPrint Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 6
    • 7. [Title goes here] Print books in the state of Maine: • 1,908,221 publications • 3,551,848 Maine library holdings • 1.86 avg. holdings per title in ME ? • 278 avg. holdings anywhere …99.9% of the print book titles in Maine are duplicated in the BOS-WASH mega-regionOCLC Research. Data current as of January 2011Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 7
    • 8. Where should Maine libraries draw the line? 30% 70%OCLC Research, data current as of January 2011Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 8
    • 9. Where should Maine libraries draw the line? 10%OCLC Research, data current as of January 2011Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 9
    • 10. Where should Maine libraries draw the line? 5%OCLC Research, data current as of January 2011Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 10
    • 11. Where should Maine libraries draw the line? Preserve Double-down what is on collective scarce? investment?OCLC Research, data current as of January 2011Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 11
    • 12. Where should Maine libraries draw the line? Preserve Double-down what is on collective scarce? investment?OCLC Research, data current as of January 2011Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 12
    • 13. Per Maine State Library: ~450 libraries* in Maine What is Maine’s share of print preservation responsibility?*WorldCat holdings set for ~150Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 13
    • 14. As much as 37% of Maine’s Print Book Collection is Duplicated in the HathiTrust Digital Library May 2012 5% of state-wide print book collection 101,188 603,487OCLC Research, based on WorldCat snapshot data from January 2011 and HathiTrust snapshot data from May 2012.Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 14
    • 15. As much as 37% of Maine’s Print Book Collection is Duplicated in the HathiTrust Digital Library May 2012 5% of state-wide print book collection (titles) 101,188 603,487OCLC Research, based on WorldCat snapshot data from January 2011 and HathiTrust snapshot data from May 2012.Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 15
    • 16. Duplication in ARL Libraries and HathiTrust Digital Library June 2009 / June 2010 / June 2011 Relative Rank in ARL Investment Index (2007-2008)OCLC Research. Derived from WorldCat and HathiTrust snapshots, data current as of June 2011. Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 16
    • 17. Duplication in Oberlin Group Libraries and HathiTrust Digital Library January 2010 / January 2011 / January 2012 60% 50% Median overlap: 42% 40% Median overlap: 40% Median overlap: 35% 30% 20% 10% Jan-10 Jan-11 Jan-12 0% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Relative Rank by Collection Size (WorldCat Holdings)OCLC Research. Derived from WorldCat and HathiTrust snapshots, data current as of January 2012. Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 17
    • 18. Duplication among Maine Libraries and HathiTrust Digital Library (May 2012) 60% Academic Libraries Public Libraries School Libraries MSCS Partner Libraries 50% 40% Median 34% Median 32% 30% 20% 10% Median 7% 0% Median 4% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Relative Rank by Type and WorldCat HoldingsOCLC Research. Derived from WorldCat and HathiTrust snapshots, data current as of May 2012. Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 18
    • 19. In Sum . . . • Maine’s print book resource is considerable in scope & size • The high rate of duplication between Maine’s print books and other regional collections should be considered in selecting titles for state-based preservation • Distinctive and unique resources in Maine’s print book collection can be leveraged as a collective asset • Continued growth of digitized book corpus will reshape the print book landscape; print preservation strategies will need to evolve accordingly • Libraries remain a vital part of print book supply chain: continued success in this area will require new forms of cooperation Pepper, A. (Grassie) . (190?). What Maine offers and why Maine is cool. Portland, Me.: Maine Central Railroad.Print Books in Maine – a system-wide perspective (Malpas) 19
    • 20. Thanks for your attention.Comments and questions welcome: malpasc@oclc.org @ConstanceM