OCLC Research Update ALA Annual 2014


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Presentation for ALA Annual 2014 on 30 June 2014 in Las Vegas, Nevada

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  • Partnership - 162 Partner Institutions
    125 in North America, 28 in Europe, 9 in Asia
    22 of the top 25 universities in The Times Higher Education World Ranking
  • http://www.oclc.org/research/news/2014/06-23.html


  • http://www.alastore.ala.org/detail.aspx?ID=10974
  • Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Ixchel M. Faniel. 2014. Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting User Behaviors, Shifting Priorities. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch-reordering-ranganathan-2014.pdf.
  • Image from http://photos.pcpro.co.uk/images/front_picture_library_PC_Pro/dir_370/it_photo_185113_52.gif
  • Image from Connaway and Faniel 2014, 2
  • Image from Connaway and Faniel 2014, 105
  • Image from https://www.collaborativedrug.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/clock_in_a_vise.jpg
  • Image from http://www.flickr.com/photos/cjsmithphotography/7081787019/
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  • I’m Karen Smith-Yoshimura, program officer in the OCLC Research office in San Mateo, California, and I will quickly cover one aspect of our Multilingual Bibliographic Structure project. Its primary goal is to make it possible to present bibliographic information in the preferred language and script of the reader.
  • This project seeks to leverage the multilingual content of WorldCat. There are more than 300 million records in WorldCat today representing holdings of the world’s libraries. There are also another 200 million articles. Of the 300 million, more than half are in languages other than English.
  • We have been focusing on the content that is most likely to be of interest to the most people – translations.
    The cream of the world’s cultural and knowledge heritage is shared by being translated and WorldCat contains many rich cataloguing records for these translations. The Virtual International Authority File, an aggregation of authority records from over 30 agencies worldwide, identifies 15 million unique persons. When we datamine WorldCat, only 7% have written works that have been translated into at least one other language. Only 7,000 have had their works translated into 10 or more languages. This is the “short head” of works that have the most impact on readers worldwide. I’ve listed here a few sample authors of classics and Nobel Prize laureates of literature and the number of languages their works have been translated into,
  • And here’s one title written by each of those authors – in the original language and script. Likely you’ve heard of all or most of them? But probably in English (click).
  • The relationship of a work (with an author) and its associated translations (with their respective translators) is relatively straight-forward. This diagram captures the relationship in two reciprocal links, one from the original Chinese book (blue box) through its property HasTranslation pointing (with blue arrows) to each translation (red boxes), and one from each translation back to the original Chinese work (red arrows) through the property IsTranslationOf . A work can have any number of translations, and there can be multiple translations into the same language which is why identifying the translator is so important.

  • We have been datamining WorldCat to generate work-translation ("expression level") records—including the translated title and translator with links to the original work and the author—and adding them to VIAF (Virtual International Authority File), flagged as "xR". Here is a concrete example of the impact – Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice originally had 13 translations associated with it; after we generated the xR records for other translations as datamined from WorldCat the number increased to 50.

    So far we have added 1.3 million xR records to VIAF.
  • UNESCO has also been interested in identifying and aggregating translations world-wide for an “international bibliography of translations” – they have been at it for over 80 years! Their database represents entries contributed from UNESCO members since 1979 and contains 2 million entries.
  • Yet when we compare the results for a specific work, like Kawabata’s Snow Country, we can see that the contributions OCLC member libraries have made, through WorldCat, are far greater that all the work invested so far by the UNESCO member states. The UNESCO database shows translations of Kawabata’s Yukiguni in only three languages, English, Italian and Arabic – VIAF, with the xR records datamined from libraries’ contributions to WorldCat supplementing those from VIAF contributors, lists translations in 25 languages.
  • We are now working on enhancing the VIAF display to make the contents of title records more visible. This is a mockup of a VIAF Consolidated display – shows work with expressions summary. It shows the title as it is translated in each language.
  • This is a mockup of the full expressions summary for the work Pêcheur d’Islande by Pierre Loti.
  • This is a mockup of a VIAF Full display – showing different translations of the title, plus the translator and the earliest determined publication date of each.
  • Machines access VIAF far more than humans. To leverage all the work done by the OCLC cooperative we want to share the relationships we’ve established between original works and their associated translations with the semantic Web. Here is a sample markup of an original Chinese work written by Gao Xingjian, a Chinese Nobel Prize laureate for literature, and one of the translations of his work into English. We marked this up with schema.org but there are two new terms we are proposing, shown here: translator and translationOfWork.

    Although I’ve been focusing on our work in VIAF here, the same process contributes to WorldCat Work descriptions released earlier this year. The relationships we’re establishing in VIAF will also flow into WorldCat Works over time.
  • This work will help us better understand the extent to which information is shared across cultures. Here are some questions we should be able to answer soon!

    More information on this project is available on the OCLC Research website at the link shown.
  • https://flic.kr/p/bF9z2J

    From flickr commons
  • OCLC Research Update ALA Annual 2014

    1. 1. ALA Annual 2014/Las Vegas, NV Eric Childress OCLC Research Update Consulting Project Manager
    2. 2. OCLC Research • Research group devoted exclusively to exploring the challenges facing libraries & archives Advanced Development Community R&D Member/Partner Engagement Identify challenges, evaluate responses, survey, investigate, analyze, report, prototype, data work… Convene, connect, shape, influence Experiment with new processes, software, systems OCLC Research Library Partnership Incl. 22 of Top 25 Universities
    3. 3. Honored, we are 2014
    4. 4. Forthcoming • Expertly curated selection of entries from Dempsey’s blog • Available 3rd quarter 2014 – Pre-orders may be placed with ALA online or at the ALA bookstore
    5. 5. Alien Abductions, Jazz, Love Stories What in the WorldCat? • Because even library data should have a playful side! • Fair warning: More coming soon • Suggestions welcome http://oclc.org/research/ wtworldcat.html
    6. 6. Today’s presentations 1 2 3 4
    7. 7. ALA Annual 2014 Las Vegas, NV June 30, 2014 Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting UserBehaviors,Shifting Priorities Senior Research Scientist OCLC Research connawal@oclc.org @LynnConnaway Ixchel M. Faniel, Ph.D. Associate Research Scientist OCLC Research fanieli@oclc.org
    8. 8. Moved from an era of content scarcity to one of incredible abundance and diversity (Connaway and Faniel 2014, 4)
    9. 9. Ranganathan’s Original Laws
    10. 10. Our Interpretation and Reordering
    11. 11. Embed library systems and services into users’ existing workflows (Connaway and Faniel 2014, 15)
    12. 12. Know your community and its needs (Connaway and Faniel 2014, 32)
    13. 13. Develop the physical and technical infrastructure to deliver materials (Connaway and Faniel 2014, 51)
    14. 14. Increase the discoverability, access and use of resources within users’ existing workflows (Connaway and Faniel 2014, 74)
    15. 15. A library is a growing organism (Connaway and Faniel 2014, 92)
    16. 16. References Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Ixchel M. Faniel. 2014. Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting user behaviors, shifting priorities. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch- reordering-ranganathan-2014.pdf. Dempsey, Lorcan. 2012. Thirteen ways of looking at libraries, discovery, and the catalog: Scale, workflow, attention. EDUCAUSE Review Online (December 10, 2012), http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/thirteen-ways-looking-libraries-discovery-and- catalog-scale-workflow-attention. Ranganathan, Shiyali Ramamrita. 1931. The five laws of library science. London: Edward Goldston, Ltd.
    17. 17. Acknowledgements Without the help of Andy Havens, Brad Gauder and Tom Storey for their insightful contributions and valuable feedback; Julianna Barrera-Gomez, Alyssa Darden, Erin M. Hood and Carrie Vass for their dedicated research support; Tam Dalrymple, Larry Olszewski and Jennifer Smither for their thoughtful comments; and Renee Page for her talented design and layout expertise, it would have been difficult to make this report a reality.
    18. 18. Funding A Cyberinfrastructure Evaluation of the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES), funded by the National Science Foundation (CMMI-0714116) The Cyber Synergy: Seeking Sustainability through Collaboration between Virtual Reference and Social Q&A Sites, funded by the Institution of Museum and Library Services (LG-06-11-0342-11) in collaboration with OCLC Research, and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey The Digital Information Seeker Report, jointly sponsored by Jisc and OCLC Research The Digital Visitors and Residents: What Motivates Engagement with the Digital Information Environment? project, funded by Jisc in collaboration with the University of Oxford, OCLC Research, and the University of North Carolina The Dissemination Information Packages for Information Reuse (DIPIR) project, funded by the Institute for Museum and Library Services (LG-06-10-0140-10) in collaboration with the University of Michigan The Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-user and Librarian Perspectives, funded by the Institution of Museum and Library Services (LG-06-05-0109-05) in collaboration with OCLC Research, and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey The Virtual Research Environment (VRE) Study, which was a collaborative project between Jisc and OCLC Research
    19. 19. Explore. Share. Magnify. Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist connawal@oclc.org @LynnConnaway Ixchel M. Faniel, Ph.D. Associate Research Scientist fanieli@oclc.org Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting User Behaviors, Shifting Priorities Webinar with Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Ixchel Faniel Tuesday, 8 July 11am-12pm EDT http://oc.lc/rrreportwebinar
    20. 20. ALA Annual 2014/Las Vegas, NV Karen Smith-Yoshimura Multilingual Bibliographic Structure Program Officer
    21. 21. WorldCat Today • Resources in nearly all languages • Contributed by more than 20,000 libraries worldwide • More than half the database is for works not in English Languages English German French Spanish Chinese Dutch Japanese Russian Arabic 469 others
    22. 22. Leo Tolstoy: 32 languages Homer: 28 languages Rabindranath Tagore: 21 Isaac Bashevis Singer: 17 Najīb Maḥfūẓ: 12 languages Cao Xueqin: 9 languages Mahatma Gandhi: 7 languages Murasaki Shikabu: 7 languages Translations
    23. 23. Ιλιάδα The Iliad 紅樓夢 Dream of the Red Chamber Война и миръ War and Peace ঘরে বাইরে The Home and the World સત્યના પ્રયોગો અથવા આત્મકથા The Story of My Experiments with Truth [Gandhi autobiography] 源 氏 物 語 The Tale of Genji ‫בעל‬ ‫דער‬-‫תשובה‬ The Penitent ‫المدق‬ ‫زقاق‬ Midaq Alley
    24. 24. Title: Journey to the West Language: English Translator: Anthony C. Yu Date: 1977 IsTranslationOf: Title: Journey to the West Language: English Translator: W. J. F. Jenner Date: 1982-1984 IsTranslationOf: Title: 西遊記 Language: Chinese Author: 吳承恩 Created: 1592 HasTranslation: Title: Tây du ký bình khảo Language: Vietnamese Translator: Phan Quân Date: 1980 IsTranslationOf: Title: 西遊記 Language: Japanese Translator: 中野美代子 Date: 1986 IsTranslationOf: Title: Monkeys Pilgerfahrt Language: German Translator: Georgette Boner Date: 1983 IsTranslationOf:
    25. 25. Addition of xR records to VIAF Before After
    26. 26. UNESCO Translation Database
    27. 27. The UNESCO database has translations in only 3 languages of 雪国
    28. 28. # Original Work (in Chinese) <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/1215997> a schema:CreativeWork; schema:creator <http://viaf.org/viaf/102266649> ; # "Gao, Xingjian” schema:inLanguage "zh"; schema:name "靈山"@zh. . # Translated Work (in English) <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/145209748> a schema:CreativeWork; schema:creator <http://viaf.org/viaf/102266649> ; # "Gao, Xingjian“ [new]:translator <http://viaf.org/viaf/81663420> ; # "Lee, Mabel" schema:inLanguage "en"; schema:name "Soul Mountain"@en ; [new]:translationOfWork <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/1215997> . Markup for the Semantic Web
    29. 29. Understanding information sharing across cultures • What percentage of non-English works are translations of English works, and vice-versa? • Which authors are translated the most? • Which works have been translated into the most languages? • Which countries translate the most English works, the most non-English works? • Which countries translate a new work the fastest? • How many translations are from the original work (not a translation of a translation)? Etc. http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/multilingual-bib-structure.html
    30. 30. Explore. Share. Magnify. Karen Smith-Yoshimura Program Officer smithyok@oclc.org @KarenS_Y
    31. 31. ALA Annual 2014/Las Vegas, NV Constance Malpas The Evolving Scholarly Record Program Officer With thanks to Brian Lavoie, Ricky Erway, Jennifer Schaffner, Titia Van der Werf, Ixchel Faniel and Eric Childress
    32. 32. http://archiveshub.ac.uk/blog/2012/10/the-new-scholarly-record/ The network reconfigures the record?
    33. 33. Faculty: what establishes credentials, contributes to professional advancement Library: what is selected, preserved Researchers: what is necessary to validate & build on current literature Date $ bn 2012-01-01 16289.6 2012-04-01 16419.2 2012-07-01 16603.7 2012-10-01 16677.3 2013-01-01 16772.7 2013-04-01 16907.9 2013-07-01 17175.9 float gasdev(long *idum) { static int iset = 0; static float gset; float fac, rsq, v1, v2; if (iset == 0) { do { v1 = 2.0*ran1(idum) - 1.0; v2 = 2.0*ran1(idum) - 1.0; rsq = v1*v1 + v2*v2; e- Publishers: peer-reviewed content Scholarly record: content & perspective ‘Meters’ : what is cited
    34. 34. Stakeholder roles reconfiguring: New paths for the scholarly communication supply chain Format transition: Print-centric to digital, networked Framework Boundaries blurring: Articles/monographs, but also research data, computer models, video, blogs, visualizations, conference posters & presentations, pre-prints, etc.
    35. 35. Create Fix Use Collect Key characteristics impacting stewardship … • Increasing volume of content • Increasing diversity/complexity of content • Increasing distribution of custodial responsibility  ‘local copies’ of scholarly record are increasingly partial  discovery and management are increasingly fragmented  coherence of scholarly record is reduced Stakeholders
    36. 36. • Community consultation around framework – Use cases for library assessment , alt-metrics, collection development strategies, etc. • Stewardship of ‘system-wide’ scholarly record – Higher education trends that are driving concentration/distribution of custodial roles – Division of labor; incentives & benefits – Coordination models; cooperative infrastructure What’s next ..
    37. 37. Explore. Share. Magnify. Constance Malpas Program Officer malpasc@oclc.org @ConstanceM
    38. 38. ALA Annual 2014/Las Vegas, NV Dennis Massie We’re Building an Interlibrary Loan Cost Calculator! Program Officer
    39. 39. Where can I find ILL cost data?
    40. 40. Old Apples vs New Oranges • 2002 – Filled requests only – Selective tracking of unmediated methods • 2011 – Filled and unfilled – No tracking of mediated vs unmediated • Meanwhile: – Libraries are now lending from electronic holdings – Print items are being loaned directly from offsite storage – Many new methods, models, and technologies have emerged
    41. 41. • Megan Gaffney, University of Delaware • Justin Hill, Temple University • Margarita Moreno, National Library of Australia • Ralph LeVan and Dennis Massie, OCLC Research ILL Cost Calculator Working Group
    42. 42. • Users want to know: – Their resource sharing unit costs – How those costs evolve over time – How their costs compare with peers • Users would like to project: – The financial impact of joining a consortium – Of buying a certain piece of equipment – Of implementing a new service Use cases, surveys, and wireframes, oh, my!
    43. 43. 48
    44. 44. 51
    45. 45. • July/August: finish and test • September: call for data • January: report out to the community • June: report some more • September: rinse, repeat Time frame
    46. 46. Explore. Share. Magnify. Dennis Massie Program Officer massied@oclc.org @SHARESguy
    47. 47. Questions? http://oclc.org/research.html
    48. 48. Please complete your evaluation form Thank you! Night lights, May 1972 https://flic.kr/p/bF9z2J
    49. 49. Explore. Share. Magnify. OCLC Research http://oclc.org/research.html research@oclc.org https://twitter.com/OCLC/lists/ oclc-research
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