The world’s libraries. Connected.
“With Google you are not
limited. You have as much as
you can pull up.”
How Academics En...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
“I find Google a lot easier…so many journals
come up and when you look at the first ten ...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Then: The user built
workflow around the
library
• Now: The library must
build its ser...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Many information options
• Library resources not the
first choice
• Develop effective ...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Local to global
• Linear to linked
• Print to digital
Changes in Information Acquisiti...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Challenges
• Budget cuts
• High retirement rates
• Hiring freezes
• Opportunity
• Best...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Sense-Making the Information Confluence: The Whys and Hows of
College and University U...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Theory (n.): a systematic
explanation for observations that
relate to a particular aspec...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Helps organize facts, laws,
concepts, constructs, or
principles into manageable form
•...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Research design (n.): planning,
identification of the problem,
theory, formulating hypot...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Research Design
• Identify problem
• Place problem in broader
theoretical framework
• De...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Methodology (n.): A system of
methods used in a particular area
of study
(Connaway & Pow...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Quantitative research
• Problem-solving approach
• Highly structured
• Quantification ...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Qualitative Research Methods
• Sampling
• Observation
• Survey
• Interviews
• Focus grou...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Several methods:
• Semi-structured
interviews (qualitative)
• Diaries (qualitative)
• ...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Ethnographic data
collection technique
• Get people to describe
what has happened
• Ce...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Interviews
• Allow for probing, clarification,
new questions, focused
questions, explori...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
1. Describe the things you enjoy doing with
technology and the web each week.
2. Think o...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
4. Think of a time when you had a situation where you needed
answers or solutions and yo...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Face-to-face group
interview
• Need a trained moderator
• Explore in depth feelings &
...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Individual interviews,
online surveys, & focus
group interviews
• Flanagan (1954)
• Qu...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Critical Incident Participant
Interview Questions
• Think of a time when you had
a sit...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Critical Incident Focus Group
Interview Questions
a. Describe a time when you used
World...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Exploratory
• Literature surveys
• Experience surveys
• Analytical and Descriptive
• O...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Encourages frank answers
• Eliminates variation in the question process
• Can collect ...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Critical Incident User Online Survey Questions
Please think about one experience using c...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Critical Incident Technique
Seeking Synchronicity
“The Librarian threw in a
cordial sign...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Analysis (n.): summary of
observations or data in such a
manner that they provide answer...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Two approaches
• Ethnographic summary
• Qualitative
• Direct quotations
• “Thick descr...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
I. Place
A. Internet
1. Search engine
a. Google
b. Yahoo
2. Social Media
a. FaceBook
b. ...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Qualitative research
software
• Upload documents, PDFs,
& videos
• Create nodes & code...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
“It’s like a taboo I guess
with all teachers, they
just all say – you know,
when they ex...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Dissemination
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Convenience is king
• Satisficing
• Google and Wikipedia
• 84% of users start
with a s...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Power browsing
• Scan small chunks of information
• View first few pages
• No real rea...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Website hard to navigate
• Inconvenient
• Limited hours
• Distance to library
• Physic...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Students
• Confident with information discovery
tools
• Determine credibility by:
• Co...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Students
• Lack of mobile access
• Library
• Website hard to navigate
• Inconvenient
•...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Undergraduate Students
• Google, Wikipedia
• Also use library website and e-
journals
...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Online resources
• 99.5% use journals as
primary resource
• Google, Web of Science,
Pu...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Visit only a few minutes
• Shorter sessions
• Basic search
• View few pages
• Backfile...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Digital Sources & Educational Stage
26%, n=8
50%, n=5
77%, n=24
90%, n=9
70%, n=7
50%, n...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Contact & Educational Stages
55%, n=17 60%, n=6
40%, n=4
84%, n=26
90%, n=9
70%, n=7 70%...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
The word “librarian” only
mentioned once in original
interviews by Emerging Stage
partic...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Improved OPACs
• Full text, online
accessible
• Seamless discovery to
delivery
• Acces...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
• Advertise resources, brand, &
value
• Provide search help at time of
need
• OPAC & lib...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
“By focusing on relationship building instead of service
excellence, organizations can u...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
References
ACRL Board of Directors. (2011). Standards for libraries in higher education....
The world’s libraries. Connected.
References
Connaway, L. S., & Powell, R. R. (2010). Basic research methods for librarian...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
References
Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. (2003-2006). Sense-making the infor...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
References
QSR International. (2011). NVivo 9: Getting started. Retrieved from
http://do...
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Questions &
Discussion
Lynn Silipigni Connaway
connawal@oclc.org
@LynnConnaway
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How academics engage in the digital environment. “With Google you are not limited. You have as much as you can pull up.”

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Connaway, L. S. (2013). How academics engage in the digital environment. “With Google you are not limited. You have as much as you can pull up.” Presented at the University of Denver, May 7, 2013, Denver, Colorado.

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How academics engage in the digital environment. “With Google you are not limited. You have as much as you can pull up.”

  1. 1. The world’s libraries. Connected. “With Google you are not limited. You have as much as you can pull up.” How Academics Engage in the Digital Environment University of Denver, May 7, 2013 Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph. D. Senior Research Scientist OCLC connawal@oclc.org @LynnConnaway This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ©2013 OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.
  2. 2. The world’s libraries. Connected. “I find Google a lot easier…so many journals come up and when you look at the first ten and they just don’t make any sense. I, kind of, give up.” (USU7, Female Age 19)
  3. 3. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Then: The user built workflow around the library • Now: The library must build its services around user workflow • Then: Resources scarce, attention abundant • Now: Attention scarce, resources abundant Then & Now (Dempsey, 2008)
  4. 4. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Many information options • Library resources not the first choice • Develop effective library systems & services, to understand users’ engagement with digital environment • Prove value Why User Behavior Research?
  5. 5. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Local to global • Linear to linked • Print to digital Changes in Information Acquisition
  6. 6. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Challenges • Budget cuts • High retirement rates • Hiring freezes • Opportunity • Best value for most use • Understand how, why, & under what circumstances individuals use systems & services Current Environment
  7. 7. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Sense-Making the Information Confluence: The Whys and Hows of College and University User Satisficing of Information Needs • Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User and Librarian Perspectives • The Digital Information Seeker: Report of the Findings from Selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC user Behavior Projects. • WorldCat Study: User-Centered Design of a Recommender System for a "Universal" Library Catalogue • Visitors and Residents: What Motivates Engagement with the Digital Information Environment • Cyber Synergy: Seeking Sustainability through Collaboration between Virtual Reference and Social Q&A Sites Studies
  8. 8. The world’s libraries. Connected. Theory (n.): a systematic explanation for observations that relate to a particular aspect of life (Babbie, 2013) (Connaway & Powell, 2010)
  9. 9. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Helps organize facts, laws, concepts, constructs, or principles into manageable form • Can act as guide to discovering facts • Our research: Digital visitors and residents theory Theory (Connaway & Powell, 2010, p. 47-48) (White & Le Cornu, 2011)
  10. 10. The world’s libraries. Connected. Research design (n.): planning, identification of the problem, theory, formulating hypotheses, and validity and reliability (Connaway & Powell, 2010)
  11. 11. The world’s libraries. Connected. Research Design • Identify problem • Place problem in broader theoretical framework • Develop hypotheses • Decide on methodology & data collection techniques • Research is always cyclical (Connaway & Powell, 2010, p. 47-48) (Leedy & Omrod, 2005)
  12. 12. The world’s libraries. Connected. Methodology (n.): A system of methods used in a particular area of study (Connaway & Powell, 2010)
  13. 13. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Quantitative research • Problem-solving approach • Highly structured • Quantification (Glazier & Powell, 1992) • Qualitative research • Focus on observing events from the perspective of those involved • Understand why individuals behave as they do • More natural approach to the resolution of research problems • Applied research • Action based • Evidence-based • Evaluative-based Types of research
  14. 14. The world’s libraries. Connected. Qualitative Research Methods • Sampling • Observation • Survey • Interviews • Focus group • Individual • Documents • Questionnaires • Diaries • Journals • Papers
  15. 15. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Several methods: • Semi-structured interviews (qualitative) • Diaries (qualitative) • Online survey (quantitative) • Enables triangulation of data Triangulation of Data Digital Visitors and Residents (Connaway et al., 2012)
  16. 16. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Ethnographic data collection technique • Get people to describe what has happened • Center on defined events or moments Diaries (Connaway & Powell, 2010)
  17. 17. The world’s libraries. Connected. Interviews • Allow for probing, clarification, new questions, focused questions, exploring • Enable data collection for extended period of time (Connaway & Powell, 2010)
  18. 18. The world’s libraries. Connected. 1. Describe the things you enjoy doing with technology and the web each week. 2. Think of the ways you have used technology and the web for your studies. Describe a typical week. 3. Think about the next stage of your education. Tell me what you think this will be like. Participant Interview Questions (White & Connaway, 2011)
  19. 19. The world’s libraries. Connected. 4. Think of a time when you had a situation where you needed answers or solutions and you did a quick search and made do with it. You knew there were other sources but you decided not to use them. Please include sources such as friends, family, teachers, coaches, etc. 5. Have there been times when you were told to use a library or virtual learning environment (or learning platform), and used other source(s) instead? 6. If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal way of getting information be? How would you go about using the systems and services? When? Where? How? Participant Interview Questions (Dervin, Connaway, & Prabha, 2003-2005) (Radford & Connaway, 2005-2007)
  20. 20. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Face-to-face group interview • Need a trained moderator • Explore in depth feelings & beliefs Focus Group Interviews
  21. 21. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Individual interviews, online surveys, & focus group interviews • Flanagan (1954) • Qualitative technique • Focuses on most memorable event/experience • Allows categories or themes to emerge rather than be imposed Critical Incident Technique
  22. 22. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Critical Incident Participant Interview Questions • Think of a time when you had a situation where you needed answers or solutions and you did a quick search and made do with it. You knew there were other sources but you decided not to use them. Please include sources such as friends, family, teachers, coaches, etc. Critical Incident Technique Digital Visitors and Residents
  23. 23. The world’s libraries. Connected. Critical Incident Focus Group Interview Questions a. Describe a time when you used WorldCat.org that you considered a success. b. Describe a time when using WorldCat.org was unsuccessful – i.e., you did not get what you wanted. c. Think of a time when you did not find what you were looking for, but did find something else of interest or useful to your work? Critical Incident Technique User-Centered Design of a Recommender System (Connaway & Wakeling, 2012)
  24. 24. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Exploratory • Literature surveys • Experience surveys • Analytical and Descriptive • Others • Cross-sectional study • Trend study • Approximation of a longitudinal study • Sociometric study • Critical incident study* Types of Survey Studies
  25. 25. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Encourages frank answers • Eliminates variation in the question process • Can collect large amount of data in short period of time • Delivery • In-person • Telephone • Mail • Email • Online • Point of contact Surveys/Questionnaires (Connaway & Powell, 2010)
  26. 26. The world’s libraries. Connected. Critical Incident User Online Survey Questions Please think about one experience using chat reference services in which you felt achieved a positive result a. Please describe the circumstances and nature of your question. b. Describe why you felt the encounter was successful. c. Did the chat format help your experience to be successful? If yes, how? Critical Incident Technique Seeking Synchronicity
  27. 27. The world’s libraries. Connected. Critical Incident Technique Seeking Synchronicity “The Librarian threw in a cordial sign off and encouraged me to pursue the reading. It was like talking to a friendly librarian in person.” VRS USER ONLINE SURVEY
  28. 28. The world’s libraries. Connected. Analysis (n.): summary of observations or data in such a manner that they provide answers to the hypothesis or research questions (Connaway & Powell, 2010, p. 262)
  29. 29. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Two approaches • Ethnographic summary • Qualitative • Direct quotations • “Thick description” (Geertz, 1973, p.6) • Content analysis approach • Numerical descriptions of data • Tallying of mentions of specific factors • Can be combined Analyzing Qualitative Data n % (Connaway, Johnson, & Searing, 1997, p. 409) (Connaway & Powell, 2010, p.175) (Geertz,1973, p. 6)
  30. 30. The world’s libraries. Connected. I. Place A. Internet 1. Search engine a. Google b. Yahoo 2. Social Media a. FaceBook b. Twitter c. You Tube d. Flickr/image sharing e. Blogging B. Library 1. Academic 2. Public 3. School (K-12) C. Home D. School, classroom, computer lab E. Other Codebook (White & Connaway, 2011-2012)
  31. 31. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Qualitative research software • Upload documents, PDFs, & videos • Create nodes & code transcripts • Merge files • Queries • Reports • Models Nvivo 9 (QSR International, 2011)
  32. 32. The world’s libraries. Connected. “It’s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all say – you know, when they explain the paper they always say, “Don’t use Wikipedia.” (USU7, Female, Age 19) Direct Quotations Digital Visitors and Residents
  33. 33. The world’s libraries. Connected. Dissemination
  34. 34. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Convenience is king • Satisficing • Google and Wikipedia • 84% of users start with a search engine Convenience (Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research, 2008) (De Rosa, 2005)
  35. 35. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Power browsing • Scan small chunks of information • View first few pages • No real reading • Squirreling • Short basic searches • Download content for later use • Situational needs determine search • Contextually based rational decisions • Confident in skills • Differ with discipline • Awareness of open access is low • Lack of understanding of copyright & signed publisher agreements Information-Seeking Behavior (Connaway & Dickey, 2010) (Consortium of University Research Libraries, and Research Information Network, 2007) (Research Information Network, 2006)
  36. 36. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Website hard to navigate • Inconvenient • Limited hours • Distance to library • Physical materials • Don’t think electronic resources are library resources • Associate with books The library? What’s that? (Connaway & Dickey, 2010)
  37. 37. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Students • Confident with information discovery tools • Determine credibility by: • Common sense (83%) • Cross-checking (71%) • Reputation of company/organization (69%) • Credible recommendations (68%) • Researchers • Self-taught in discovery services • No formal training (62%) • Doctoral students learn from dissertation professor • Confident in skills Skills for Finding & Using Information (De Rosa, 2006) (Research Information Network, 2006)
  38. 38. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Students • Lack of mobile access • Library • Website hard to navigate • Inconvenient • Associate with books • Faculty • Accessing online journal articles & back files • Need desktop access • Discovery of non-English content • Unavailable content • Irrelevant information in result list • Lack of specialist search engines Frustrations (Connaway & Dickey, 2010)
  39. 39. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Undergraduate Students • Google, Wikipedia • Also use library website and e- journals • Human resources • Other students/classmates • Family & relatives • Friends • Graduate students • Human resources • Professors, advisors, mentors • Electronic databases Tools Used: Students (Connaway & Dickey, 2010) (De Rosa, 2006)
  40. 40. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Online resources • 99.5% use journals as primary resource • Google, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, JSTOR • Human resources • 90% mention expertise of individuals as important resource • Coworkers • Colleagues • Other professionals Tools Used: Researchers (Connaway & Dickey, 2010) (Research Information Network, 2006)
  41. 41. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Visit only a few minutes • Shorter sessions • Basic search • View few pages • Backfiles difficult to access • Content often discovered through Google E-journals (Research Information Network, 2009) (Wong, Stelmaszewska, Bhimani, Barn, & Barn, 2009)
  42. 42. The world’s libraries. Connected. Digital Sources & Educational Stage 26%, n=8 50%, n=5 77%, n=24 90%, n=9 70%, n=7 50%, n=5 32%, n=10 50%, n=5 48%, n=15 40%, n=4 20%, n=20 40%, n=4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Emerging Interviews Establishing Interviews Embedding Interviews Experiencing Interviews Major Media Sites Wikipedia Retail Syllabus- and discipline-based sites
  43. 43. The world’s libraries. Connected. Contact & Educational Stages 55%, n=17 60%, n=6 40%, n=4 84%, n=26 90%, n=9 70%, n=7 70%, n=7 30%, n=3 10%, n=10 52%, n=16 100%, n=10 100%, n=10 100%, n=10 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Emerging Interviews Establishing Interviews Embedding Interviews Experiencing Interviews Face-to-Face Phone calls IM, Chat Email
  44. 44. The world’s libraries. Connected. The word “librarian” only mentioned once in original interviews by Emerging Stage participants as a source of information One participant referred to “a lady in the library who helps you find things” (USU5, Male, Age 19)
  45. 45. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Improved OPACs • Full text, online accessible • Seamless discovery to delivery • Access more important than discovery • Mobile access What can we change?
  46. 46. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Advertise resources, brand, & value • Provide search help at time of need • OPAC & library web site • Chat & IM • Mobile technology • Design all of our systems with users in mind • Familiar formats • Model services on popular services What can we do?
  47. 47. The world’s libraries. Connected. “By focusing on relationship building instead of service excellence, organizations can uncover new needs and be in position to make a stronger impact.” (Matthews, 2012)
  48. 48. The world’s libraries. Connected. References ACRL Board of Directors. (2011). Standards for libraries in higher education. ACRL Association of College & Research Libraries. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/standardslibraries Bertot, J. C., Berube, K., Devereaux, P., Dhakal, K., Powers, S., & Ray, J. (2012). Assessing the usability of WorldCat Local: Findings and considerations. The Library Quarterly, 82(2), 207-221. Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research. (2008). Information behaviour of the researcher of the future: A CIBER briefing paper. London: CIBER. Connaway, L. S., & Clough, P. (2010-2013). User-centered design of a recommender system for a “universal“ library catalogue. Funded by Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/recommender/default.htm Connaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). The digital information seeker: Report of the findings from selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC user behaviour projects. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/reports/2010/digitalinformationseekerreport.pdf Connaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). Towards a profile of the researcher of today: What can we learn from JISC projects? Common themes identified in an analysis of JISC Virtual Research Environment and Digital Repository Projects. Retrieved from http://ie-repository.jisc.ac.uk/418/2/VirtualScholar_themesFromProjects_revised.pdf Connaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011). “If it is too inconvenient I’m not going after it:” Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information Science Research, 33(3), 179-190. Connaway, L. S., Johnson, D. W., & Searing, S. (1997). Online catalogs from the users’ perspective: The use of focus group interviews. College and Research Libraries, 58(5), 403-420. Connaway, L. S., Lanclos, D., White, D., Le Cornu, A., & Hood, E. M. (2012). User-centered decision making: A new model for developing academic library services and systems. IFLA 2012 Conference Proceedings, August 11-17, Helsinki, Finland.
  49. 49. The world’s libraries. Connected. References Connaway, L. S., & Powell, R. R. (2010). Basic research methods for librarians (5th ed.). Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, L. S., & Radford, M. L. (2011). Seeking synchronicity: Revelations and recommendations for virtual reference. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/synchronicity/full.pdf Connaway, L. S., & Wakeling, S. (2012). To use or not to use Worldcat.org: An international perspective from different user groups. (OCLC Internal Report). Connaway, L. S., White, D., Lanclos, D., & Le Cornu, A. (2013). Visitors and Residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment? Information Research, 18(1). Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/18-1/infres181.html Cunningham, S. J., & Connaway, L. S. (1996). Information searching preferences and practices of computer science researchers. In J. Grundy (Ed.), Proceedings: Sixth Australian conference on computer-human interaction, November 24-27, 1996, Hamilton, New Zealand (pp. 294-299). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. Dempsey, L. (2008). Always on: Libraries in a world of permanent connectivity. First Monday, 14(1). Retrieved from http://www.firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2291/207 Dempsey, L. (2013, January 23). The inside out library: Scale, learning, engagement. Presented at Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey. De Rosa, C. (2005). Perceptions of libraries and information resources: A report to the OCLC membership. Dublin, OH: OCLC Online Computer Library Center. De Rosa, C. (2006). College students' perceptions of libraries and information resources: A report to the OCLC membership. Dublin, OH: OCLC Online Computer Library Center.
  50. 50. The world’s libraries. Connected. References Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. (2003-2006). Sense-making the information confluence: The whys and hows of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/past/orprojects/imls/default.htm DeSantis, N. (2012, January 6). On Facebook, librarian brings 2 students from the early 1900s to life. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/on-facebook-librarian-brings-two-students-from-the- early-1900s-to-life/348458-22/Study-College-students-rarely-use-librarians-expertise/50094086/1 Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51(4), 327–358. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. NY: Basic Books. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory; strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine Publishing. Kolowich, S. (2011, August 22). Study: College students rarely use librarians’ expertise. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/story/2011-0 Kvale, S. (1996). InterViews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Leedy, P. D., & Omrod, J. E. (2005). Practical research: Planning and design (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon/Merrill Education. Morgan, D. L. (1998). Planning focus groups. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing Prensky, M. (2006). Listen to the natives. Educational Leadership, 63(4), 8-13.
  51. 51. The world’s libraries. Connected. References QSR International. (2011). NVivo 9: Getting started. Retrieved from http://download.qsrinternational.com/Document/NVivo9/NVivo9-Getting-Started-Guide.pdf Research Information Network. (2006). Researchers and discovery services: Behaviour, perceptions and needs. London: Research Information Network. Research Information Network. (2009). E-journals: Their use, value and impact. London: Research Information Network. Saunders, L. (2012). Faculty perspectives on information literacy as a student learning outcome. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, (38)4: 226-236. Tenopir, C., & Kaufman, P. (n.d.). The Lib-Value Project. LIBValue: Value, Outcomes, and Return on Investment of Academic Libraries. Retrieved from http://libvalue.cci.utk.edu/node/2 Wasserman, S. (2012, June 18). The Amazon effect. The Nation. Retrieved from http://www.thenation.com/article/168125/amazon-effect White, D., & Connaway, L. S. (2011). Visitors and Residents: What Motivates Engagement with the Digital Information Environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/vandr/ White, D. S., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/3171/3049 Whyte, W. F. (1979). On making the most of participant observation. The American Sociologist, 14, 56-66. Wong, W., Stelmaszewska, H., Bhimani, N., Barn, S., & Barn, B. (2009). User behaviour in resource discovery: Final report. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/inf11/userbehaviourbusandecon.aspx Zickuhr, K., Rainie, L., & Purcell, K. (2013). Library services in the digital age. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from http://libraries.pewinternet.org/2013/01/22/Library-services/
  52. 52. The world’s libraries. Connected. Questions & Discussion Lynn Silipigni Connaway connawal@oclc.org @LynnConnaway
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