IPv6 required - ICCA Pondicherry 31 Jan 2012
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IPv6 required - ICCA Pondicherry 31 Jan 2012

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This presentation looks at many of the main features of IPv6 and how IPv6 differs with IPv4. It is a good starter for people not knowing about IPv6 and was presented at ICCA 2012 in Pondicherry, India ...

This presentation looks at many of the main features of IPv6 and how IPv6 differs with IPv4. It is a good starter for people not knowing about IPv6 and was presented at ICCA 2012 in Pondicherry, India on 31st January 2012.
Many thanks to Dr. Alaa Al Din Al Radhi for many of the visuals used in this slide deck.

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IPv6 required - ICCA Pondicherry 31 Jan 2012 IPv6 required - ICCA Pondicherry 31 Jan 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Networking for the FuturePart 1: Why do we need IPv6?Part 2: IPv6 – A Technical Primer Dr. Olivier MJ Crépin-Leblond – ocl@gih.com ICCA ’12 – Pondicherry – 31 January 2012 Version 201201.1 © 2009 Global Information Highway Ltd
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv4 / IPv6 Table of Contents Why IPv6? Why not IPv4? What are the differences between IPv4 and IPv6? Address / Packet Structure Header Datagram Unicast / Multicast / Anycast Neighbour Discovery and DHCPv6 Mobility IPSec / Security Version 201201.1 2
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd What is an IP Address? Domain Names are identifiers that you type in your WebDomain Name: www.isoc.org Browser, your E-mail etc. www.google.com www.yahoo.com DNS Servers translate this DNS Server Domain Name into an address that is made up of translation numbers Every device that isIPv4 Address: 212.110.167.157 connected to the Internet needs its Internet Protocol (IP) address Version 201201.1 3 View slide
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdWe are running out of IPv4 addresses “Internet Protocol” Each device (computer, phone etc.) connected to the Internet needs an Internet Protocol (IP) address. If we have 10 addresses only, how do we connect 11 computers? We cannot do that. This is the point which we are about to reach. Version 201201.1 4 View slide
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd We are running out of IPv4 addresses World Connectivity vs Population “Internet Protocol” Population Size 6 767 805 208 6.7 Billion people on earth 1.7 Bn Internet users in 2009 Population Size N° Internet Users N° Internet Users 1 733 993 741 Middle East Connectivity vs Population Population Size 202 687 005More ways to access the Internet Population Size N°Internet Users N°Internet Users 57 425 046 Version 201201.1 5
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdWe are running out of IPv4 addresses today When we reach this point, it will be too late since there will be no more free IP addresses! Real time data collected 1 Mar 2010 Version 201201.1 6
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd We are running out of IPv4 addresseshttp://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4/index.html When we reach this point, it will be too late since there will be no more “free” IPv4 addresses! Real time data collected September 2011 Version 201201.1 7
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Current temporary solutions Network Address TranslationAn end user “pulls” the information to them from the network Version 201201.1 8
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Current temporary solutionsNetwork Address TranslationAs more and more devices are connected•Computer•Telephone•MP3 player•TelevisionIt becomes impossible for the translation boxto serve all the services for 1 public IP address Version 201201.1 9
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd How about Carrier Grade NAT?Quotes – Vinton CerfUS Scientist, widely known as one of the Fathers of the InternetThe Internet is based on a layered, end-to-endmodel that allows people at each level of thenetwork to innovate free of any central control.By placing intelligence at the edges rather thancontrol in the middle of the network, theInternet has created a platform for innovation. Version 201201.1 10
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd The original Internet Architecture Can be several routers at various “entry” points with resilient routes User-Centric InternetAny connected device could be a “client” or a “server” Version 201201.1 11
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdThe Internet Architecture Version 2 Local NAT User-Centric Internet NAT = Network Address Translation Version 201201.1 12
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Adding Carrier-Grade NAT Single point of failure at Carrier Level CG-NAT CG-NAT The Network-Centric InternetServer Only Client Only Version 201201.1 13
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Carrier Grade NATNetwork Address Translation•Single point of failure•Need to use application-level filtering toinspect application protocol packets andmodify them on the fly•Violates TCP states (usually performed byend nodes•Hard recovery for link flapping (multipleroutes) Version 201201.1 14
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Carrier Grade NAT•Hides complete parts of the DNS due toimpossibility of connecting to specific host•Difficulty in establishing end to end VPNtunnels due to inability to connect to the “end” •Major problem for people working from home or while travelling•Any address translation might open the doorto fake address translation and hacking thuspotential security issues Version 201201.1 15
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdNetwork Address TranslationInternet TrafficIt is impossible to connect remotely to an “internal” address Version 201201.1 16
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Temporary solutions don’t workIn the future, communication will go both ways Version 201201.1 17
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Future Solution – IPv6 everywhereAs more and more devices are connected•Computer•Telephone•MP3 player•Television Every device has its own IP address Every device can be accessed directly No need for translation Version 201201.1 18
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv4 Space / December 2009 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255Reference: http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space/ipv4-address-space.xml Version 201201.1 19
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv4 Space / October 2010 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255Reference: http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space/ipv4-address-space.xml Version 201201.1 20
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Future Solution – IPv6 everywhereIn the future, communication will go both ways Version 201201.1 21
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdFuture Solution – Internet everywhereIn the future, communication will go everywhere Version 201201.1 22
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 examplesEmergency Alerts Version 201201.1 23
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdVersion 201201.1 24
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdVersion 201201.1 25
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdVersion 201201.1 26
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 examplesSmart Grid – greener use of energy Version 201201.1 27
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd The Smart GridSource: US National Institute of Standards & Technology Version 201201.1 28
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 examples US Military Version 201201.1 29
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 implementation in US Military Version 201201.1 30
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdVersion 201201.1 31
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdVersion 201201.1 32
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Infrastructure required for telecommunications•Always connected “Data Glove” incorporating afully networked personal digital assistant •Possibility to consult pictures of area (like Google maps) •Possibility to control drone aircraft directly •Possibility to access remote cameras•Helmet-mounted Webcam for each soldier•Vital statistics of soldier (food/health/tiredness)•GPS location device•This is only addressable via IPv6 Source: US Army Natick Systems Version 201201.1 33
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdInfrastructure required for These are thetelecommunications applications of the •Always connected Personal Digital Assistant: future •Mobile phone (Apple iPhone & iPad, Nokia, HTC etc.) •Possibility to surf Web sites, but also use artificial intelligence for the digital assistant to automatically book tickets, shop, see pictures of area (like Google maps), to access remote cameras, and to find out about anything, anywhere. GPS location device with information about services. This is only addressable via IPv6! •Law enforcement and civil protection •Police can use all of these services, and more, to ensure the safety of the population. Firemen can coordinate information more easily. Ambulances and emergency services will know more information before arriving on scene. •Always online - Everywhere Version 201201.1 34
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdSo what is the future? How do we build this? Version 201201.1 35
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdInternet Anytime, EverywhereA fully connected world Version 201201.1 36
  • Networking for the FutureIPv6 – a Technical Primer Dr. Olivier MJ Crépin-Leblond – ocl@gih.com Version 201201.1 © 2009 Global Information Highway Ltd
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv4 / IPv6 Table of Contents Why IPv6? Why not IPv4? What are the differences between IPv4 and IPv6? Address / Packet Structure Header Datagram Unicast / Multicast / Anycast Neighbour Discovery and DHCPv6 Mobility IPSec / Security Version 201201.1 38
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdDifferences between V.4 and V.6 Version 201201.1 39
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 Key Features Version 201201.1 40
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing Internet Protocol IPv4 Internet Protocol IPv6Deployed 1981 1999Address Size 32 Bit 128 BitAddress Format Dotted Decimal Hexadecimal Notation Notation 2001:0DB8:0123:456 192.168.0.1 7:89AB:CDEF:0123:45 67Prefix Notation 192.168.0.0/24 2001:0DB8:0123/48N° Addresses 2 x 10^32 2 x 10^128N° Addresses 4,294,967,296 340,282,366,920, 938,463,463,374,607,431, 768,211,456 Version 201201.1 41
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing IP Version 4 4,294,967,296 IP Version 6340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 Version 201201.1 42
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Space IPv4: 4,294,967,296 addressesIPv6: 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,770,000,000 possible addresses50,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 addresses per human Version 201201.1 43
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing IP Version 6 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 With 7Bn people on Earth, N° addresses per person 48,611,766,702,991,209,066,196,372,490Some of these addresses will be used by devices (the Internet of things) Some of these addresses will be used by internal addressing/protocol It is still a lot of usable addresses Version 201201.1 44
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Differences between IPv4 & IPv6 Internet Protocol Internet Protocol IPv4 IPv6Address Size 32 Bit 128 BitN° Addresses 2 x 10^32 2 x 10^128Security IPSEC Optional IPSEC (Originally) MandatoryQuality of Service Basic ExtendedAddress Allocation Manual or DHCP Many more methodsPeer to Peer comm. Broken by NAT No NATIP Addresses per Usually 1 ManyinterfaceMobility Extension Mobile IPv6 Mobility Version 201201.1 45
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Overall Packet StructureLink Layer IP Transport Application Protocol Data Link Layer Header Header Header Trailer Presentation HTML Application HTTP Transport TCP, UDP,… Protocol IP Link Layer Ethernet Physical Fiber Version 201201.1 46
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Packet Structure / DatagramLink Layer IP Transport Application Protocol Data Link Layer Header Header Header Trailer Presentation HTML Application HTTP Transport TCP, UDP,… Protocol IP (v4 or v6) Link Layer Ethernet Physical Fiber Version 201201.1 47
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv4 and IPv6 Addressing Version 201201.1 48
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdStreamlining of IPv6Fewer fields in the packet headerFixed size header- 40 octets (or bytes)No fragmentation in networkNo checksum processingPacket can be switched by flow label(Quality of Service possibility) Version 201201.1 49
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdNo checksum Processing Presentation HTML Application HTTPChecksum: YES Transport TCP, UDP,…Checksum: NO Protocol IPv6Checksum: YES Link Layer Ethernet Physical Fiber Version 201201.1 50
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Header FieldsVersion4 bits longIP Version = 4 for IPv4 = 6 for IPv6Traffic Class8 bits longQuality of Service Techniques:Diffserv Code Points (DSCP)Congestion Notification (ECN)Called “Type of Service in IPv4 Version 201201.1 51
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Header FieldsFlow Label20 bits longSpecific per flow processing ofdata Streams. This supportsreal-time datagram deliveryand quality of service (QoS).Routers between the sourceand destination would treattraffic with the same datagramin a similar way.For example, similar/minimallatency to Video packets. Version 201201.1 52
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Header FieldsPayload Length16 bits longIn IPv4: Total Length fieldThis is the size of the innerdatagram, after the basicheader (which itself is 40bytes long). Version 201201.1 53
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Header FieldsNext Header8 bits longIdentification of Inner datagramThis serves the same purpose Hop Limitas the IPv4 “Protocol Field”, theidentifying of data inside the 8 bits longpayload of the IP datagram. Maximum Number of hopsCodes are however extended toinclude the processing of In IPv4 this was called “TTL =options for Extension Headers Time to Live” and decreased at(described later). each hop. In IPv6 it is appropriately called Version 201201.1 54
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Header FieldsSource and Destination128 bits longThese are the Source and theDestination of the datagram.The Source IP address is theoriginator of the datagram i.e.The device that originally sentthe packetThe Destination IP address isthe intended recipient of thepacket i.e. the ultimatedestination. Valid for Unicast,Multicast or Anycast Version 201201.1 55
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Extension Headers Order Header Type Next Header Code 1 Basic IPv6 Header - 2 Hop-by-Hop options 0 3 Destination Options & Routing 60 4 Routing Header 43 5 Fragment Header 44 6 Authentication Header 51 7 Encapsulation Security Payload 50 8 Destination Options 60 9 Mobility Header 135 (end) No Next Header 59Upper Layer TCP (like IPv4 “protocol” field) 6Upper Layer UDP (like IPv4 “protocol” field) 17Upper Layer ICMPv6 (like IPv4 “protocol” field) Version 201201.1 58 56
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 Extension Headers Version 201201.1 57
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 Extension Headers A few more examples of daisy-chained extension headers Version 201201.1 58
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdMain Enhancements of IPv6 over IPv4 Header: 40 byte instead of 20 Daisy Chained extension headers Fragmentation only done by source nodes and has its own optional extension header No checksum in IPv6 header Path Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) IPv4: 576 bytes IPv6: 1280 bytes MTU size error is being reported back to source Path MTU Discovery mandatory and refined Version 201201.1 59
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 Address shortening2001:0DB8:0000:ABCD:0000:0000:0012:34562001:0db8:0000:abcd:0000:0000:0012:34562001:db8:0:abcd:0:0:12:34562001:db8:0:abcd::12:3456•Letters are case insensitive•Leading zeros in a field are optional•Successive fields of zeros Version 201201.1 60
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 Addressing2001:0DB8:0000:ABCD:0000:0000:0012:3456 •Addresses have scope •Interfaces can have multiple addresses •Addresses have lifetime Version 201201.1 61
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 Addresses have scope2001:0DB8:0000:ABCD:0000:0000:0012:3456 Global Unique Local Link local Version 201201.1 62
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdScope of address is physical Version 201201.1 63
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 Type of Addresses Version 201201.1 64
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Host addressesLoopback address (used by the machine):0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:00010:0:0:0:0:0:0:1::1 ( this is like 127.0.0.1 in IPv4)Unspecified: (used to define the default route)0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0::This address is mandatory Version 201201.1 65
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Link LocalLink Local addresses are mandatory and start withfe80::They work only on the Link Layer and cannot beforwarded by a router. Their function is key to theautomatic configuration of a host without a routeror DHCP server. Just connect the hosts & bingo!Start: fe80::End: febf:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff Version 201201.1 66
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Unique LocalUnique Local addresses are optional Unicastaddresses that can be used within a site (like anintranet). They are not globally routed.Start with fc00::End: fdff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff Version 201201.1 67
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Global UnicastGlobal Unicast current assignment:Start: 2000::End: 3fff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff6to4 is a transition mechanism where IPv6 packets transitglobally via IPv4.It has its own prefix 2002 with the rest of the addressstructure being slightly different Version 201201.1 68
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 MulticastGlobal Multicast current assignment:Start: ff00::End: ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffffField starts with ff<LS> where L and S are as follows:L = 0 for permanent group / 1 for temporary groupS = Scope bit: 1 - Interface; 2 – Link;4 – Admin; 5 – Site; 8 = Organization; E = GlobalAll others: unassigned or reserved Version 201201.1 69
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Global UnicastIPv4 mapped addresses:Starts with 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:ffff -> ::ffffAn example of this would be:::ffff:192.168.0.1These addresses are not IPv6 routed & can be used withinthe kernel to show an IPv4 address Version 201201.1 70
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdCIDR Blocks in IPv6 CIDR is principally a bitwise, prefix-based standard for the interpretation of IP addresses. It facilitates routing by allowing blocks of addresses to be grouped into single routing table entries. It is used in IPv4 and in IPv6 Since IPv6 have scope, it is particularly helpful to use CIDR Global Unique Local Link local Version 201201.1 71
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd CIDR Blocks in IPv62001:0db8:0000:abcd:0000:0000:0012:3456|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||||||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||128 /128 Single end-points and loopback|||| |||| |||| |||64 /64 Single end-user LAN subnet (required prefix size for stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC))|||| |||| |||| ||60 /60 Some (very limited) 6rd deployments|||| |||| |||| |56 /56 recommended Minimal end-site assignment|||| |||| |||48 /48 recommended Typical assignment for home sites|||| |||| 36 /36 possible future local Internet registry (LIR) extra-small allocation|||| |||32 /32 LIR minimum allocation|||| ||28 /28 LIR medium allocation|||| |24 /24 LIR large allocation|||| 20 /20 LIR extra large allocation||12 /12 Allocation to regional Internet registry by IANA[12] Version 201201.1 72
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd CIDR Blocks in IPv62001:0db8:0000:abcd:0000:0000:0012:3456|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||||2001:0db8:0000:abcd:0000:0000:0012:3456/128 /128 Single end-points and loopback2001:0db8:0000:abcd/64 /64 Single end-user LAN subnet (required prefix size for stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC))2001:0db8:0000:abc/60 /60 Some (very limited) 6rd deployments2001:0db8:0000:ab/56 /56 recommended Minimal end-site assignment2001:0db8:0000/48 /48 recommended Typical assignment for home sites2001:0db8:0/36 /36 possible future local Internet registry (LIR) extra- small allocation2001:0db8/32 /32 LIR minimum allocation2001:0db/28 /28 LIR medium allocation2001:0d/24 /24 LIR large allocation2001:0/20 /20 LIR extra large allocation200/12 /12 Allocation to regional Internet registry by IANA[12] Version 201201.1 73
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 Address Format Unicast Addressing Multicast Addressing What is multicast + Anycast Version 201201.1 74
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdUnicast Addresses To transmit data between nodes on the Internet One-to-one address Scope may be Global or Local Global for worldwide communication Local for communication within a site Every Site gets a /48 Version 201201.1 75
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdMulticast Addresses Start with “ff” as leftmost octet One-to-many address: ability to send a single packet to possibly unlimited multiple destinations This does not use “broadcast” like in IPv4. Instead, recipients are part of the group’s scope Ability to send a packet to all hosts on the attached link Ability to send a packet to the link-local all hosts multicast group Applications: Emergency Services Simultaneous database updating Parallel computing Real time news Version 201201.1 76
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdMulticast Addresses In IPv4 the scope of the multicast, using broadcast, was limited by the number of hops away from the emitter. In IPv6, the scope of the multicast is determined by the scope field: 1 - Interface; 2 – Link; 4 – Admin; 5 – Site; 8 = Organization; E = Global …and the group can be defined as permanent or temporary Version 201201.1 77
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Multicast AddressesAddress Scope Descriptionff01::1 Interface All interfaces on the nodeff01::2 Interface All routers on the nodeff02::1 Link All nodes on the linkff02::2 Link All routers on the linkff02::5 Link OSPF v3 SFP Routersff02::6 Link OFPF v3 Designated Routersff02::9 Link RIP Routersff02::a Link EIGRP Routersff02::d Link PIM Routersff05::1:2 Site All DHCP routers on the local net siteff05::1:3 Site DHCP Servers on the local net siteff0x::fb Multicast DNSff0x::101 Network Time Protocol (NTP) Version 201201.1 78
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdUnicast vs. Multicast Version 201201.1 79
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdVersion 201201.1 80
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdAnycast Addresses This is used to send a packet to multiple nodes which are not necessarily on the same subnet An Anycast address is the same Unicast address configured on multiple nodes: The routers will deliver the packet to the nearest node member of the Anycast group Currently used with DNS servers Version 201201.1 81
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdAnycast Addresses 3ffe:b00:1::5 3ffe:b00:1::5 Routers know where 3ffe:b00:1::5 to route this data Version 201201.1 82
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Many addresses on one nodeQuantity Address Requirement Context 1 Link local (fe80::) Must be defined On each interface 1 Loopback (::1) Must be defined On each node0 to many Unicasts May be defined On each interface any Unique-Local May be defined On each interface 1 All-nodes Multicast Must be joined On each interface 1 Solicited node Must be joined For each multicast Multicast and any anycast address defined any Multicast group May be joined On each interface Version 201201.1 83
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Multihoming 2a00:19e8:10::3 Site: 2a00:19e8:10::/48 2001:db8:abcd::3 2001:db8:abcd::/482a00:19e8:10::1 2a00:19e8:10::1 200 1:d b 8:2001:db8:abcd::1 abc 2001:db8:abcd::2 d :: /48 48 ::/ :10 2a00:19e8:10::/48 :1 9e8 2001:db8:abcd::/48 0 2a0 f. High Pref. Pre Low Lo w Pre High Pref. f. 2a00:19e8::/32 2001:db8:::/32 Version 201201.1 84
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdObtaining IPv6 addresses Manual setting up of IPv6 address. This is similar to IPv4 2 auto-configuration mechanisms in IPv6: Stateless: SLAAC (Stateless Address Auto- Configuration), based on ICMPv6 messages (Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement) Stateful: DHCPv6 SLAAC is mandatory, while DHCPv6 is optional DHCPv6 works differently to IPv4 DHCP Version 201201.1 85
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdStateless Address Auto-Configuration In SLAAC, constant “Router Advertisements” communicate configuration Information such as: IPv6 prefixes to use for autoconfiguration IPv6 routing information Other configuration parameters (Hop Limit, MTU, etc.) This information is used, along with the Ethernet Unique Identifier (Eui64) address (and other information, in some cases), to create IPv6 addresses for the node Version 201201.1 86
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdMaking up an Eui-64 address Version 201201.1 87
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Address Allocation 2001:db8:abcd::3 Manually allocatedDAD = Duplicate Address Detection Site Prefix: 2001:db8:abcd::/48 RA message with MAC: 00:90:27:17:FC:0F Network type Eui-64: 02 90 27 FF FE 17 FC 0F information 2001:db8:abcd:: + Eui-64 fe80::290:27ff:fe17:fc0f Link-Local 2001:db8:abcd::290:27ff:fe17:fc0f Router Advertisement Version 201201.1 88
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPv6 Address allocation using DHCPv6 Link & Site Multicast used Version 201201.1 89
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Key differences between DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 Feature DHCPv4 DHCPv6 BenefitDestination Address Broadcast Multicast to all-DHCP- More specificof Request agents signallingSource address of 0.0.0.0 Link-local address of More specificinitial request the client signallingRelay forwarding Needs static list of Can use “all-DHCP- Higher redundancy DHCP servers servers” on multicast and easier to manageManaged config. flag N/A The router using RA Better network flags can control this config. managementReconfiguration N/A Server can ask Better networkmessage clients to update config. managementIdentity Association N/A Multiple DHCP More scalable use of servers & addresses DHCP Version 201201.1 90
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Dynamic Naming System Quite similar to IPv4 DNS Forward DNShost1.example.com IN A 192.168.0.2host1.example.com IN AAAA 2001:db8:0:abcd::12:3456 Reverse DNS1.0.160.192.in-1.0.160.192.in-addr.arpa IN PTR host1.example.com6.5.4.3.2.1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.d.c.b.a.0.0.0.0.8.b.d.0.1.0.0.2.6.5.4.3.2.1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.d.c.b.a.0.0.0.0.8.b.d.0.1.0.0.2. .ip6.arpaTools exist to write the reverse DNS Version 201201.1 91
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Mobility / Mobile IP IPv4 already had extensions called IPv4 mobility IPv6 has similar extensions that are a lot more developed than the IPv4 equivalent since they run on IPv6.New mobility options to include in mobility signallingNew extended routing headerNew home address option for destination headerNew Neighbour DiscoveryNew ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol) Version 201201.1 92
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Mobility / Mobile IP Correspondent Node Home AgentMobile Node Connects toAt home Mobile Node At Home This is a router Version 201201.1 93
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Mobility / Mobile IP Correspondent Node Home AgentMobile NodeAt home Tells Home Agent where it is Mobile Node Version 201201.1 94
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdMobility / Mobile IP Correspondent Node Home Agent Tells Home Agent where it is Home Agent forwards packets To Mobile Node Mobile Node answers directly Back to Correspondent Mobile Node Version 201201.1 95
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Mobility / Mobile IP Correspondent Node Home AgentMobile Nodeat home The use of ICPMv6 as well as other features of IPv6 allows for faster roaming and more features in IPv6 Mobile Node Mobile IP.Mobile Node Version 201201.1 96
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd IPv6 Extension Headers -> IPSec Daisy-chained extension headers6 Authentication Header 517 Encapsulation Security Payload 50 Version 201201.1 97
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPSec on IPv6: end to end security Encryption using Key Version 201201.1 98
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Router A adds ESP headerEncapsulationSecurityPayload Version 201201.1 99
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway Ltd Router A adds AH headerAuthenticationHeader Version 201201.1 100
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdTransmission of data on Internet Router A encapsulates the packet into a new packet and sends it to Router B. Version 201201.1 101
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdRouter B receives the packet Router B receives the packet and removes the AH Version 201201.1 102
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdRouter B removes the ESP Encapsulation Security Payload Version 201201.1 103
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdHost B receives original information Version 201201.1 104
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdIPSec on IPv6: end to end security Version 201201.1 105
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdTransition Security Problem Example IPv4 or IPv6 Address spoofing Version 201201.1 106
  • Click to add title Click to add text Version 201201.1 107
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdThe power of Developers The key to IPv6 success will be developers New services New applications The ubiquitous network Always on Everywhere Version 201201.1 108
  • © 2012 Global Information Highway LtdThe power of Developers The key to IPv6 success will be developers New services New applications The ubiquitous network Always on Everywhere Version 201201.1 109
  • Networking for the FutureWith thanks to Dr. Alaa AL-Din AL-Radhi for some visuals.Thank You / Questions ? Version 201201.1 © 2009 Global Information Highway Ltd