The Evolution of Leisure Studies in the US (1910 -2010)
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  • 1. The Evolution f Leisure Th E l ti of L i Studies in the US(Evolución d E di de Ocio in Los(E l ió de Estudios d O i i L Estados Unidos) 1910 -2010
  • 2. OutlineHistorical changesCultural contextDisciplinary influencesContemporary trendsSocial psychology of leisureInternational collaboration
  • 3. Historical changes g• Professional: from “parks and recreation” parks recreation to “leisure services”• Parks and stewardship• Re-creation of people• Political economy and market forces• Academic: toward respectability – “leisure studies”
  • 4. Cultural and academic context • LS a product of public awareness and political responsibility i iti ll b t th liti l ibilit initially but then rather quickly being driven by economics. i • In colleges of education, health, and forestry rather than h f h h humanities & social l science • Tensions around purposes – undergrad – prof prep; grad – theory & research
  • 5. Disciplinary influences• Sociological – Chicago school, Stebbins g g ,• Psychological – freedom, enjoyment and p pleasure ((Neulinger & Csikszentmihalyi) g y) ▫ Developmental – play (Piaget, Sutton-Smith)• Anthropological - play, games and festival• Economic/political – public and private –• Geography and Ecology - resource management & tourism – contested space
  • 6. • Educational sessions planned for 2011 Conference of the National Recreation and Park Association in AtlantaCitizen/AdvocacyEmployee/Volunteer ManagementEnvironmental/StewardshipHealthy LifestylesLeadership/ManagementPlanning, Design, and Maintenance g, g ,Professional DevelopmentPublic Relations/MarketingRecreation ProgrammingRevenue/ Customer ServiceSports
  • 7. What´s left out?• Sport• Tourism• Play
  • 8. The journals – english language• American – Journal of Leisure Research Research, Leisure Sciences, Therapeutic Recreation Journal (others related to tourism and outdoor resource management)• Canadian – Society and Leisure Leisure Leisure,• British – Leisure Studies• Australia/New Z – Annals of Leisure Research Z. Research, World Leisure
  • 9. JLR and Leisure Sciences• Isolated• Meliorist• Reflect field in “crisis” – no collective identity; missing impt. y; g p social issues• JLR – community bias• LS – outdoor bias
  • 10. Contemporary trends p y• Special issues of Journal of Leisure Research social capital – ci ic engagement civic engagement, networking•SSpecial i i l issues of L i f Leisure Sciences – active li i S i ti living; discrimination; nature based experience.•SSocial justice theme l h• The social psychology of space/place• Sophistication in methods• Voluntourism
  • 11. Contemporary trends (cont’) (cont )• Greater attention to experience ▫ E.g study of attention• Attention to major social issues ▫ Climate change ▫ Discrimination and injsutice ▫ Illness & obesity• Emergence of attention to technology ▫ negative – displacement (e.g. camping study) ▫ positive – new ways t l iti to learn and relate d l t
  • 12. New Directions in SocialPsychology of Leisure• General acceptance of SDT• Recognition of multiple experiences of leisure ▫ e.g. savoring• Recognition of negative aspects of leisure ▫ e.g compulsive passion• Recognition of new connections with technology• Post positivist accomodation of contextualism
  • 13. Social Psychology and Leisure• What social psychology has to say to leisure studies• What leisure studies has to say to social psychology• How leisure affords the self expression self-expression necessary for identity formation• How leisure and personal expressiveness aid in adjustment to important life events
  • 14. SP Topics of Relevance to LS • competition and aggression • cooperation and pro-social behavior • group dynamics and leadership • motivation and social control • personality personalit and attitude
  • 15. Situations and Traits (Buss)Issue S>T T>Scontext novel, formal familiar, in- novel formal, familiar in public formal, privateinstructions detailed general, nonechoice little or none considerableresponse p narrow broad
  • 16. Leisure’s Relevance to Social Psychology • Understanding personality • Understanding self-awareness • Understanding intrinsic motivation and subjective well being
  • 17. Intrinsic motivation • basis of play • basis of flow • basis of casual leisure • basis of serious leisure • basis of self e pression self-expression
  • 18. Self-Determination Continuum Nonself-determined Self Determined Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation external integrated g intrinsic regulation regulation regulation introjected identified regulation regulationcompliance,compliance congruence, congruenceexternal interest, synthesis w/rewards & enjoyment, selfpunishments inherent satisfaction self control, conscious internal R&P valuing Ryan-Deci (2000)
  • 19. Self- Intrinsic Determined Autonomy A E Integrated X T Identified RCompetence I Introjected N S I External E l CRelatedness Amotivation A i i Non-Self- N S lf DeterminedSelf-determination Model - Adapted from Ryan & Deci, 2000
  • 20. Personal Expressiveness • “Activities are personally expressive to the extent that they engage and serve to further the development of one’s particular potentials capacities and talents…[those] that are integral to, or at least consistent with, one’s purposes in living” (Alan Waterman, 1990)
  • 21. IV. isn tIV It isn’t all about flow • The dark side of flow • Internalized extrinsic motivation • O h “ i l” experiences Other “optimal” i ▫ Experimentation and exploration p p ▫ Relaxation and reflection ▫ Appreciation ▫ Savoring
  • 22. Faces of Leisure
  • 23. “Faces” of Leisure Faces •ffun, mirth, joyfulness h f l • relaxation • intense engagement • excitement • appreciation • reflection (cf. “savoring”)
  • 24. Leisure as Appreciation• “Leisure is ...an attitude of non-activity of Leisure an non activity, inward calm, of silence; it means not being ‘busy but letting things happen ” …“ Leisure is busy, happen. not the attitude of mind of those who actively intervene, intervene but of those who are open to everything …of those who leave the reins loose and who are free and easy themselves ” themselves. Josef Pieper
  • 25. Ideal-Actual Ideal Actual Discrepancy Harmonious Passion Positive Life D Lif Domain i Outcomes Obsessive Passion Actual-Ought A lO h DiscrepancyFrom: Stensend, F. (2008). The two faces of leisure activity engagement. Leisure Sciences,30, 465-481.
  • 26. Summary and Conclusion• Leisure is a context ▫ For cultivation of li i f interest and enjoyable engagement ▫ For relaxation and appreciation ▫ For narrative reconstruction
  • 27. International collaboration• Where does your work fit in?• What are the benefits of collaboration?• Is language the only barrier? ▫ If so, how can it be overcome ▫ If not, what else and how can it be overcome not