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  • 1. What Do I Have in Common with Cave Man? The Earliest Human Societies African Eve and First Humans Mr. Ochoa Unit 1 Chapters 1-6
  • 2. Unit 1: African Eve (N.B.) AFRICAN EVE • Mitochondrial Eve Theory – M. DNA is inherited from one common ancestor in Africa around 200,000 yrs. Ago • M. DNA is inherited solely from mother • M.E.T. discovered by Allan Wilson U.C. Berkley
  • 3. Unit 1: African Eve Origin of Humans Today • Primates: 85 million yrs. Ago • Homo-Habilis: 2.3 million yrs. Ago • Homo-Erectus: 1.3 to 1.8 million yrs. ago, 1st to leave Africa • Homo-Sapiens: evolved around 400,000 to 250,000 yrs. ago DNA • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) • Molecule that erodes the genetic instructions used in the development of all known forms of life • African Eve – 140,000 to 200,000 yrs. ago
  • 4. Unit 1: African Eve (pg. 1-10) Studying Our Past • Historians – scholars who study and write about the historical past • Pre-History – period of time prior to writing • Artifacts – objects made by humans • Anthropology – origins + development of people + their societies • Culture – way of life of a society • Archaeology – study of past people + cultures through their material remains – Relative Dating – grouping similar artifacts and ordering the groups in a series of style from earliest to latest – Absolute Dating – determining exact age of an object
  • 5. Unit 1: African Eve Studying Our Past (Cont.) • 1959 Mary Leaky found skull in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) – Skull belonged to early Hominid (humans + their closest relatives • 1974 Donald Johnson – found many pieces of a single Hominid skeleton in Ethiopia – Johnson named it “Lucy” after a Beatles’ song
  • 6. Unit 1: Hunter/Gatherers (pg. 11-16) Nomad • People how move from place to place to find food • Approx. 20 to 30 people live together in small groups – Men hunted and fished – Women + children gathered berries, fruits, nuts, grains, roots, or shell fish Tribe • Social division in a traditional society consisting of families or communities linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties, with a common culture + dialect, typically having a religious leader – Have social rank and prestige
  • 7. Unit 1: Hunter/Gatherers Earliest culture-art, language, and religion • Culture/Art – earliest approx. 40,000 yrs. Ago in the Paleolithic era (Old) • Language – no consensus on its age or origin – Lack of evidence – Generally agreed origins closely related + tied to origins of human behavior approx. 50,000 yrs. Ago • Religion – a commonly held marker for the dawn of religious belief + practice with the advent of intentional markers – Approx. 100,000 yrs. Ago – Belief in afterlife – Animism – belief that spirits and forces live within animals, objects, or dreams
  • 8. Unit 1: Hunter/Gatherers Paleolithic Stone Age (Old) • 2.6 million yrs. Ago to 10,000 B.C. • Small societies – hunters and gatherers • Tools made out of stone, bone, + wood • Nomadic lifestyle
  • 9. Unit 1: Agriculture Changes Everything Domestication • To raise plants and animals in a controlled way that makes them best suited to human use – Plant – may have begun with people realizing that scattered seeds on the ground would produce new plants the next year – Animal – may have begun with people deciding to round up the animals they usually hunted Farming + Raising Animals – life just got easier!
  • 10. Unit 1: Agriculture Changes Everything Neolithic Stone Age (New) • Approx. 10,000 yrs. Ago to 2,000 B.C. • Beginning of farming • Metal tools • Pottery + weaving
  • 11. Unit 1: Agriculture Changes Everything The First Villages • Jericho (Israeli territory) – Built between 10,000 – 9,000 B.C. – Size of a few soccer fields – Few thousand people lived there – Wall surrounded it (suggest some form of govt.) • Catahuyuk (modern day Turkey) – 7,000 B.C. – Approx. 6,000 people – 3x the size of Jericho – Thousands of mud-brick homes
  • 12. Unit 1: The First Communities (pg. 17-24) Surpluses boost development • Earliest civilizations developed by major rivers – Water supply – Means for transportation – Favored farming • Surplus – to produce more than necessary – Faced growing population – Store food for future • Population – increases villages that swell into 1st cities
  • 13. Unit 1: The First Communities Specialization – I’m an expert! • Urban people developed so many new crafts that a single person cannot master all the skills needed to make tools, weapons, or other goods • Led to Artisans (skilled craftspeople, + made pottery or finely carved or woven goods), bricklayers, soldiers, merchants, singers + story tellers
  • 14. Unit 1: The First Communities (pg. 17-23) Simple villages become more complex • Govt. – elders or chiefs ruled villages – Larger cities = more powerful govt. – Need steady supply of food – Control floods – Building projects • Royal Officials – helped with laws, taxes, organizing systems of defense • Social classes – People ranked according to their jobs – Top – usually included priests + nobles – Middle – wealthy merchants, artisans – Lower – peasant farmers, slaves – Trade – barter system to obtain needed materials • Public Works – irrigation systems, roads, bridges, + defensive walls
  • 15. Unit 1: The Land Between Two Rivers (pg. 30 – 43) The land between two rivers • The Tigris + Euphrates – The heart of Mesopotamia – Land between two rivers – Modern day Turkey through Iraq into the Persian Gulf – Located in the Fertile Crescent (Middle East) • Rich soils + golden wheat fields • Water – the gift that keeps giving (travel, trade, food) – Travel – Tigris + Euphrates led to the Persian Gulf + Arabian Sea – Trade – carried goods to different regions – Food – control river water needed to be channeled to water the fields
  • 16. Unit 1: Irrigation Changes the World Floods, + hot climate a farmers nightmare • Floods washed away topsoil + destroyed mud, brick villages • Priests + Royal Officials organized villagers to work together – Building dikes to hold back flood waters – Irrigation ditches to carry water to their fields
  • 17. Unit 1: Sumer – The First Civilizations Sumer 3,300 B.C. • 12 separate city-states • Rival city-states battled for control of land + water – Needed rulers – Rule by war, leaders evolved into hereditary rule
  • 18. Unit 1: The First Civilization 5 Traits of civilization • Advanced cities – few natural resources, used clay + water to build adobes, turned into city-state • Specialized workers – ruling family priests, artisans, scribes, + merchants • Complex govt. – ruler responsible for maintaining city walls + irrigation systems, enforced laws • Record Keeping – part of govt’s. job • Advanced Technology – credited with creating the wheel
  • 19. Unit 1: The City-State A city and its nearby villages The Ziggarat – the heart of the city (temple, city hall) • A large, steeped platform thought to have been topped by a temple dedicated to the city’s chief god or goddess – Celebrated holy days with ceremonies – Believed in life after death
  • 20. Unit 1: Sumerian Religion Polytheistic Religion • A god for everything – Gods thought to control every aspect of life even forces of nature Priests – Keep the Gods happy! • Viewed as mediators between humans + the cosmic and terrestrial forces Leadership changes from priests to kings • Overtime war leaders took control of city-states
  • 21. Unit 1: Sumerian Science + Tech Early inventions – plow, wheel, and using bronze for strength Mathaletes – number system based on 60
  • 22. Unit 1: First Written Language! Invented Writing • Around 3,200 B.C. Pictographs – Ancient Pictionary! • A picture representing a word or idea; a hieroglyph Cunieform – Wedge shaped writing with a stylus, The Ancient iPad? • As it evolved used it to record economic exchanges, myths, prayers, laws, + business contracts Scribes – Ancient humanities plus the record keepers • Years of schooling • Strict discipline • Disrupting class could led to caning
  • 23. Unit 1: Sargon of Akkad “I Created the 1st Empire in the World (pg. 36-43) Taking over • Approx. 2,300 B.C. invaded + conquered city- states of Sumer – Expanded his territory – Appointed local rulers - served as king of the land Over before it started • Sargon died approx. 2,215 B.C. – Invaders swept into the wide area + destroyed it
  • 24. Unit 1: Hammurabi Rules Babylon Bring Babylon to power • 1790 B.C. Hammurabi controlled most of Mesopotamia Hammurabi’s Code nearly 300 laws on a stone pillar for people to abide by • Section dealt with civil law – Business contracts, property inheritance, taxes, marriage, + divorce • Criminal law – robbery, assault, or murder • Punishment usually resulted in death
  • 25. Unit 1: The Big, Bad Assyrians Ancient Knowledge + Conquest • Forged iron weapons • By 1350 B.C. established an Empire (Mesopotamia) • 500 yrs. Of hard core ruling Well ordered society • Use money from trade + conquest to build cities • Created extensive laws regulating life within royal household – Ex: women were secluded to certain areas of the home – King Assurbanipal founded one of the 1st libraries • Cuneiform tablets from across the fertile crescent
  • 26. Unit 1: Nebuchadnezzar Leads the Chaldeans New Ruler • Assyrians collapsed after Assurbanipal’s death Nebuchadnezzar 2nd ruler of Babylon • Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea • Rebuilt canals, temples, walls, and palaces • Memorials to Gods were constructed – Ishtar Gate – made of bricks • Ishtar, + Marduk (God of all Gods) – Hanging Gardens • One of the seven wonders of the world
  • 27. Unit 1: Persians Persian Army • Conquered Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylon • Largest empire at the time of 539 B.C. – Asia Minor to India
  • 28. Unit 1: Cyrus, The Wise Persian Leader Tolerance • Generous to those he defeated • 539 B.C. allowed more than 40,000 Jews to leave + return to Palestine • Declared certain rights for all people
  • 29. Unit 1: Darius Expands the Empire + Divides Into Provinces/Appoints “Satraps”/Royal Road Satrapy • Division of empires into provinces • Governor called a satrap – Each had to pay taxes based on its resources and wealth Get it done • Spies made sure each governor was following orders Communicate • Roads made exchanges easier throughout the empire – Cultural diffusion
  • 30. Unit 1: The Gift of the Nile (pg. 44-56) Flows S. to N., yearly floods are predictable Black lands near Nile were fertile Irrigation and Shaduf led to more crops • Shaduf= well pole Resources= linen, wheat, flour, mud houses
  • 31. Unit 1: Daily Life Mined for copper, gold, turquoise (blue-green mineral) Fished, hunted for hippos, crocs, ducks, geese Sailed Nile, traded surpluses (bartered)
  • 32. Unit 1: Egyptian Social Pyramid 1. Pharaoh – God 2. Priests – cared for temples, kept Gods happy 3. Scribes/gov. officials 4. Craft peoples, merchants, + sold stuff 5. Farmers 6. Slaves/laborers • Women had rights, rich kids went to school, married early
  • 33. Unit 1: Egyptian Smarts World’s first calendar (used astronomy) Shapes sacred – used for arch, design World’s first surgeons Used hieroglyphic system on papyrus, world’s first books
  • 34. Unit 1: Egyptian Religion Happy after life – bury with rices Polytheistic • Belief in many gods – Re (sun god) – Osiris (god of the dead) – Isis (emotions, love, + jealousy Embalming and Mummification • Preservation of dead bodies wrapped in cloth • Approx. 70 days to complete
  • 35. Unit 1: The Three Kingdoms Dynasty – line of rulers from same family Dynasties divided into Old, Middle, + New Kingdoms Pharaoh “Great House” describes Royal Palace • God on Earth + had lots of governor power
  • 36. Unit 1: Khufu Builds the Great Pyramid of Giza Built largest pyramid ever • Pyramid of Giza (Khufu) 20,000 workers + 20 yrs. to build
  • 37. Unit 1: Queen Hatshepsut/1st Woman Pharaoh 1st women ruler Expanded Egypt through war + trade • Trade with eastern Mediterranean lands, along Red Sea, Coast of Africa Designed obelisk • Tall, four sided, narrow tapering monument with pyramid like shape at top Mysterious death • Cause of death unknown • Maybe diabetes which caused bone cancer
  • 38. Unit 1: King Ramses II: 66 Years of Greatness 66 yrs. Created stable govt. • 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C. Expanded Egypt through war • Conquered numerous temples + monuments Peace treaty with Hittites was world’s first peace treaty
  • 39. Unit 1: Trade Helps Greece Prosper/First Greek city (pg. 114-142) Trade Helps Greece Prosper Greece Surrounded by Med., Ionian (West) and Aegean (East) • Lacked resources – trade was critical – Olive oil, wine, pottery for grain, timber, animal hides, slaves and linen First Greek City Mycenaeans 1st Greek City • King built thick walled fortress – Ruled surrounding villages – Amassed treasure Phoenicians • Lived on E. Med. • Traded + spread their alphabet – Led to Greek alphabet which led to ours
  • 40. Unit 1: Greek Religion + Culture Created myths to explain creation and how things worked • Polytheistic • Believed gods lived on Mt. Olympus (Greece) – Zeus (most powerful) – Son was Ares (god of war) – Aphrodite (goddess of love) Honored the Gods through holy festivals + sports games (olympics) Loved to tell stories • Epic poems (long poems) • Heroes and war – Homer wrote the Iliad and The Odyssey (Trojan War) • Fables – short stories that have a moral
  • 41. Unit 1: The City-State + Forms of Govt. City-states called Polis popped up because geography made it difficult to under one gov. • Mostly built on 2 levels – Top of a hill • Acropolis (high city) temples dedicated to Gods – Lower Level • Walled main city, market place, theatre, public buildings, and homes
  • 42. Unit 1: The City-State + Forms of Govt. (Cont.) Center of city was Agora – public space for business + gatherering Monarchy – earliest form of govt. King/Queen • Hereditary ruler – has central power Aristocracy – upper class descendents of rich • Land holders
  • 43. Unit 1: The City-State + Forms of Govt. (Cont.) Oligarchy – ruled by a few people had wealth + power Tyrants – a wealthy person that seizes power • Acts like a king without being of royal birth Democracy – citizens make political decisions
  • 44. Unit 1: Greek Democracy Invented Citizenship • Person loyal to govt. and protected by govt. Had to be born to free parents Solon: ruler that worked for poor • Freed slaves • Allowed all citizens (rich/poor) to serve • Challenged harsh laws Cleisthenes • Increased citizen’s power • Organized groups by where you lived not by money • All citizens could vote • Created a legislature (law making body) Direct Democracy – all citizens (free adult males) meet + made laws
  • 45. Unit 1: Pericles Three Goals • Strengthen democracy, expand + rebuild Athens Pericles Changes Govt. • Citizens took part in day to day activities of govt. • Assembly met several times a month He rebuilds Athens • Rebuilt the Acropolis which Persians had destroyed
  • 46. Unit 1: The Peloponnesian War Sparta • Military machine • Part Monarchy, Oligarchy, + Democracy • Non-citizens had no rights • All males joined the army • Women were tough – watch over property Athens • Direct democracy • Only males were citizens • Education was important • Women kept family strong
  • 47. Unit 1: The Peloponnesian War (Cont.) Athens gains enemies • Greeks hated Athenian domination • Greek world split into two camps – Delian League, Sparta + others form the Peloponnesian League Sparta wins the war • Lasted 27 yrs. • Geography helped Sparta – Inland, Athens could not use the Navy
  • 48. Unit 1: Alexander “World Domination” 20 yr. old takes throne • Philip was assassinated at daughter’s wedding Alex’s cruel tactics • Set to take revenge for father’s death • If others did not surrender, he took it force + burned it to the ground Alex creates massive empire • Went undefeated • Egypt to India (approx. 2,000 miles)
  • 49. Unit 1: Alexander Spreads the Hellenistic Love Alex spreads Greek culture and customs – feel the love! “I’ll have a double tall culture with a blend of Persian, Egyptian, Indian and Greek Seasoning” • Greek soldiers, traders, + artisans settled new cities across the empire • Local people assimilated (absorbed) Greek Culture • Alexander married a Persian women + encouraged others to follow – Adopted Persian cultures led Hellenistic civilization Will the real Alexandria please stand up? • Founded 70 cities named Alexandria • Most famous in Egypt
  • 50. Unit 1: Greece Leaves It’s Legacy The arts + architecture • Sculptors – New style that emphasized natural forms • Carved gods, athletes, + famous me in most perfect form • Playwrights – Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides wrote tragedies • Architecture – Parthenon – temple dedicated to the goddess Athena Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle – Great minds think alike • Socrates – asked about people’s belief – Socratic method – series of questions that led to examining the implications of their answers
  • 51. Unit 1: Greece Leaves It’s Legacy (Cont.) • Plato – importance of reason – Created the academy school – The Republic – vision of the ideal state • Aristotle – analyzed all forms of govt. – Set up school (Lyceum) – Left writings on politics, ethics, logic, + biology etc. Math + Science Galore • Geometry (Euclid) – Pythagoras Theorem/ A(2) + B(2) = C(2) for a right triangle • Science – Archimedes , the law of displacement • When an object moves the same volume of water as the object which is place in it – Lever and pulley