Stephen biko

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Stephen biko

  1. 1. Apartheid and Stephen Biko<br />Image courtesy of http://www.140mileseastofcool.com/2009/biko/<br />
  2. 2. Detained <br />Biko was detained in 1975 and in 1977 under apartheid legislation<br />August 1977 – Biko was detained by his hometown police<br />This would be his last time being detained <br />http://www.twixtmagazine.com/html/haeber.htm<br />http://africanhistory.about.com/od/stevebiko/a/bio-Biko.htm<br />
  3. 3. Apartheid <br />Webster Defines apartheid as, “Racial segregation; specifically: a former policy of segregation and political and economic discrimination against non- European groups in the Republic of South Africa”<br />http://bdsmovement.net/?q=node/557&page=58<br />http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/apartheid<br />
  4. 4. Apartheid Cont.<br />The term became integrated in the lexicon of people in South Africa during the 1940s<br />People where placed into three categories: Caucasian, Bantu (blacks), and Colored (mixed races)<br />Legislation was passed to keep each category of people from living in the same area<br />Information and photo from http://www.africanaencyclopedia.com/apartheid/apartheid.html<br />
  5. 5. Apartheid Cont.<br />The Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970<br />“Made every black South African a citizen of one of the homelands, effectively excluding blacks from South African politics”<br />The land was not desirable and lacked resources <br />A lot of people fought to stop the cruelty of apartheid – people who opposed apartheid were often met with brutality<br />Information from http://www.africanaencyclopedia.com/apartheid/apartheid.html<br />
  6. 6. http://autocww.colorado.edu/~toldy2/E64ContentFiles/SociologyAndReform/Apartheid.html<br />11 Shot Dead<br />
  7. 7. Stephen Biko’s Early Life<br />Born in 1946 in Eastern Cape, South Africa<br />At a young age he showed interest in going against Apartheid politics<br />He was kicked out of school for insubordination<br />He enrolled into a medical school and joined the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS)<br />
  8. 8. Stephen Biko’s Early Life Cont.<br />He dropped out of NUSAS and formed the South African Students’ Organization (SASO)<br />This organization help obtain funding for medical clinics for Africans<br />http://www.sbf.org.za/<br />http://africanhistory.about.com/od/stevebiko/a/bio-Biko.htm<br />
  9. 9. Black Consciousness <br />Biko founded the Black Peoples Convention (BPC)<br />BPC brought many groups together to try stop apartheid <br />Biko became first president of BPC<br />http://africanhistory.about.com/od/stevebiko/a/bio-Biko.htm<br />http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/apartheid.html<br />
  10. 10. Banned<br />In 1973, Biko was banned by the apartheid regime<br />Part of his punishment was that he was not allowed to speak to groups of two or more people (not in public)<br />He could not leave his birth place (Eastern Cape)<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Biko<br />
  11. 11. Death<br />September 7, 1977 – Mr. Biko suffered a head injury while in jail<br />September 11, 1977 – was not doing well and it was recommended that Biko needed to go to a hospital<br />He was transported to a hospital that was over 10 hours away<br />September 12, 1977 – Biko Died from brain damage<br />http://africanhistory.about.com/od/stevebiko/a/bio-Biko.htm<br />
  12. 12. Death<br />http://africanhistory.about.com/od/stevebiko/a/bio-Biko.htm<br />
  13. 13. Government Responds<br />Response<br />Pressure<br />James Kruger, Minister of Justice, stated that Biko died of a hunger strike<br />Donald Woods, editor of the East London Daily Dispatch, applied media pressure<br />Media outcry opposed the Kruger’s response<br />Pressure from the media, especially from Donald Woods, brought out the truth<br />Biko died from injuries suffered from a beating he received while being detained<br />http://africanhistory.about.com/od/stevebiko/a/bio-Biko.htm<br />
  14. 14. Life After Death<br />Biko’s death spread around the globe quickly<br />More than 10,000 people came to his funeral<br />http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/people/bios/biko-s.htm<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Biko<br />
  15. 15. End of Apartheid<br />Apartheid caused violence and a trade embargo that hurt South Africa<br />Protests, uprisings, and violence helped end apartheid<br />In 1990, Frederik Willem de Klerk, President, began talks to end aprtheid<br />In 1994, Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa<br />
  16. 16. Quotes<br />“While Steve Biko espoused, inspired, and promoted black pride, he never made blackness a fetish. At the end of the day, as he himself pointed out, accepting one’s blackness is a critical starting point: and important foundation for engaging in struggle. Today, it must be a foundation for reconstruction and development, for a common human effort to end war, poverty, ignorance and disease.” –Nelson Mandela<br />“Steve Biko was the greatest man I ever met…He was a statesman, in that sense of the word in which it is applied to Abraham Lincoln, having that breath of vision and that wider comprehension of the affairs of men and nations that is conveyed to the listener through more than mere words.”—Donald Woods<br />
  17. 17. Quotes <br />“The basic tenet of black consciousness is that the black man must reject all value systems that seek to make him a foreigner in the country of his birth and reduce his basic human dignity.” – Stephen Biko<br />“Even today, we are still accused of racism. This is a mistake. We know that all interracial groups in South Africa are relationships in which whites are superior, blacks inferior. So as a prelude whites must be made to realize that they are only human, not superior. Same with blacks. They must be made to realize that they are also human, not inferior.” – Stephen Biko<br />http://www.davis.k12.ut.us/stc/service/Jr%20High/10.pdf<br />

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