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  • 1. Mangrove Action Project-Working at theRoots of the SeaSeptember2011- Savannah Ocean ExchangeShaping The Future Of Our Coasts
  • 2. Benefits of MangrovesGoods:• Seafood (fish, crabs,shellfish, shrimpetc.)• Building materials forhouses boats, andfishing traps• Firewood & Charcoalfor cooking• Tannin for fishingnets / dye for cloths• Medicinal plants• Raw material forhandicrafts• Feed for livestock• Income from Eco-tourism – seakayaking, birdwatching, boardwalksRecreation- sightServices:• Fisheries nursery habitat andfeeding grounds• Storm protection• Erosion control > seagrass >coral- reef protection• Absorption of nutrient fromlandward side• Buffer protection for agricultureland• Protection of ground water fromsalinisation• Detritus provide nutrients formarine animals• Carbon Sequestion
  • 3. Old mangrove stands threatened in Burma byExpanding Agriculture and Aquaculture
  • 4. In Guatemala mangroves are fast disappearing asdevelopment pressures open up the coast.
  • 5. Ecuador has lost over half its mangroves, mainly toshrimp aquaculture. In Esmeraldas Province the tallestmangroves in the world are now in peril.
  • 6. The mangroves are the roots of the sea- holding downthe soils… a buttress against the mounting storms.
  • 7. 70-80% of all commercial fish in thetropics depend on mangrovesLarger mangrove area =Larger fisheries production
  • 8. Shellfish Gathering in the Mangroves- ThailandGathering shellfish off the mangrove coast of Thailand-“Mangroves sustain the people who sustain the mangroves…”
  • 9. Abundance at a seafood Market in Trang, Thailand-“Mangroves are like the supermarkets for the coastal poor “-Pisit Charnsnoh winner of the Goldman Prize in 2001
  • 10. Elkhorn coral in the Bahamas. Mangroves are part of thecoral reef ecosystem (photo by Craig Quirolo)
  • 11. Mangroves protect sea grass beds and coral reefa-Manatee feeding off Florida coast
  • 12. Millions of migratory water birds utilize the mangroves forfeeding and resting areas during their long migrations
  • 13. Mangroves reduce wind & wave energyPhang Nga, THAILAND –after 2004 Asia Tsunami
  • 14. Tsunami Mangrove DestructionPanama Lagoon, Ampara District, SRI LANKA
  • 15. Mangroves & Climate Change•Mangroves are carbon sinks, buryingmassive amounts of carbon in their peatsoils• Mangroves sequester 15 times morecarbon at a rate up to 50 times that ofinland forests•Mangroves prevent erosion & play anessential role in stabilizing coastalshorelines against rising sea levels•Mangroves are ultimate natural buffersagainst increasing frequency and intensity
  • 16. Area of Mangroves WorldwideCURRENT RATE OF LOSS = 150,000 HA/YRMangrove Loss > 1% /year (FAO)
  • 17. Mangrove stumps inside illegally constructed shrimppond- southern Thailand
  • 18. Half these ponds shown in this photo are abandoned
  • 19. Coastal erosion in Bangkalis, Indonesia due to clearcutting for charcoal industry
  • 20. Hemingways famous Bimini Island losing mangroves totourism– now an “island in the extreme!”
  • 21. Turnimg Sinks Into CarbonSourcesEach hectare of mangrove sediment mightcontain nearly 700 metric tons of carbonper meter depth. In building large numbersof shrimp farms, each ranging in area fromhalf a hectare to several hectares in size,approximately two meters of sediment aredug out. This clearing of mangroves &subsequent excavation of the mangrovesubstrate could result in the potentialoxidation of 1,400 tons of C per ha.
  • 22. Mangrove Planting on Mudflats, IndonesiaMassive failures in attempted mangrove restoration result in greatlosses in funds and man hours- Indonesiae
  • 23. Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park, ThailandMangrove Planting Failures
  • 24. 70-80% Mangrove FailurePost Tsunami Sri Lanka > WHY?• Inadequate site assessment & ignorance of hydrology• Lack of knowledge of mangrove ecology(i.e. Relief Organizations & Development NGOs)• Lack of follow-up and seedling protection• Inadequate project period driven by funding agencies• Lack of interest on sustainability > community & localstakeholders not involved in planning• Wrong species, planted in the wrong location at thewrong time Source: Jayatissa, 2010
  • 26. Work together with communities, organizations and localgovernment to:Understand the normal hydrology>tides >fresh water inputEcological Mangrove Restoration
  • 27. Robin Lewis demonstrated the EMR approach in theFt. Lauderdale area of Florida in the late 1980se
  • 28. ReconnectingTidal Exchange
  • 29. 400,000 ha of abandoned shrimp ponds informer mangrove areas in AsiaRobin Lewis, MAP’s Mangrove Technical Advisor
  • 30. Successful Restoration of an abandoned shrimp pondusing EMR technique in Indonesiae
  • 31. Advantages of Hydrological Restoration• Higher success rate• Higher bio-diversity• Rebilitated area is closer to previousnatural forest species composition• Restoration costs can be much lower,especially for large areas• Costly seed nurseries are usually notrequired• Based on science• Small scale planting can still be utilized topromote stewardship / ownership
  • 32. EducationAdvocacyCollaborationNetworkingConservation &RestorationSustainableCommunity-BasedDevelopmentMAP is implementing a pro-active five-pronged approach to long-term conservation
  • 33. Technical Training Workshops in EMR
  • 34. EMRDemonstrationProject inThailandTale Nok Village, Ranong, Thailand