1. Proposed Models for NewcomerProposed Models for Newcomer
Integration in Canada:Integration in Canada:
Ideal Relationship between Settlement andIdeal Relationship between Settlement and
Employment ComponentsEmployment Components
Scarborough Housing Help Centre
2. WORKSHOP LAYOUT
• An examination of Settlement vs. Employment
processes in Canada
• Highlights of similar processes in USA, Australia
• Group Exercise- I
• What did we learn from other countries
• Integration of learning into the Canadian model
• Group Exercise – II
Settlement : process of establishing oneself in the new community through
accessing community resources and connections.
Employment: process of finding a job in one’s profession through adequate
recognition of credentials and networking with employers
Definition is deliberately vague to accommodate widest possible
interpretation of settlement vs. employment
Can there be an optimal mix of settlement and employment services?
Is there an ideal relationship between settlement and employment
Study the Canadian Settlement Process- are the assumptions
realistic in today’s environment?
Study the American , Australian and German Settlement
Processes- do they have similar issues? If so, what has been done
to address them?
What is the learning from the American , Australian and German
models? Can we apply some of the findings to the Canadian
5. Settlement in Canada/OntarioSettlement in Canada/Ontario
Newcomers are selected for admission to Canada based on their
They demonstrate potential for employment as opposed to having
an actual job offer before they come to Canada.
After arrival, newcomers access the services of a wide range of non-
profits to obtain settlement and employment services.
Non-profit organizations follow a model of service where the client
is the ultimate decision maker- many newcomers respond with
“Help me with a job and I can settle without any problem.”
6. Settlement in Canada/OntarioSettlement in Canada/Ontario
Newcomers’ assumptions are different from model assumptions – they
make settlement dependent on employment.
Immigrants don’t get employment for a variety of reasons e.g. lack of
Canadian experience and lack of adequate recognition for foreign
By the time the newcomer becomes a citizen and is no longer eligible
for settlement/employment services, they may not have found adequate
employment. Their frustration with the employment process skews
their perspective of settlement.
Refugees have access to the same resources and services once they
after acceptance by the Government of Canada.
7. The American ModelThe American Model
Finding employment is key to applying for permanent
◦ Some find a job from outside the USA
◦ Others obtain a degree in the USA before finding
The assumption is that a newcomer with the savvy to find
employment would have the skill to integrate into their
community and American society without help
Very few settlement services directed at immigrants e.g.
Bulk of service in the newcomer services area focus on
8. The Australian model(s)The Australian model(s)
The Australian methodology of selection of immigrants and
settlement is based on the Canadian methodology.
There are 2 models of interest from Australia- the first model ( i.e.
Old Model) was introduced in the 1970s and was used till the late
Huge deficits forced the government to turn immigration and
temporary migration into “cost-sensitive “ processes.
The second model was introduced in the 1990s- the same model (
i.e. Called the New Model here ) is still used today
9. Australian Model(s)Australian Model(s)
The Government of Australia had concerns about its low levels of
population and ability to attract immigrants
They implemented a welcome model that may be the Golden
Standard for settlement.
Immigrants were reimbursed for their initial travel to Australia as
well as financial assistance when necessary.
They were given short term housing by the government- they
therefore had adequate time to find an apartment that
corresponded to their need
10. The Australian modelThe Australian model
Government recognizes “Settlement services” as a “short term
investment in self-reliance”
Assumes that immigrants with the “right profile” i.e. “with a profile
similar to that of Australians”, can settle down and find employment
with minimal difficulty
Government prefers immigrants who are fluent in English with
credentials evaluated and “accepted “ before arrival.
Limited settlement services for immigrants’ families offered through
MRCs – Migrant Resource Centres. Australian Government provides
translation services directly
Refugees are accepted through a separate stream. Their services are
different from that of immigrants.
11. The German ModelThe German Model
Requires newcomers to complete classes in German history, civics
and other subjects
Requires some immigrants to complete German training if not
fluent in German irrespective of how long they have been in
Good performance in the classes reduces time for permanent
residency as well as citizenship
Offers services through municipalities with a community
development piece with businesses, schools and others
12. GROUP EXERCISE- IGROUP EXERCISE- I
Compare and Contrast the Advantages
and Disadvantages of the settlement
systems from the three countries
discussed i.e. USA, Australia and
Germany. What system do you think
would work the best?
13. Are Other Models Successful?Are Other Models Successful?
In the American system, settlement is truly a function of
employment. There is a complete breakdown with no resources to
turn to if there is a break down in employment.
The Australian system has mixed results- there seems to be a
differential along the lines of race/ethnicity. Different studies point
in different directions about the overall success.
The German system rewards performance- this system is new and
has not been tested adequately. Analysis of this system requires
interaction of the settlement and employment components as
always as understanding of the community development model.
14. Important Learning(s)Important Learning(s)
Finding employment can take place even before/ just after landing.
It also takes place after a significant time gap during which the
newcomer has obtained local degrees and experience.
Getting a degree/educational qualification from within the country
improves one’s chances in the employment field.
Employment can precede Settlement or Settlement can precede
Employment. It is difficult to complete both simultaneously
Fluency in the local language and recognition for credentials from
outside the country don’t always improve job opportunities.
15. Important Learning(s)Important Learning(s)
Translation Services should be provided to newcomers as and
Immigrants should be allowed to learn the local language ( e.g.
English/French) irrespective of how long they have been in the
Refugees may need separate services- their resilience may be
different from immigrants as a result of their suffering
16. GROUP EXERCISE- IIGROUP EXERCISE- II
Develop an integrated settlement-employment model
suitable for your community ( urban, rural, semi-urban)
based on the ideas provided in the presentation.
Specifically discuss how you would implement this
• Identify which parts of your model can be
• Which parts require policy changes.
• Who are the stakeholders you would talk to?