E6 building bridges between employment and settlementPresentation Transcript
Proposed Models for Newcomer Integration in Canada: Ideal Relationship between Settlement and Employment Components
Scarborough Housing Help Centre
An examination of Settlement vs. Employment processes in Canada
Highlights of similar processes in USA, Australia and Germany
Group Exercise- I
What did we learn from other countries
Integration of learning into the Canadian model
Group Exercise – II
Questions Settlement : process of establishing oneself in the new community through accessing community resources and connections. Employment : process of finding a job in one’s profession through adequate recognition of credentials and networking with employers Definition is deliberately vague to accommodate widest possible interpretation of settlement vs. employment Questions: Can there be an optimal mix of settlement and employment services? Is there an ideal relationship between settlement and employment services?
Study the Canadian Settlement Process- are the assumptions realistic in today’s environment?
Study the American , Australian and German Settlement Processes- do they have similar issues? If so, what has been done to address them?
What is the learning from the American , Australian and German models? Can we apply some of the findings to the Canadian model?
Settlement in Canada/Ontario
Newcomers are selected for admission to Canada based on their skills.
They demonstrate potential for employment as opposed to having an actual job offer before they come to Canada.
After arrival, newcomers access the services of a wide range of non-profits to obtain settlement and employment services.
Non-profit organizations follow a model of service where the client is the ultimate decision maker- many newcomers respond with
“ Help me with a job and I can settle without any problem. ”
Settlement in Canada/Ontario
Newcomers’ assumptions are different from model assumptions – they make settlement dependent on employment.
Immigrants don’t get employment for a variety of reasons e.g. lack of Canadian experience and lack of adequate recognition for foreign credentials .
By the time the newcomer becomes a citizen and is no longer eligible for settlement/employment services, they may not have found adequate employment. Their frustration with the employment process skews their perspective of settlement.
Refugees have access to the same resources and services once they after acceptance by the Government of Canada.
The American Model
Finding employment is key to applying for permanent residence
Some find a job from outside the USA
Others obtain a degree in the USA before finding employment.
The assumption is that a newcomer with the savvy to find employment would have the skill to integrate into their community and American society without help
Very few settlement services directed at immigrants e.g. Citizenship Classes
Bulk of service in the newcomer services area focus on refugee settlement
The Australian model(s)
The Australian methodology of selection of immigrants and settlement is based on the Canadian methodology.
There are 2 models of interest from Australia- the first model ( i.e. Old Model) was introduced in the 1970s and was used till the late 80s.
Huge deficits forced the government to turn immigration and temporary migration into “cost-sensitive “ processes.
The second model was introduced in the 1990s- the same model ( i.e. Called the New Model here ) is still used today
The Government of Australia had concerns about its low levels of population and ability to attract immigrants
They implemented a welcome model that may be the Golden Standard for settlement.
Immigrants were reimbursed for their initial travel to Australia as well as financial assistance when necessary.
They were given short term housing by the government- they therefore had adequate time to find an apartment that corresponded to their need
The Australian model
Government recognizes “Settlement services” as a “ short term investment in self-reliance”
Assumes that immigrants with the “right profile” i.e. “ with a profile similar to that of Australians ”, can settle down and find employment with minimal difficulty
Government prefers immigrants who are fluent in English with credentials evaluated and “accepted “ before arrival.
Limited settlement services for immigrants’ families offered through MRCs – Migrant Resource Centres. Australian Government provides translation services directly
Refugees are accepted through a separate stream. Their services are different from that of immigrants.
The German Model
Requires newcomers to complete classes in German history, civics and other subjects
Requires some immigrants to complete German training if not fluent in German irrespective of how long they have been in Germany
Good performance in the classes reduces time for permanent residency as well as citizenship
Offers services through municipalities with a community development piece with businesses, schools and others
GROUP EXERCISE- I
Compare and Contrast the Advantages and Disadvantages of the settlement systems from the three countries discussed i.e. USA, Australia and Germany. What system do you think would work the best?
Are Other Models Successful?
In the American system, settlement is truly a function of employment. There is a complete breakdown with no resources to turn to if there is a break down in employment.
The Australian system has mixed results- there seems to be a differential along the lines of race/ethnicity. Different studies point in different directions about the overall success.
The German system rewards performance- this system is new and has not been tested adequately. Analysis of this system requires interaction of the settlement and employment components as always as understanding of the community development model.
Finding employment can take place even before/ just after landing.
It also takes place after a significant time gap during which the newcomer has obtained local degrees and experience.
Getting a degree/educational qualification from within the country improves one’s chances in the employment field.
Employment can precede Settlement or Settlement can precede Employment. It is difficult to complete both simultaneously
Fluency in the local language and recognition for credentials from outside the country don’t always improve job opportunities.
Translation Services should be provided to newcomers as and when required.
Immigrants should be allowed to learn the local language ( e.g. English/French) irrespective of how long they have been in the country.
Refugees may need separate services- their resilience may be different from immigrants as a result of their suffering
GROUP EXERCISE- II
Develop an integrated settlement-employment model suitable for your community ( urban, rural, semi-urban) based on the ideas provided in the presentation. Specifically discuss how you would implement this model e.g.
Identify which parts of your model can be implemented immediately.