E4 immigrant health and nutrition


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  • This figure shows many studies on T2D + diet,
    interrelationship among gene, gene product, dietary food component and diseases its function remains largely unknown. the limitations, difficulties and urgent need to be explored further to
    integrate environment into omics analysis are reviewed and discussed
    Well-designed and highly-powered studies are needed to unravel the complexity of gene-nutrient interactions underlying T2DM
    A lot of work need to be done and explored to understand interrelationship among gene, gene product, dietary food component and diseases. Those information will provides a new vision and knowledge on disease predisposition and nutritional requirements
    , such a goal is still far off and much more research is required before we can reliably include genetic factors in the risk–benefit assessment of nutrients and diets.
  • E4 immigrant health and nutrition

    1. 1. IMMIGRANT HEALTHAND NUTRITION COUNSELING JIAN GUAN, PHD. RNC. SPRING 2010 OCASI PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE November5, 2010 Spring 2010 OCASI Professional Development Conference Thursday, May 13, 2010
    2. 2. Objectives  The purpose of the workshop is to provide knowledge, skills and strategies for frontline workers as they provide counseling to clients and promote health to their communities.
    3. 3. Topics  This workshop will cover the topics such as the most updated research of genetic analysis and nutrition science, epidemics among immigrants and knowledge of Canadian food and bioactive diet, and principles methods for providing nutrition counseling. 1. Obesity 2. Cardiovascular disease 3. Diabetics
    4. 4. NutriGenomics 基因学营养 Lifestyle Nutrition Genome Can modify Can’t modify Nutrigenomics explains nutrient- gene interaction and provides information related to riskas well as information on the impact of lifestyle and nutrition 4 Gene-Nutrition
    5. 5. 5 Gene-Nutrition
    6. 6. 6 6 Gene-Nutrition
    7. 7. Health Canada Communicates amounts and types of food needed to help:  Meet nutrient needs and promote health  Minimize the riskof obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, certain types of cancerand osteoporosis
    8. 8. 1) Obesity and Nutrition  Apple Shape: Carrying excess weight around the middle also increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol
    9. 9. Health Risk Classification According to Body Mass Index (BMI), Health Canada, 2003 Classification BMI Category (kg/m2) Risk of developing health problems Underweight <18.5 Increased Normal Weight 18.5 - 24.9 Least Overweight** 25.0 -29.9 Increased Obese Class I 30.0 - 34.9 High Obese Class II 35.0 - 39.9 Very high Obese Class III >=40.0 Extremely high ** Overweight 25-27, CANADA, 1988
    10. 10. Health Canadian and increased risk for health problems:  A European/Caucasian man whose waist measures more than 102 cm (40 inches)  A European/Caucasian woman whose waist measures more than 88 cm (35 inches) Chinese and South Asian people, waist measurements are smaller in Canadian Standard  A Chinese or South Asian man whose waist measurement of more than 90 cm (35 inches)  A Chinese or South Asian woman whose waist measurement of more than 80 cm (32 inches)
    11. 11. Waist circumference: by gender and ethnicity Waist circumference* by gender and ethnicity Male female European/Caucasian, Sub- Saharan Africans, Eastern Mediterranean, Middle Eastern >94 cm* 102 cm** (40 in) > 80cm* 88 cm** (35 in) South Asian, Malaysian, Asian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Ethnic South and Central Americans 90 cm (35 in) 80 cm (32 in) * WHO, 2000; **CANADA, 2003
    12. 12. 2) Heart Disease and Nutrition 13 Gene-Nutrition
    13. 13. HDL and LDL LDL =“bad”  Too much can clog arteries by forming plaque  Atherosclerosis can cause heart attackor stroke HDL =“good”  Tends to carry cholesterol away fromarteries and backto liver  Remove excess cholesterol fromplaque in arteries, slows build up14 Gene-Nutrition
    14. 14. Triglycerides and Atherosclerosis  Triglycerides is a form of fat, also made in body and from food, trigger liver to make more cholesterol, rising LDL 15 Gene-Nutrition
    15. 15. 3) Diabetes and Nutrition Consulling  Diabetes is a serious condition.  It can strike anyone, anywhere at any age.  Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. The majority of people (approximately 80%) with diabetes will die from heart disease and stroke.  Diabetes is also the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure and non-traumatic amputation.  In Canada, the number of people with diabetes is growing every year, and they’re getting younger.  Approximately 1.8 million Canadians (5.5% of the population) were diagnosed with diabetes in 2005.  That number is expected to climb to 2.4 million by 2016.
    16. 16. Diabetes – Good News  Lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of the most common type of diabetes − type 2 diabetes by 60%.  While there are no safe and effective ways to prevent less common types of diabetes, a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of developing heart disease.  People with diabetes can live long and productive lives.
    17. 17. 19 Gene-Nutrition19 Number of Studies Conducted in T2D,Number of Studies Conducted in T2D, Gene, and DietGene, and Diet This figure shows many studies on T2D + diet, interrelationship among gene, gene product, dietary food component and diseases.
    18. 18. What is diabetes?  Diabetes develops when the body has a problem with a hormone – insulin produced by pancreas.  Insulin helps move sugar (glucose) in food from the blood into the cells of the body where it can be used for energy.  Insulin resistance: The body’s cells do not respond properly to the effects of insulin.  If pancreas can’t make enough insulin, or if insulin resistance, glucose builds up and damages blood vessels in the body.  Damaged blood vessels can cause problems such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease (nephropathy), eye damage (retinopathy) and nerve damage (neuropathy).
    19. 19. Types of Diabetes 1. Type 1 occurs in about 10% of cases. When cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, the body has no, or very little, insulin to move glucose from blood into body cells. 2. Type 2 occurs in about 90% of cases. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas usually doesn’t produce enough insulin to meet the body’s needs. In some instances, body cells can’t use insulin properly. 3. Gestational Diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) occurs in about 2 to 4% of pregnant women. This form of diabetes usually goes away after giving birth, however, both mother and baby are at an increased risk of developing diabetes later in life.
    20. 20. Type 1 diabetes  Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in people under 30, most often in children and teenagers. It’s usually caused by an autoimmune reaction – the body attacks its own pancreatic cells for unknown reasons. This reduces the amount of insulin produced by the body. It is not caused by eating too much sugar. There is no safe and effective prevention of type 1 diabetes at this time.
    21. 21. Type 2 Diabetes  Type 2 diabetes is more common in people over the age of 40. But, unfortunately, it is now being seen in younger people, even children. Most of these children are from ethnic groups that are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes particularly the Aboriginal, Hispanic, African and Asian populations.  Insulin Modulation  Inflammatory Response
    22. 22. Prediabetes  Prediabetes is when blood glucose levels are almost as high as withdiabetes. It is sometimes called Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) or Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG).  Prediabetes does not mean you have diabetes. However, it may indicate an increased risk for developing diabetes in the future.  Making healthy lifestyle choices, such as controlling weight, eating a healthy diet and being physically active can help prevent developing diabetes.
    23. 23. “Inflammation Gene-Nutrition 25 the evil twin of oxidation. Where you find one, you find the other." -- neuroscientist James Joseph of Tufts University, 2006. That include not only such obvious inflammatory conditions as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, but also atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, colon cancer and diabetes.
    24. 24. Diabetes and Healthy Lifestyle These simple steps will help reduce diabetes risk: • Lead a healthy lifestyle • Eat a healthy diet • Get regular physical activity
    25. 25. STEP1 - Healthy Eating Habits  Addresses the problems of carbohydrate sensitivity and fat storage  With this lifestyle change, you will not go hungry, feel deprived, or quit from lack of variety (don’t count calories)  Emphasis on adopting a diet made up of low-glycemic foods
    26. 26. STEP 2 - Behavior Modification  Group Coaching/Support  Daily Journal  Education  Dietary Supplementation  Exercise Suggestions
    27. 27. STEP 3 - Change Body Composition  Exercise program to boost your metabolism and change your body composition  With constant yo-yo dieting you lose muscle and gain body fat  With exercise your body will be in fat burning mode  Muscle Dictates Metabolism!
    28. 28. The Glycemic Index (GI)  Glycemic Index measures the impact of carbs on blood sugar levels  High GI foods such as sugar, white flour and rice quickly raise blood sugar levels and insulin production  High GI foods with high GL amount throw your metabolic switch into fat storage mode (independent of calories!)
    29. 29. The Glycemic Index (GI) Low GI foods promote weight loss while preserving lean muscle mass and do not lower metabolic rate  Low GI foods give your body a steady stream of energy  Addresses body composition resulting in fat loss and optimal metabolic rate!
    30. 30. Fiber-Rich Foods  Vegetables  Many Types Of Fruits  Lentils, Beans  Yams, Sweet Potatoes  Whole Unprocessed Grains And More
    31. 31. Nutrition Supplements  Vitamin B6 and Zinc  Chromium  Calcium  Digestive Enzymes: Helps combat nutrition loss due to processed food  Omega III : Anti inflammation  Complete Greens: Provides essential enzymes and good bacteria to optimize the absorption of nutrients from food
    32. 32. Antioxidants  Antioxidants serve as a powerful first line of defense against oxidative damage from aging, stress, and inflammation.  Antioxidants appear to contain cancer-fighting properties and to support the immune system (among many other benefits).  Though many, many foods contain these valuable antioxidants, we’ve listed a few of the most potent and popular choices for each class of antioxidants. 35 Gene-Nutrition
    33. 33. Antioxidants Antioxidants can be broken into two general categories: 1) antioxidant nutrie nts (including phytonutrients). Vitamins, minerals and the various -noids detailed below are in this category. 2) antioxidant e nz ym e s. 36 Gene-Nutrition
    34. 34. Enzymes The most vital nutritional discovery since Vitamins and Minerals Supports a healthy digestive tract: Promotes digestion Supports nutrient absorption May help ease stomach upset Helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels Supports healthy immune functions 37 Gene-Nutrition
    35. 35. Digestive Enzymes Digestive enzymes make it possible for us to digest and absorb proteins, fats, carbohydrates, starches and sugars, and structure them into healthy bodies. Digestive enzymes have three main jobs:  Proteases digest protein  Amylases digest carbohydrate  Lipases digest fat. 38 Gene-Nutrition
    36. 36. Fresh FruitsFresh Fruits Fresh raw fruits are loadedFresh raw fruits are loaded with enzymes and when wewith enzymes and when we eat our foods raw 30% of theeat our foods raw 30% of the digestion is done for us by the food itself.digestion is done for us by the food itself. When we cook our food over 110 degrees F, weWhen we cook our food over 110 degrees F, we destroy the living enzymes and our body mustdestroy the living enzymes and our body must use its own enzymes for digestion robbing ususe its own enzymes for digestion robbing us of energy.of energy. 39 Gene-Nutrition
    37. 37. Fiber  Helps maintain digestive health, helps cleanse colon and promote colon health  Helps relieve occasional constipation*, support normal bowel regularity and fecal volume  Helps promote healthy growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon  Supports healthy nutrient absorption 40 Gene-Nutrition
    38. 38. High-FiberFoods forDigestive Health  Fiber intake has been linked to reducing the risk of heart disease, diabetes, obesity and certain types of cancer.  Daily fiber intake goal: Males 19-50                38 g per day Males 50+                   30 g per day Females 19-50             25 g per day Females 50+                21 g per day 41 Gene-Nutrition
    39. 39. VegetablesVegetables  Vegetables are mainlyVegetables are mainly carbohydrates that are high in antioxidants,carbohydrates that are high in antioxidants, phytochemicals and fiber.phytochemicals and fiber.  Dark green vegetables will help to alkalinizeDark green vegetables will help to alkalinize the body and are a great source of calcium.the body and are a great source of calcium.  Vegetables are also low in calories andVegetables are also low in calories and sugar so they feed your body with nutrientssugar so they feed your body with nutrients without a lot of calories.without a lot of calories. 42 Gene-Nutrition
    40. 40. Table for Fiber-less and Fiber-rich food Fiber-less food Grams of fiber Fiber-rich food Grams of fiber per serving per serving Meat or poultry 0 g per 75 g or 2.5oz Red kidney beans 12 g per ¾ cup Chicken noodle soup 2 g per 1 cup Lentil soup 12 g per 1 cup Corn Flakes cereal 1 g per 1 cup (30g) Fiber first/ bran buds 12 g per 1/3 cup (30g) Chili con carne 4 g per 1 cup Vegetarian chili 9 g per 1 cup White pasta 3 g per 1.5 cups cooked Whole wheat pasta 8 g per 1.5 cups cooked Chocolate chip muffin 2 g per muffin Raisin Bran muffin 5 g per muffin Apple juice 0.1 g per ½ cup Apple 3 g per apple with skin White rice 0.8 g per 1 cup cooked Brown rice 3 g per 1 cup cooked Chips – regular 0.8 g per 10 chips (20g) Microwave popcorn 3 g per 2.5 cups (20g) White bread 1 g per slice 100% whole-grain bread 2.2 g per slice 43 Gene-Nutrition