This figure shows many studies on T2D + diet, interrelationship among gene, gene product, dietary food component and diseases its function remains largely unknown. the limitations, difficulties and urgent need to be explored further to integrate environment into omics analysis are reviewed and discussed Well-designed and highly-powered studies are needed to unravel the complexity of gene-nutrient interactions underlying T2DM A lot of work need to be done and explored to understand interrelationship among gene, gene product, dietary food component and diseases. Those information will provides a new vision and knowledge on disease predisposition and nutritional requirements , such a goal is still far off and much more research is required before we can reliably include genetic factors in the risk–benefit assessment of nutrients and diets.
E4 immigrant health and nutrition
JIAN GUAN, PHD. RNC.
SPRING 2010 OCASI PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Spring 2010 OCASI Professional
Thursday, May 13, 2010
The purpose of the workshop is to provide
knowledge, skills and strategies for frontline
workers as they provide counseling to clients
and promote health to their communities.
This workshop will cover the topics such as
the most updated research of genetic analysis
and nutrition science, epidemics among
immigrants and knowledge of Canadian food
and bioactive diet, and principles methods for
providing nutrition counseling.
2. Cardiovascular disease
related to riskas
the impact of
Communicates amounts and types of food
needed to help:
Meet nutrient needs and promote health
Minimize the riskof obesity, type 2
diabetes, heart disease, certain types of
1) Obesity and Nutrition
Apple Shape: Carrying excess weight around the middle
also increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, high
blood pressure and high blood cholesterol
Health Risk Classification According to Body
Mass Index (BMI), Health Canada, 2003
Classification BMI Category
Risk of developing
Underweight <18.5 Increased
Normal Weight 18.5 - 24.9 Least
Overweight** 25.0 -29.9 Increased
Obese Class I 30.0 - 34.9 High
Obese Class II 35.0 - 39.9 Very high
Obese Class III >=40.0 Extremely high
** Overweight 25-27, CANADA, 1988
Health Canadian and
increased risk for health problems:
A European/Caucasian man whose waist measures
more than 102 cm (40 inches)
A European/Caucasian woman whose waist measures
more than 88 cm (35 inches)
Chinese and South Asian people, waist measurements are
smaller in Canadian Standard
A Chinese or South Asian man whose waist
measurement of more than 90 cm (35 inches)
A Chinese or South Asian woman whose waist
measurement of more than 80 cm (32 inches)
by gender and ethnicity
by gender and ethnicity
Saharan Africans, Eastern
>94 cm* 102 cm**
> 80cm* 88 cm**
South Asian, Malaysian,
Asian, Indian, Chinese,
Japanese, Ethnic South and
* WHO, 2000; **CANADA, 2003
2) Heart Disease and Nutrition
HDL and LDL
Too much can clog arteries by forming plaque
Atherosclerosis can cause heart attackor
Tends to carry cholesterol away fromarteries
and backto liver
Remove excess cholesterol fromplaque in
arteries, slows build up14 Gene-Nutrition
Triglycerides and Atherosclerosis
Triglycerides is a form of fat, also made in
body and from food, trigger liver to make
more cholesterol, rising LDL
3) Diabetes and Nutrition
Diabetes is a serious condition.
It can strike anyone, anywhere at any age.
Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. The
majority of people (approximately 80%) with diabetes will die
from heart disease and stroke.
Diabetes is also the leading cause of blindness, kidney
failure and non-traumatic amputation.
In Canada, the number of people with diabetes is growing
every year, and they’re getting younger.
Approximately 1.8 million Canadians (5.5% of the
population) were diagnosed with diabetes in 2005.
That number is expected to climb to 2.4 million by 2016.
Diabetes – Good News
Lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of the
most common type of diabetes − type 2
diabetes by 60%.
While there are no safe and effective ways to
prevent less common types of diabetes, a
healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of
developing heart disease.
People with diabetes can live long and
Number of Studies Conducted in T2D,Number of Studies Conducted in T2D,
Gene, and DietGene, and Diet
This figure shows many studies on T2D + diet, interrelationship among gene, gene product, dietary
food component and diseases.
What is diabetes?
Diabetes develops when the body has a problem
with a hormone – insulin produced by pancreas.
Insulin helps move sugar (glucose) in food from
the blood into the cells of the body where it can be
used for energy.
Insulin resistance: The body’s cells do not
respond properly to the effects of insulin.
If pancreas can’t make enough insulin, or if insulin
resistance, glucose builds up and damages blood
vessels in the body.
Damaged blood vessels can cause problems
such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease
(nephropathy), eye damage (retinopathy) and
nerve damage (neuropathy).
Types of Diabetes
1. Type 1 occurs in about 10% of cases. When cells
in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed,
the body has no, or very little, insulin to move
glucose from blood into body cells.
2. Type 2 occurs in about 90% of cases. In type 2
diabetes, the pancreas usually doesn’t produce
enough insulin to meet the body’s needs. In some
instances, body cells can’t use insulin properly.
3. Gestational Diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy)
occurs in about 2 to 4% of pregnant women. This
form of diabetes usually goes away after giving
birth, however, both mother and baby are at an
increased risk of developing diabetes later in life.
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is usually
diagnosed in people under 30,
most often in children and
teenagers. It’s usually caused by
an autoimmune reaction – the
body attacks its own pancreatic
cells for unknown reasons. This
reduces the amount of insulin
produced by the body. It is not
caused by eating too much
sugar. There is no safe and
effective prevention of type 1
diabetes at this time.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is more common in people
over the age of 40. But, unfortunately, it is now
being seen in younger people, even children.
Most of these children are from ethnic groups
that are at higher risk of developing type 2
diabetes particularly the Aboriginal, Hispanic,
African and Asian populations.
Prediabetes is when blood glucose levels are
almost as high as withdiabetes. It is
sometimes called Impaired Glucose Tolerance
(IGT) or Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG).
Prediabetes does not mean you have
diabetes. However, it may indicate an
increased risk for developing diabetes in the
Making healthy lifestyle choices, such as
controlling weight, eating a healthy diet and
being physically active can help prevent
the evil twin of oxidation.
Where you find one, you find
the other." -- neuroscientist
James Joseph of Tufts
That include not only such
conditions as asthma and
rheumatoid arthritis, but also
disease, colon cancer and
Diabetes and Healthy Lifestyle
These simple steps will help reduce diabetes
• Lead a healthy lifestyle
• Eat a healthy diet
• Get regular physical activity
STEP1 - Healthy Eating Habits
Addresses the problems of
carbohydrate sensitivity and fat
With this lifestyle change, you will not
go hungry, feel deprived, or quit from
lack of variety (don’t count calories)
Emphasis on adopting a diet made up
of low-glycemic foods
STEP 3 - Change Body
Exercise program to boost your
metabolism and change your body
With constant yo-yo dieting you lose
muscle and gain body fat
With exercise your body will be in fat
Muscle Dictates Metabolism!
The Glycemic Index (GI)
Glycemic Index measures the impact of carbs
on blood sugar levels
High GI foods such as sugar, white flour and
rice quickly raise blood sugar levels and insulin
High GI foods with high GL amount throw your
metabolic switch into fat storage mode
(independent of calories!)
The Glycemic Index (GI)
Low GI foods promote weight loss while preserving
lean muscle mass and do not lower metabolic
Low GI foods give your body a steady stream of
Addresses body composition resulting in fat loss
and optimal metabolic rate!
Many Types Of Fruits
Yams, Sweet Potatoes
Whole Unprocessed Grains And More
Vitamin B6 and Zinc
Digestive Enzymes: Helps combat nutrition loss
due to processed food
Omega III : Anti inflammation
Complete Greens: Provides essential enzymes
and good bacteria to optimize the absorption of
nutrients from food
Antioxidants serve as a powerful first line of
defense against oxidative damage from aging,
stress, and inflammation.
Antioxidants appear to contain cancer-fighting
properties and to support the immune system
(among many other benefits).
Though many, many foods contain these
valuable antioxidants, we’ve listed a few of the
most potent and popular choices for each class
Antioxidants can be broken into two general
1) antioxidant nutrie nts (including
phytonutrients). Vitamins, minerals and the
various -noids detailed below are in this
2) antioxidant e nz ym e s.
The most vital nutritional discovery since Vitamins and
Supports a healthy digestive tract:
Supports nutrient absorption
May help ease stomach upset
Helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels
Supports healthy immune functions
Digestive enzymes make it possible for us to digest
and absorb proteins, fats, carbohydrates, starches
and sugars, and structure them into healthy bodies.
Digestive enzymes have three main jobs:
Proteases digest protein
Amylases digest carbohydrate
Lipases digest fat.
Fresh FruitsFresh Fruits
Fresh raw fruits are loadedFresh raw fruits are loaded
with enzymes and when wewith enzymes and when we
eat our foods raw 30% of theeat our foods raw 30% of the
digestion is done for us by the food itself.digestion is done for us by the food itself.
When we cook our food over 110 degrees F, weWhen we cook our food over 110 degrees F, we
destroy the living enzymes and our body mustdestroy the living enzymes and our body must
use its own enzymes for digestion robbing ususe its own enzymes for digestion robbing us
of energy.of energy.
Helps maintain digestive health, helps cleanse
colon and promote colon health
Helps relieve occasional constipation*, support
normal bowel regularity and fecal volume
Helps promote healthy growth of beneficial
bacteria in the colon
Supports healthy nutrient absorption
High-FiberFoods forDigestive Health
Fiber intake has been linked to reducing the
risk of heart disease, diabetes, obesity and
certain types of cancer.
Daily fiber intake goal:
Males 19-50 38 g per day
Males 50+ 30 g per day
Females 19-50 25 g per day
Females 50+ 21 g per day
Vegetables are mainlyVegetables are mainly
carbohydrates that are high in antioxidants,carbohydrates that are high in antioxidants,
phytochemicals and fiber.phytochemicals and fiber.
Dark green vegetables will help to alkalinizeDark green vegetables will help to alkalinize
the body and are a great source of calcium.the body and are a great source of calcium.
Vegetables are also low in calories andVegetables are also low in calories and
sugar so they feed your body with nutrientssugar so they feed your body with nutrients
without a lot of calories.without a lot of calories.
Table for Fiber-less and Fiber-rich
Fiber-less food Grams of fiber Fiber-rich food Grams of fiber
per serving per serving
Meat or poultry 0 g per 75 g or 2.5oz Red kidney beans 12 g per ¾ cup
Chicken noodle soup 2 g per 1 cup Lentil soup 12 g per 1 cup
Corn Flakes cereal 1 g per 1 cup (30g) Fiber first/ bran buds 12 g per 1/3 cup (30g)
Chili con carne 4 g per 1 cup Vegetarian chili 9 g per 1 cup
White pasta 3 g per 1.5 cups cooked Whole wheat pasta 8 g per 1.5 cups cooked
Chocolate chip muffin 2 g per muffin Raisin Bran muffin 5 g per muffin
Apple juice 0.1 g per ½ cup Apple 3 g per apple with skin
White rice 0.8 g per 1 cup cooked Brown rice 3 g per 1 cup cooked
Chips – regular 0.8 g per 10 chips (20g) Microwave popcorn 3 g per 2.5 cups (20g)
White bread 1 g per slice 100% whole-grain bread 2.2 g per slice