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D12 History Of Canadas Immigration Policy_Francisco Rico-Martinez
 

D12 History Of Canadas Immigration Policy_Francisco Rico-Martinez

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    D12 History Of Canadas Immigration Policy_Francisco Rico-Martinez D12 History Of Canadas Immigration Policy_Francisco Rico-Martinez Presentation Transcript

    • Overview of the History of Canada’s Immigration Policy Researched by Janet Dench (CCR) and Ana Rico (FCJ Refugee Centre) 07/06/09 1
    • People have been coming to Canada for many years …………. 07/06/09 2
    • Canada’s immigration policies (or lack thereof) have always had significant impacts on the people who were allowed to come Early ‘policy’ was very simple….. 07/06/09 3
    • 1896 - 1905  “I think that a stalwart peasant in a sheepskin coat, born to the soil, with a stout wife and a half dozen children, is good quality” Clifford Sifton, Ministry of Interior 07/06/09 4
    • 1901 census  Population 5,371,315  96% of European origin  13% population were  In 1901 the immigrants  55% foreign-born were Chinese Head citizens tax doubled  4% Chinese were from the 1885 citizens  43% immigrants level of $50 to female $100.  41% pop of British origin  31% French  22,050 Chinese  17, 347 Blacks 07/06/09  16,131 Jews 5
    • 1906  Immigration Act passed to stop ‘undesirable immigrants’ 07/06/09 6
    • This Act  Handicap  Becoming an  Expanded the list of inmate of a ‘prohibited prison or immigrants’ hospital  Allowed deportation  Infirmity of immigrants within  Committing crimes of 2 (then 3 then 5) ‘moral years of landing for turpitude’ ….  Becoming a public Deportations charge increased  Insanity  Disease dramatically!! 07/06/09 7
    • Arrival of Sikhs in BC in 1906-07 resulted in an “anti-Asiatic” parade which ended in a riot  State the purpose of the discussion  Identify yourself 07/06/09 8
    • 1908 - 1910  Chinese Immigration Act amended to increase those under the head tax and expand list of prohibited persons  Border inspection service created at US- Canada border  Continuous journey rule imposed  New Act allowed Canada to prohibit immigrants belonging to any race deemed unsuitable and expanded deportation grounds to include immorality and political offences;  New Act introduced concept of ‘domicile’ 07/06/09  First Caribbean Domestic Scheme 9
    •  CENSUS 1911: Population 7,206,643  97% population of European origin  22% population immigrants  47% of these naturalized (9% Chinese, 22% Japanese)  39% of immigrants were women  Population: 54% British origin  29% French origin  75,681 Jews  27,774 Chinese, 9,021 Japanese  3,342 ‘Hindus” 07/06/09 10
    • War Initiatives - Terror suspects???  07/06/09 11
    • Special Measures…. War Measures Wartime Act ..  Increased govt’s Elections Act power to arrest, (1917) detain and deport  ‘Enemy aliens’ forced  Disenfranchised to register all persons from themselves and ‘enemy alien’ subjected to many restrictions countries who  8,000 – 9,000 had been ‘enemy aliens’ naturalized since interned.. 1902  …..released in 07/06/09 response to labour 12 shortages…..
    • And for women…. (No – not these women) 07/06/09 13
    • And for the women……  Women's division created in 1919 within Immigration Dept to ‘care’ for single women immigrants  1919 .. Immigration Act amended to add new grounds for denying entry and deportation – alcoholism, illiteracy.  Classes of immigrants could be denied entry because of unsuitability, peculiar habits, modes of life or holding property  British-born subject to deportation on political grounds (Winnipeg general 07/06/09 strike) 14
    • 1921 Census  Population 8,787,949  97.5% European origin  22% immigrants  44% immigrants female  58% of foreign-born naturalized citizens  55% pop British origins  33% French origins  126,196 Hebrews  39,347 Chinese  23,342 Japanese  18, 291 ‘Negroes’ 07/06/09 15
    • Chinese Immigrants Under Attack Several restrictive laws come into effect 07/06/09 16
    • 1920’s…Attacks on Chinese Immigrants….  Opium and Narcotic Drug Act led to deportations: 35%  Doors opened to of all the deportations in British citizens, ’23-’24 in Pacific Division Americans and  1923 Order issued citizens of excluding ‘any immigrant of ‘preferred any Asiatic race’ – except countries’. agriculturalists, farm Limitations placed labourers, female domestic servants and wife and on immigrants children of persons legally from Austria, in Canada Hungary, Poland,  Chinese Immigration Act – etc…. more prohibitions.. 07/06/09 17 Humiliation Day
    • Overt Targeting Of Identified Populations Characterized this period. …  1930… Order further prohibited the landing of ‘any immigrant of any Asiatic race’ except wives and minor children of Cdn citizens  Order requiring Chinese and Japanese to renounce their former citizenship before becoming citizens; impact on Japanese.  Deportations on grounds of becoming public charge increased – from 1930 to ’34 the deportations on this ground increased 6x. 07/06/09 18
    • A time of terror….  Communist party made illegal – grounds for deportation (’31)  Deportation of unemployed  ’31 political deportations legalized  ’32 Red Raid  In ’34 94% of applications for naturalization refused  07/06/09 Political deportations 19
    • Faith communities join with others  To advocate for Jewish refugees (’38)  Opposed by many anti- Semitic groups  Cdn National Cttee on Refugees and Victims of Persecution formed  Cttee focused on individual cases, as unsuccessful in affecting policy 07/06/09 20
    • Reluctant moves on refugee issues…..  ’38 Canada reluctantly participated in Evian Conference on refugees with ‘NO’ mandate. Canada’s immigration department was anti-Semitic (“None is too many”)  Canada takes some German refugees, but insists on higher payment from Britain  In response to ’38 refugee crisis, Canada insisted it would accept only those who met categories for admissible immigrants  2,500 “potentially dangerous enemy aliens” brought to Canada from Britain) and interned (in fact many were 07/06/09 Jews) 21
    • Population 11,506,6755 Census ‘41   98% pop of European origin  18% immigrants  45% of these female  71% of immigrants naturalized  50% population of British origin  30% French origin  170,241 Jews  34,627 Chinese  22,174 Africans 07/06/09 22
    • The End of WW II – Some Change  Gov’t resistance to pressure for a more open immigration policy began to give way in the mid ’40;s with:  Sponsorships  Identity documents  Citizenship Act  Emergency measures for refugees (economic considerations) 07/06/09 23
    • However… the ’52 Immigration Act still …  Gave the Minister and officials significant powers over selection, admission and deportation.  Allowed refusal on grounds of nationality, ethnic group, area of origin, peculiar customs, unsuitability re: climate, rate of assimilation, sexual orientation, etc. 07/06/09 24
    •  Gov’t allowed 4 groups to select and process immigrants in ’53  Oops! Conflict arose because the groups (churches) selected the people most in need!!  ’54 Bar Assn criticized the arbitrary exercise of power by immigration officials and called for a quasi-judiciary Immigration Appeals Board 07/06/09 25
    • ’61 Census followed restriction of admission of family members (temporary) & ’60 Bill of Rights ….  Population 18,238,247  96.8% population European  15% immigrants  63% of these were citizens  44% population of British origin  30% French origin 07/06/09 26
    • ’60’s Brought Significant Changes …..  ’62 – removal of much racial discrimination with new immigration regulations;  Assisted loan program extended to Caribbean  ’66 White paper promoting a balance btwn economic interest and family relationship  ’67 – Points system  1969 Canada finally signs Refugee Convention & Protocol 07/06/09 27
    •  ’71 Multiculturalism Opening the doors…. policy announced  Many immigrants and refugees from new source countries  ’74 – Creation of ISAP program  ’78 New Immigration Act which identified 4 categories  Refugee sponsorship program 07/06/09 28
    • 1981 Census  Population 24,083,500  86% had single European origin  16% immigrants  47% of these female  69% immigrants were citizens  40% population British origin  27% French  Greater variety in countries of origin of immigrants 07/06/09 29
    • The ’86 Administrative Review … MADE MANY PEOPLE HAPPY THE 1986 ‘ADMIN REVIEW’ 07/06/09 30
    • Bill C-55 completely revised the refugee determination system creating IRB Proposed two stage process with exception for refugees passing a safe third country which received opposition from refugee advocates Eventually came into effect in 1989 07/06/09 31
    • ’91 Census….. (domestic worker program, special measures for Salvadorans, CSIS, Singh, ’86 administrative review to clear up backlog, creation of IRB for oral hearings)  Population 26,994,045  66% single European origin  16% population were immigrants  81% of these were citizens  51% immigrants female 07/06/09 32
    • 1990s Overview 1990: East European Self-Exiled Class eliminated with fall of iron curtain 1993:Bill C-86 proposed restrictive revisions to the refugee determination system 1995: Right of Landing Fee modern version of the head tax Bill C-44 restricted right to appeal for permanent residents 1999: in July 123 Chinese arrived off the West Coast- the first of 4 such boats that 07/06/09 summer 33
    • Canada Post 9/11 IRPA: Enacted in June 2002 made it harder for Refugees and Immigrants entering Canada. The new act allowed for mandatory detention, security certificates stripping immigrants and residents of their rights and even deportation to torture. Safe Third Country Agreement: Enacted December 2004 made most claims at the U.S Canada Border ineligible by declaring the U.S a safe country. New Citizenship Bill: First introduced in 2002 and just recently passed through parliament reduce the Canadian citizenship. 07/06/09 34
    • Which policies and challenges are affecting today’s refugees and immigrants?  IRPA and lack of a Refugee Appeal Division  Bill C-36 (Anti-terrorism Act)  War on Terror and Focus on Security (project identity,etc)  Safe Third Country Agreement  Reuniting families  Access to professions and trades  Racism  Obtaining ‘legal’ status  Anti-immigrant/refugee sentiment 07/06/09 35