(The first 15 slides are maximum 45 mins. This is including 10 mins. For exercise). Introduction of FCJ Refugee Centre, and personal intro of facilitator. Have the workshop participants introduce themselves – Name and what they do at … (such and such organization)
Perpetrators of the crime of trafficking can be members of well established criminal networks or individuals or family members working independently to profit from loopholes in the national migration and labour regimes. In fact most of the trafficked victims claim to be lured into trafficking by people known to them. Very often the traffickers are from the same nationality of their victims. Increasingly women pay a key role as perpetrators of human trafficking making them more active in modern day slavery trade than in many other types of crime. The trafficking in human beings is a very lucrative business. It generates huge profits for the perpetrators with annual estimations as high as 32 billon USD with profits per individual trafficked ranging from $13,000 to $67,200 per year. In comparison with other forms of illicit traffic (drugs and weapons), the investment made by traffickers is minimal (limited to transportation cost for example, or documentation) and the selling price is several times higher. In addition, the permanent exploitation of the victim generates continuing profits for the traffickers and intermediaries.
One element of each column needs to be present to have a HT crime In regards to children we need to have only act and exploitation to constitute an HT crime. Means are irrelevant. Even if the child agrees, she/he cannot give valid consent due to age immaturity. Unconventional forms of trafficking may include: domestic labour, forced marriage, child solders.
Canada fits all three definitions as many people are trafficked here for purposes of forced labour and work in the sex trade; others only stop here on the way to the U.S.; and many more are trafficked within… As a destination country, many women come here as visitors, family-class immigrants, temporary work migrants (e.g., working as dancers or strippers) or refugees. After false promises of substantial earnings and bogus jobs as nannies, housekeepers, waitresses, exotic dancers or sex workers, the women may end up working in appallingly abusive conditions, exploited as prostitutes working up to 18 hours a day for 7 days a week, until they repay enormous so- called travel debts to regain passports confiscated by their captors or employers. Why this discrepancy in numbers? Possible reasons might be that many people are unaware that they have been in trafficking situations; others may be aware, but hesitant to come forward and share their stories for different reasons; there are estimates that there are an additional 1,500 to 2,000 individuals are trafficked through Canada into the US. There is no official collaboration between the Canadian government and NGOs, which impedes the assessment of trafficking in this country. The RCMP estimates are made in 2004 before the Criminal Code amendment in 2005
Young girls and women go to big cities like Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal with hopes of a good job but instead are lured by a recruiter into the sex trade with promises of a better life. Vulnerable youth in Canada are prime targets – recruiters may approach young women who stay at youth shelters or who are street involved. Common places of recruitment are bars and subway stations. Aboriginal girls are disproportionately affected because
25 convictions (41 victims) under human trafficking specific offences in the Criminal Code enacted in 2005. This does not include the numerous other convictions for human trafficking related conduct under other criminal offences. • Approximately 56 cases currently before the courts, involving at least 85 accused and 136 victims. • At least 26 of these victims were under the age of 18 at the time of the alleged offence. • Over 90% of these cases involve domestic human trafficking; the remaining, less than 10% involved people being brought into Canada from another country. • 3 charges have been laid under section 118 of IRPA
Needs of the trafficked persons Giving the exploitation and the related emotional and physical injuries during the trafficking process, victims have a number of complex needs which have to be addressed with comprehensive service provisions.
In our opinion, one of the best approaches to provide holistic services to trafficked victims is through coordinated case management. The service providing agency has to assign a case manager whose role is to navigate the trafficked person through the complex process in order to obtain the necessary care and assistance. The case manager is a single point of contact, who, after assessing client’s needs, will contact and coordinate the services for the client. Additional services... provide 24/7 support for the client and be present for the client. Trafficked persons are going through a difficult journey of recovery and in many cases the only person they trust will be their case manager.
In order to provide a holistic approach in addressing the complex needs of trafficked persons, service providers need to collaborate with each other and establish effective protocols, including referral mechanisms. The multi-agency response to human trafficking is one of the best models to address the issue. The advantages of such an approach include more effective use of resources, as the responsibility for the trafficked person is pooled among many actors: shelters, law enforcement, trauma counseling, etc., but we have to also avoid overlapping of services, which is identified as challenge in the Canadian context.
Presented by:FCJ REFUGEE CENTRE
HT in numbers TIP: International and Canadian Contexts Services: gaps and future vision Multi- agency network
TIP is the second largest sector of organized crime after drugs and arms generating an estimated $31.6 billion a year. TIP trafficking for sex makes up $ 27.8 billion. (The A 21 Campaign) Women and children make up the majority (88%) of all victims. (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) The majority of trafficking victims are between 18 and 24 years of age. (UN Gift: Global Initiate to Fight Human Trafficking)
Lucrative business: 32 billon USD per year low risk and high profit endeavor. Profits per trafficked individual ranging from $13,000 to $67,200 per year Members of well established criminal networks Individuals or family members Women increasingly play role as perpetrators of HT
MEANS Treat or Use of Force EXPLOITATION Coercion ACT Forced labour or Abduction servicesRecruitment Fraud ServitudeTransportation For the purpose of By means of Deception By means of Removal of Transfer Organs Abuse of PowerHarbouring Abuse of a position Slavery or practices of vulnerability similar to slavery Receipt Giving or receiving payments or Prostitution of benefits to achieve others or other form the consent of a of sexual person, Having exploitation control over another person
Canada: SOURCE, DESTINATION and TRANSIT Lack of official statistics RCMP estimation: 800-1200 people were trafficked to Canada each year (before the Criminal Code legislation) NGOs victims’ estimations is much higher
Domestic trafficking Canadian girls and women ( approximately 36 cases in 2010, 34 cases were domestic) Aboriginal women and girls are disproportionally affected by the crime of trafficking although official statistics are lacking Age 12 and 25 Urban centres as well as smaller centres such Niagara and Peel regions (ON) International Trafficking (?) Eastern Europe, China, Southeast Asia and Latin America Enter Canada with falsified or genuine documents through legal or illegal means The victims usually are destined for major urban centres like Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver
Absence of National Legislation on HT Low conviction rate (new statistics shows that the conviction rate is improving) Lack of awareness among the police and the service providers
Art.6 (3)Services victims of trafficking are entitled to: (a) appropriate housing; (b) counselling and information, in particular as regards their legal rights, in a language that the victims of trafficking in persons can understand; (c) medical, psychological and material assistance; and (d) employment, educational and training opportunities.Article 6 (4)State parties to take into account the age, gender and special needs of victims of trafficking, children, in particular.
There is a lack of legislation and clearly articulated policies regarding the services and protection available to trafficked persons. The assistance is sporadic and often depend on the mandate of the organization providing the service. The availability of services depends upon the political willingness on federal and provincial level to allocate recourses.
1st phase: Crisis Intervention and Assessment• victim receives emergency assistance and safety; 2nd phase: Comprehensive Assessment and Case Management• victim receives proper care and ongoing coordinated assistance; 3rd phase: Re/Integration and Settlement• survivor of human trafficking is ready to begin again her/his life.Source: Heather Clawson Caliber, Study of HHS Programs Serving Trafficking Victims, 2009
Sphere of Protection R E Integration F Destination/third country Victim L Shelter andidentification and referral E Recovery OR Vo etu C R lu rn nt T ar y I O Reintegration N
Housing Medical care Trauma counseling Legal assistance Court Assistance Settlement services Skill training and education
Case manager assigned to assist trafficked person through the complex process; Additional supports from case manager:• translation services, accompanying client to appointments, assisting client with navigating the transportation system and teaching her/him basic life skills;
No agency, governmental or non-governmental, has the capacity to respond alone to human trafficking victim. The multi-agency response to human trafficking is one of the best models to address the issue. Advantages:• Effective use of resources thus avoid overlapping The Canadian experience: BC, Manitoba, Alberta
Emergency Health and Counselling Housing and Dental and Support Shelter Services Translation and Trafficked Person Legal Interpretation Consultation May Require Services Culturally Sensitive Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons 1-888-712-7974 Academia & Law Enforcement ResearchSource: OCTIP, BC