HT in numbers TIP: International and Canadian Contexts Services: gaps and future vision Multi- agency network
TIP is the second largest sector of organized crime after drugs and arms generating an estimated $31.6 billion a year. TIP trafficking for sex makes up $ 27.8 billion. (The A 21 Campaign) Women and children make up the majority (88%) of all victims. (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) The majority of trafficking victims are between 18 and 24 years of age. (UN Gift: Global Initiate to Fight Human Trafficking)
Lucrative business: 32 billon USD per year low risk and high profit endeavor. Profits per trafficked individual ranging from $13,000 to $67,200 per year Members of well established criminal networks Individuals or family members Women increasingly play role as perpetrators of HT
MEANS Treat or Use of Force EXPLOITATION Coercion ACT Forced labour or Abduction servicesRecruitment Fraud ServitudeTransportation For the purpose of By means of Deception By means of Removal of Transfer Organs Abuse of PowerHarbouring Abuse of a position Slavery or practices of vulnerability similar to slavery Receipt Giving or receiving payments or Prostitution of benefits to achieve others or other form the consent of a of sexual person, Having exploitation control over another person
Canada: SOURCE, DESTINATION and TRANSIT Lack of official statistics RCMP estimation: 800-1200 people were trafficked to Canada each year (before the Criminal Code legislation) NGOs victims’ estimations is much higher
Domestic trafficking Canadian girls and women ( approximately 36 cases in 2010, 34 cases were domestic) Aboriginal women and girls are disproportionally affected by the crime of trafficking although official statistics are lacking Age 12 and 25 Urban centres as well as smaller centres such Niagara and Peel regions (ON) International Trafficking (?) Eastern Europe, China, Southeast Asia and Latin America Enter Canada with falsified or genuine documents through legal or illegal means The victims usually are destined for major urban centres like Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver
Absence of National Legislation on HT Low conviction rate (new statistics shows that the conviction rate is improving) Lack of awareness among the police and the service providers
Art.6 (3)Services victims of trafficking are entitled to: (a) appropriate housing; (b) counselling and information, in particular as regards their legal rights, in a language that the victims of trafficking in persons can understand; (c) medical, psychological and material assistance; and (d) employment, educational and training opportunities.Article 6 (4)State parties to take into account the age, gender and special needs of victims of trafficking, children, in particular.
There is a lack of legislation and clearly articulated policies regarding the services and protection available to trafficked persons. The assistance is sporadic and often depend on the mandate of the organization providing the service. The availability of services depends upon the political willingness on federal and provincial level to allocate recourses.
1st phase: Crisis Intervention and Assessment• victim receives emergency assistance and safety; 2nd phase: Comprehensive Assessment and Case Management• victim receives proper care and ongoing coordinated assistance; 3rd phase: Re/Integration and Settlement• survivor of human trafficking is ready to begin again her/his life.Source: Heather Clawson Caliber, Study of HHS Programs Serving Trafficking Victims, 2009
Sphere of Protection R E Integration F Destination/third country Victim L Shelter andidentification and referral E Recovery OR Vo etu C R lu rn nt T ar y I O Reintegration N
Housing Medical care Trauma counseling Legal assistance Court Assistance Settlement services Skill training and education
Case manager assigned to assist trafficked person through the complex process; Additional supports from case manager:• translation services, accompanying client to appointments, assisting client with navigating the transportation system and teaching her/him basic life skills;
No agency, governmental or non-governmental, has the capacity to respond alone to human trafficking victim. The multi-agency response to human trafficking is one of the best models to address the issue. Advantages:• Effective use of resources thus avoid overlapping The Canadian experience: BC, Manitoba, Alberta
Emergency Health and Counselling Housing and Dental and Support Shelter Services Translation and Trafficked Person Legal Interpretation Consultation May Require Services Culturally Sensitive Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons 1-888-712-7974 Academia & Law Enforcement ResearchSource: OCTIP, BC