Rebuilding Professional Lives:
Immigrant Professionals
Working in the Ontario
Settlement Sector
Adnan Türegün
Centre for I...
Outline
 Posing the Problem
 Research Design
 Preliminary Findings
 Concluding Remarks
2
Posing the Problem
 Immigrants and refugees lack access
to professions and trades in Canada.
 What do internationally tr...
 De-professionalization: Many ITPs
experience de-professionalization
through unemployment or work which
does not require...
 In the context of re-
professionalization, settlement work is
a second profession for many ITPs.
 Immigrant and refugee...
Research Design
 A study of Ontario settlement workers
who are trained abroad in areas other
than settlement work.
 In c...
 In-depth interviews with employees
holding a variety of positions, including
those who make hiring decisions, at
these a...
 A caveat: Our online survey is not
based on a representative sample of
the internationally trained labour force
in the O...
Preliminary Findings
 Analysis of data, particularly of in-
depth interviews, is still ongoing.
 A full report is to be ...
21%
79%
Sex
Male= 32 Female= 123
10
26%
32%
32%
10%
AgeGroup
25-34 = 41 35-44 = 49 45-54 = 50 55-64 = 15
11
12
21.29
38.06
20.65
0.65
18.06
1.29
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Africa & Middle
East
Asia & Pacific South & Central
America
Un...
13
10.32
23.87
11.61
9.03
2.58 1.29
15.48
16.77
2.58
6.45
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Chinese South
Asian
Black Arab/West
Asi...
14
1.94
42.58
10.32
1.29
23.87
1.94
10.32
7.74
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Buddhist Christian Hindu Jewish Muslim Sikh Non-reli...
15
11.61
43.23
35.48
9.68
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Diploma/Certificate Bachelor's Master's Doctorate
Level of Education
F...
Top 10 Fields of Education Number (%)
Business Administration and Management 21 (13.55)
Education 18 (11.61)
Arts, Languag...
74%
8%
17%
1%
Place of Education
Country of Birth = 114 Canada= 13 ThirdCountry = 27 DNA = 1
17
18
0.65 2.58
7.10
9.68
13.55
22.58
15.48
19.35
7.74
1.29
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1965-19691970-19741975-19791980-19841985...
79%
21%
Pre-ImmigrationEmploymentinField of
Education
Yes = 122 No = 33
19
Top 10 Pre-Immigration Job Titles in Field of
Education
Number (%)
School Teacher 16 (13.11)
Manager 14 (11.48)
University...
21
27.05
33.61
21.31
11.48
4.92
0.82 0.82
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 DNA
Duration of Pre...
22
0.65 0.65 1.29
5.16 5.81
22.58
34.84
29.03
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
1965-1969 1970-1974 1980-1984 1985-1989 1990-1994 1995-1...
92%
8%
Provinceof Arrival
Ontario= 143 Other Provinces = 12
23
24
45.16
26.45
15.48
1.29 4.52 5.16 1.94
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Economic
Class
Family Class Protected
Person
Temporary
...
64%
35%
1%
CitizenshipStatus
CanadianCitizen= 99 Non-CanadianCitizen= 55 DNA = 1
25
70%
30%
Expectationof ProfessionalPractice in Canada
Yes = 109 No = 46
26
27
44.34
12.26
7.55
5.66
8.49
6.6
22.64
14.15 14.15
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Reasons for Expectation of Professional...
72%
28%
ActiveSearch for Professional Practice in Canada
Yes = 111 No = 44
28
29
21.43
9.52
16.67
9.52
7.14
11.90
9.52
40.48
16.67
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Reasons for Not Actively Searching for Pr...
91.89
29.73
55.86
42.34
64.86
71.17
95.5
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Forms of Active Search for Professional Practice in
Canada*...
31
44.12
48.04
69.61
11.76
58.82 57.84
49.02
8.82
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Government
Agency
Professional
Regulatory
Body...
53%
47%
Resultof the Applicationfor Registration
Succeeded= 25 DidNot Succeed = 22
32
44%
56%
Resultof the Search for a Job Related to the
Profession
Found = 47 DidNot Find = 59
33
34
2
1 1
2
1
2
1 1
2
4
1
2
1
5
2 2
5
3
1 1 1 1
2
1 1 1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Post-Imigration Job Titles in the Professional Field
...
35
11
10
6
2
3 3
1
2
1
2
1 1 1 1
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
1 yr 2 yrs 3 yrs 4 yrs 5 yrs 6 yrs 7 yrs 8 yrs 9 yrs 10 yrs 11 yrs 14 y...
36
19
7
1 2 2
5
2
3
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Reasons for Leaving Jobs in the Professional Field
Frequency
37
20.37
9.26
5.56
48.15
24.07
9.26
14.81
12.96
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Self-Explanation of Prevention from Practising
Profess...
69%
29%
2%
Post-ImmigrationEmploymentinNon-
Professionaland Non-SettlementFields
Yes = 107 No = 45 DNA = 3
38
39
40.57
2.83
12.26
18.87
12.26 11.32
5.66
14.15 13.21
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Non-Professional and Non-Settlement ...
40
48.11
12.26
9.43
14.15 14.15
24.53
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Post-Immigration Job Titles in Non-Professional and
Non-Settleme...
41
41.82
15.45
8.18
5.45
7.27
6.36
2.72 0.91 1.82 0.91 0.91
8.18
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
1 yr 2 yrs 3 yrs 4 yrs 5 y...
Top Five Reasons for Leaving Post-Immigration
Jobs in Non-Professional and Non-Settlement
Fields
Number (%)
Dissatisfactio...
43
14.84
35.48
18.06
15.48
5.81
10.32
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Seeking Help for
Initial Settlement
Needs
Seeking Help for
Emplo...
47%
42%
11%
First SettlementAgencyContact - First
SettlementJobMatch
Yes = 73 No = 65 DNA = 17
44
45
39.39
9.09 4.55
24.24 22.73
6.06
15.15 13.64
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Reasons for Seeking Employment in the Settlement
Secto...
46
0.65 3.23
9.03
19.35
54.19
13.55
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1985-1989 1990-1994 1995-1999 2000-2004 2005-2009 DNA
Per...
First Settlement Job Titles (Top Five) Number (%)
Settlement Worker/Counsellor 43 (27.74)
Administrative/Program Coordinat...
39%
47%
14%
First SettlementJob - Current SettlementJobMatch
Yes = 60 No = 73 DNA = 22
48
Current Settlement Job Titles (Top Five) Number (%)
Administrative/Program Coordinator 19 (20.00)
Settlement Worker/Counse...
42%
34%
24%
First SPO Employer- Current SPO Employer
Match
Yes = 38 No = 31 DNA = 22
50
67%
19%
14%
ProfessionalTraining Related to Settlementsince
First Job in the Sector
Yes = 104 No = 29 DNA = 22
51
37%
38%
25%
Desireto Go Back to Practice in Primary Profession
Yes = 58 No = 58 DNA = 39
52
41%
34%
25%
Desireto Go Back to Practice in Primary
Profession(Giventhe Opportunity)
Yes = 64 No = 52 DNA = 39
53
Concluding Remarks
 Respondents place heavy emphasis
on the personal, inner satisfaction they
get from, and the social ob...
 By establishing this connection, they
make sense of the multitude of
investments that they have made for
and in their pr...
 In their work with and for newcomers,
they find a connection in different
forms and varying degrees to their
primary pro...
Thank you!
Contact:
adnan_turegun@carleton.ca
57
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  •  Refugees do not, of course, have this option at least until their countries of origin are safe to return to and/or until they become Canadian citizens.
  •  It is interesting to note that, as early as 1988, the Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants used the term “de-professionalization of immigrants” in a brief to the Task Force on Access to Professions and Trades in Ontario (OCASI 1988, p. 23).
  • One area existing research has paid scant attention to are the choices that foreign-trained individuals make – and the strategies they use – under the given circumstances of receiving societies.
  • This study looks at the lived reality of a particular group of foreign-born and -trained professionals in the Province of Ontario. These are the professionals who did not get to practise their respective professions after immigration but acquired a new profession in the form of settlement work.
  • Ten of the excluded responses were repeat entries; 37 had only demographic information; three came from the Canadian-born and -trained; 20 came from the foreign-trained but had no information on their Canadian experience; and three were by those foreign-trained who had no settlement work experience in Canada.
  • We do not know the size and composition of the foreign-born population in Ontario’s settlement sector workforce, which would be necessary to attempt at random sampling.
  • A female-dominated workforce, confirming other studies such as the Community Social Planning Council of Toronto and Family Service Association of Toronto survey, 86% of whose respondents were female and 14% male (2006).
  • A young workforce with 58% being under the age of 45.
  • A workforce which broadly reflects the source regions of contemporary Canadian immigration.
  • A workforce which broadly reflects the ethnic composition of contemporary Canadian immigration.
  • Muslim respondents are overrepresented.
  • A highly educated workforce.
  • Accounting for 77% (119) of all (155) responses.
  • A young generation of graduates.
  • Four out of every five respondents have work experience in their field of education.
  •  Business Owner, Economist/Financial Analyst, Researcher, and Rural Development Officer are other job titles which were also mentioned four times. The top 10 titles, including these four, account for 75% (91) of all (122) applicable responses. Concentration in teaching and managing.
  • * Since the respondents were allowed to give multiple reasons, the total number of responses (144) exceeds the number of respondents (106). Three of the 109 eligible respondents did not answer.
  • * Since the respondents were allowed to give multiple reasons, the total number of responses (60) exceeds the number of respondents (42). Two of the 44 eligible respondents did not answer.
  • * Since the respondents were allowed to give multiple reasons, the total number of responses (501) exceeds the number of eligible respondents (111).
  • * Since the respondents were allowed to give multiple reasons, the total number of responses (355) exceeds the number of eligible respondents (102).
  • * We asked this question to those who were involved in some form of active search for, but could not achieve, professional practice in Canada. Since the respondents were allowed to give multiple reasons, the total number of responses (78) exceeds the number of respondents (54). Ten of the 64 eligible respondents did not answer.
  • * Because of the multiple responses, the total number of responses (139) exceeds the number of respondents (106). Four of the 110 eligible respondents did not answer.
  • * Because of the multiple responses, the total number of responses (130) exceeds the number of respondents (106). Four of the 110 eligible respondents did not answer.
  • 110 eligible respondents; 101 responses.
  • Accounting for 65% (71) of applicable responses (110).
  • * Since the respondents were allowed to give multiple reasons, the total number of responses (178) exceeds the total number of respondents (132). The rest (23) of the sample did not answer.
  • Accounting for 61% (95) of all responses (155).
  • Accounting for 62% (59) of applicable responses (95).
  • A1 b1 rebuilding professional life

    1. 1. Rebuilding Professional Lives: Immigrant Professionals Working in the Ontario Settlement Sector Adnan Türegün Centre for International Migration and Settlement Studies, Carleton University Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants 2010 Executive Directors’ Forum and Fall 2010 Professional Development Conference 1-5 November, Alliston 1
    2. 2. Outline  Posing the Problem  Research Design  Preliminary Findings  Concluding Remarks 2
    3. 3. Posing the Problem  Immigrants and refugees lack access to professions and trades in Canada.  What do internationally trained professionals (ITPs) do when they do not get to practise their professions in Canada?  Exit Option: They may return to their countries of origin or move to a third country for professional pursuit. 3
    4. 4.  De-professionalization: Many ITPs experience de-professionalization through unemployment or work which does not require any professional skills set.  Re-professionalization or professional rebuilding: They may acquire a new profession which may or may not be related to their primary profession. 4
    5. 5.  In the context of re- professionalization, settlement work is a second profession for many ITPs.  Immigrant and refugee professionals practising settlement work are an under-researched population.  What are the personal and organizational dynamics underlying the employment of ITPs in the settlement sector? 5
    6. 6. Research Design  A study of Ontario settlement workers who are trained abroad in areas other than settlement work.  In collaboration with the Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI) and with funding from CERIS – The Ontario Metropolis Centre.  An online survey (August-November 2009) targeting the employees of OCASI member agencies. 6
    7. 7.  In-depth interviews with employees holding a variety of positions, including those who make hiring decisions, at these agencies (November 2009- March 2010).  Of the 228 responses to the online survey, 155 were included in the analysis and the rest were excluded for various reasons. 7
    8. 8.  A caveat: Our online survey is not based on a representative sample of the internationally trained labour force in the Ontario settlement sector.  19 in-depth interviews were conducted among those who responded to the online survey and 6 particularly with agency staff in a managing position. 8
    9. 9. Preliminary Findings  Analysis of data, particularly of in- depth interviews, is still ongoing.  A full report is to be expected in January 2011. 9
    10. 10. 21% 79% Sex Male= 32 Female= 123 10
    11. 11. 26% 32% 32% 10% AgeGroup 25-34 = 41 35-44 = 49 45-54 = 50 55-64 = 15 11
    12. 12. 12 21.29 38.06 20.65 0.65 18.06 1.29 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Africa & Middle East Asia & Pacific South & Central America United States Europe & United Kingdom DNA (Did Not Answer) Region of Birth Frequency Percent
    13. 13. 13 10.32 23.87 11.61 9.03 2.58 1.29 15.48 16.77 2.58 6.45 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Chinese South Asian Black Arab/West Asian Filipino Southeast Asian Latin American White Other DNA Ethnic Status Frequency Percent
    14. 14. 14 1.94 42.58 10.32 1.29 23.87 1.94 10.32 7.74 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Buddhist Christian Hindu Jewish Muslim Sikh Non-religious DNA Religious Affiliation Frequency Percent
    15. 15. 15 11.61 43.23 35.48 9.68 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Diploma/Certificate Bachelor's Master's Doctorate Level of Education Frequency Percent
    16. 16. Top 10 Fields of Education Number (%) Business Administration and Management 21 (13.55) Education 18 (11.61) Arts, Language, and Literature 17 (10.97) Science 14 (09.03) Law 11 (07.10) Engineering 9 (05.81) Social Science 8 (05.16) Social Work 8 (05.16) Journalism and Communication 7 (04.52) Medicine, Dentistry, and Veterinary Medicine 6 (03.87) 16
    17. 17. 74% 8% 17% 1% Place of Education Country of Birth = 114 Canada= 13 ThirdCountry = 27 DNA = 1 17
    18. 18. 18 0.65 2.58 7.10 9.68 13.55 22.58 15.48 19.35 7.74 1.29 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1965-19691970-19741975-19791980-19841985-19891990-19941995-19992000-20042005-2009 DNA Period of Graduation Frequency Percent
    19. 19. 79% 21% Pre-ImmigrationEmploymentinField of Education Yes = 122 No = 33 19
    20. 20. Top 10 Pre-Immigration Job Titles in Field of Education Number (%) School Teacher 16 (13.11) Manager 14 (11.48) University Professor 8 (06.56) Lawyer 6 (04.92) Director 6 (04.92) Coordinator 6 (04.92) Engineer 5 (04.10) ESL Teacher 5 (04.10) HR Officer 5 (04.10) Other Health Professional 4 (03.28) 20
    21. 21. 21 27.05 33.61 21.31 11.48 4.92 0.82 0.82 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 DNA Duration of Pre-Immigration Employment in Field of Education (in Years) Frequency Percent
    22. 22. 22 0.65 0.65 1.29 5.16 5.81 22.58 34.84 29.03 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1965-1969 1970-1974 1980-1984 1985-1989 1990-1994 1995-1999 2000-2004 2005-2009 Period of Arrival in Canada Frequency Percent
    23. 23. 92% 8% Provinceof Arrival Ontario= 143 Other Provinces = 12 23
    24. 24. 24 45.16 26.45 15.48 1.29 4.52 5.16 1.94 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Economic Class Family Class Protected Person Temporary Worker Visitor Student DNA (Im)migration Category Frequency Percent
    25. 25. 64% 35% 1% CitizenshipStatus CanadianCitizen= 99 Non-CanadianCitizen= 55 DNA = 1 25
    26. 26. 70% 30% Expectationof ProfessionalPractice in Canada Yes = 109 No = 46 26
    27. 27. 27 44.34 12.26 7.55 5.66 8.49 6.6 22.64 14.15 14.15 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Reasons for Expectation of Professional Practice in Canada* Frequency Percent
    28. 28. 72% 28% ActiveSearch for Professional Practice in Canada Yes = 111 No = 44 28
    29. 29. 29 21.43 9.52 16.67 9.52 7.14 11.90 9.52 40.48 16.67 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Reasons for Not Actively Searching for Professional Practice in Canada* Frequency Percent
    30. 30. 91.89 29.73 55.86 42.34 64.86 71.17 95.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Forms of Active Search for Professional Practice in Canada* Frequency Percent 30
    31. 31. 31 44.12 48.04 69.61 11.76 58.82 57.84 49.02 8.82 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Government Agency Professional Regulatory Body Settlement Service Agency Legal or Professional Advocacy Organization Individuals Practising, or Trying to Practise, the Profession Employers in the Profession Family and Friends Other Institutions and Individuals Seeking Help from Institutions and Individuals* Frequency Percent
    32. 32. 53% 47% Resultof the Applicationfor Registration Succeeded= 25 DidNot Succeed = 22 32
    33. 33. 44% 56% Resultof the Search for a Job Related to the Profession Found = 47 DidNot Find = 59 33
    34. 34. 34 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 4 1 2 1 5 2 2 5 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Post-Imigration Job Titles in the Professional Field Frequency
    35. 35. 35 11 10 6 2 3 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 yr 2 yrs 3 yrs 4 yrs 5 yrs 6 yrs 7 yrs 8 yrs 9 yrs 10 yrs 11 yrs 14 yrs 15 yrs 17 yrs 18 yrs Duration of Post-Immigration Employment in the Professional Field Frequency
    36. 36. 36 19 7 1 2 2 5 2 3 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Reasons for Leaving Jobs in the Professional Field Frequency
    37. 37. 37 20.37 9.26 5.56 48.15 24.07 9.26 14.81 12.96 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Self-Explanation of Prevention from Practising Profession in Ontario* Frequency Percent
    38. 38. 69% 29% 2% Post-ImmigrationEmploymentinNon- Professionaland Non-SettlementFields Yes = 107 No = 45 DNA = 3 38
    39. 39. 39 40.57 2.83 12.26 18.87 12.26 11.32 5.66 14.15 13.21 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Non-Professional and Non-Settlement Fields of Post- Immigration Employment Frequency Percent
    40. 40. 40 48.11 12.26 9.43 14.15 14.15 24.53 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Post-Immigration Job Titles in Non-Professional and Non-Settlement Fields Frequency Percent
    41. 41. 41 41.82 15.45 8.18 5.45 7.27 6.36 2.72 0.91 1.82 0.91 0.91 8.18 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1 yr 2 yrs 3 yrs 4 yrs 5 yrs 6 yrs 7 yrs 9 yrs 10 yrs 12 yrs 14 yrs DNA Duration of Post-Immigration Employment in Non- Professional and Non-Settlement Fields Frequency Percent
    42. 42. Top Five Reasons for Leaving Post-Immigration Jobs in Non-Professional and Non-Settlement Fields Number (%) Dissatisfaction with Job or Employer 23 (20.91) Transition to Settlement Work 17 (15.45) Further Education 11 (10.00) Search for Better Employment 10 (09.09) Business Downsizing or Closure 10 (09.09) 42
    43. 43. 43 14.84 35.48 18.06 15.48 5.81 10.32 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Seeking Help for Initial Settlement Needs Seeking Help for Employment in the Area of Professional Qualification Volunteering Looking for Work at the Agency Other DNA Reasons for First Contact with a Settlement Agency Frequency Percent
    44. 44. 47% 42% 11% First SettlementAgencyContact - First SettlementJobMatch Yes = 73 No = 65 DNA = 17 44
    45. 45. 45 39.39 9.09 4.55 24.24 22.73 6.06 15.15 13.64 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Reasons for Seeking Employment in the Settlement Sector* Frequency Percent
    46. 46. 46 0.65 3.23 9.03 19.35 54.19 13.55 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1985-1989 1990-1994 1995-1999 2000-2004 2005-2009 DNA Period of First Employment in the Settlement Sector Frequency Percent
    47. 47. First Settlement Job Titles (Top Five) Number (%) Settlement Worker/Counsellor 43 (27.74) Administrative/Program Coordinator 18 (11.61) Community/Outreach Worker 14 (09.03) Other Non-Supervisory Position 10 (06.45) Administrative Assistant/Receptionist 10 (06.45) 47
    48. 48. 39% 47% 14% First SettlementJob - Current SettlementJobMatch Yes = 60 No = 73 DNA = 22 48
    49. 49. Current Settlement Job Titles (Top Five) Number (%) Administrative/Program Coordinator 19 (20.00) Settlement Worker/Counsellor 17 (17.89) Program Supervisor/Manager 13 (13.68) Executive/Program Director 5 (05.26) Other Non-Supervisory Position 5 (05.26) 49
    50. 50. 42% 34% 24% First SPO Employer- Current SPO Employer Match Yes = 38 No = 31 DNA = 22 50
    51. 51. 67% 19% 14% ProfessionalTraining Related to Settlementsince First Job in the Sector Yes = 104 No = 29 DNA = 22 51
    52. 52. 37% 38% 25% Desireto Go Back to Practice in Primary Profession Yes = 58 No = 58 DNA = 39 52
    53. 53. 41% 34% 25% Desireto Go Back to Practice in Primary Profession(Giventhe Opportunity) Yes = 64 No = 52 DNA = 39 53
    54. 54. Concluding Remarks  Respondents place heavy emphasis on the personal, inner satisfaction they get from, and the social obligation they feel towards, settlement work.  For many, settlement work is a “calling.” 54
    55. 55.  By establishing this connection, they make sense of the multitude of investments that they have made for and in their previous careers.  For professionals, occupational identity is one of the building blocks of self and losing that can thus be destructive of self. 55
    56. 56.  In their work with and for newcomers, they find a connection in different forms and varying degrees to their primary profession. 56
    57. 57. Thank you! Contact: adnan_turegun@carleton.ca 57
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