Bakarr 2 2006 29th September
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Bakarr 2 2006 29th September






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Bakarr 2 2006 29th September Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Demystifying the Role of Agroforestry in Biodiversity Conservation Mohamed I Bakarr ICRAF’s Scientific Renewal Seminar Series
  • 2. Agroforestry….  Creates livelihood options for poor farmers and their families in conservation landscapes  ‘Agroforest’ forms of tree crop production form a matrix that matters for conservation of biodiversity  Principles can be applied in landscape approaches to biodiversity conservation …..needs to be mainstreamed.
  • 3. Why mainstream agroforestry in biodiversity conservation?
  • 4. Global Biodiversity Conservation • The message is clear and consistent -- – Maintaining representative networks of natural habitats – Protected Areas – Eliminate threats to species – Sustainable use of natural resources – Access and benefit sharing • But, the extent to which we are integrating these efforts in broader landscapes remains questionable
  • 5. Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation • Agroforestry contributes to biodiversity conservation through three major pathways: 1. Reducing pressure on natural forests, 2. Providing habitat for native plant and animal species, and 3. Serving as a benign matrix land use for fragmented landscapes Schroth et al. 2004
  • 6. Fragmentation is deleterious Loss of habitat results in: – wildlife population declines – local “extinctions” -- particularly large mammals – Increased in marginalized habitats Miss Waldron’s Red Colobus, a West African endemic believed to be extinct across its range.
  • 7. Fragmentation causes forest edges to recede • Edge effects can be pronounced by “harshness” of the matrix == > – incidence of fires -- changes in biotic and abiotic features – exotic and invasive species • Receding edges lead to increased impoverishment of the habitat interior Gascon et al. 2000
  • 8. The Future of Biodiversity is in Landscape-scale approaches • Livelihood options for local people – top priority in forest management and conservation • Effective linkages between protected areas and other land use practices – “beyond boundaries” • Innovations in land use practices to create alternative sources of income • Opportunities to recognize and reward land use innovations (e.g. payments for environmental services) • Participatory processes for integrated natural resource management
  • 9. Landscape-scale Conservation • Integrating the management of: – Protected Areas – Watersheds – Degraded forests – Farms and Plantations • To accommodate: – Species and habitat conservation needs – Ecological processes – Effects of biophysical changes such as climate – Traditional or subsistence livelihood practices
  • 10. The science and practice of agroforestry embodies several conservation principles that are amenable to landscape approaches
  • 11. Principle 1: Maintaining genetic diversity of exploited species through in situ and ex situ conservation
  • 12. Domestication of high value indigenous trees 1. Product development 2. Business development 3. Marketing
  • 13. Principle 2: Protecting biodiversity and enhancing ecological processes
  • 14. Agroforestry for Biodiversity: ‘Shade’ coffee ‘Shade coffee’ supports diversity of avifauna in the landscape.
  • 15. AF in the Humid Tropics & C Stocks 400 Primary Forest Vegetation Carbon 300 Managed forest 200 (Mg ha-1) Tree-based systems 100 Crops, Pastures, Grasslands 0 Soil Carbon 100 From ASB Climate Change Working Group,Palm et al.
  • 16. Principle 3: Management and conservation of belowground biodiversity
  • 17. Tephrosia candida fallow: Nutrient Cycling by: Leaf Litter; BNF; Deep capture
  • 18. Principle 4: Improvement and sustainable management of landscapes for livelihoods and biodiversity
  • 19. Improved fallows Clearing Miombo woodlands Grass fallow continuous cropping Poor yields NPK Fertilizer Improved fallow Improved yields
  • 20. LIVE FENCES Fencing is a major cause of deforestation in drier areas. Live fences are alternatives to dead fences—limit tree clearance— and are sources of Jatropha income .
  • 21. Harvey et al. 2005
  • 22. Rotational Woodlots Acacia species yield approx 100t/ha after 5 years
  • 23. Principle 5: Addressing livelihood needs in the margins of conservation areas
  • 24. Effective management of protected buffer zones to reduce encroachment e.g. ICRAF’s work in Philippines
  • 25. How can Agroforestry be mainstreamed in Biodiversity Conservation?
  • 26. Option 1 • Linking agroforestry science to landscape conservation planning – targeting agroforestry innovations for habitat connectivity – landscape reclamation or restoration – improving land productivity and habitat quality for wild species Strategic alliances with mainstream conservation NGOs
  • 27. Option 2 • Use of INRM approaches for defining livelihood priorities and tree-based options in conservation landscapes – Tradeoff analysis in the forest margins (e.g. ASB Matrix) – Negotiation support systems for conflict management – Collective action for improved natural resource management (e.g. Landcare)
  • 28. Option 3 • Engaging conservation biologists in the science and practice of agroforestry – defining biodiversity targets – analyzing metapopulation dynamics – mitigating impacts of climate change – types of trees, spatial configurations of trees, densities of trees
  • 29. Option 4 • Expanding the range of agroforestry options offered to farmers to enhance conservation values – enhance the use of multiple species of trees, especially indigenous species,to diversify production landscapes
  • 30. Option 5 • Harnessing and maintaining complex agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation – rewards and incentive mechanisms for poor farmers engaged in conservation-friendly practices (e.g. shade coffee, rubber agroforests)
  • 31. Option 6 • Promoting more systematic studies of species interactions and ecological processes in agroforestry systems – understanding the risks of invasiveness for alien tree species – habitat use by wild species, including corridors – watershed management
  • 32. Option 7 • Integrating agroforestry into Conservation Biology Curricula, with topics such as: – Domestication of high value tree species – Managing trees for improved landscapes – Managing trees to mitigate the effects of biophysical changes – Integrating trees in landscapes to enhance environmental services – Assessing and rewarding environmental stewardship in agroecosystems – Value-adding for tree-based practices to create options for improved livelihoods in conservation areas
  • 33. Option 8 • Linking agroforestry science to global and regional environmental policy process – Millennium Ecosystem Assessment endorsement – major achievement! – CBD Programmes of Work on agricultural biodiversity; Global Strategy for Plant Conservation – UNCCD – reversing land degradation in the drylands – UNFCCC – climate change adaptation and mitigation; clean development mechanism – NEPAD Environment Initiative
  • 34. Implications for ICRAF’s ‘Emerging Science’
  • 35. Emerging Science? (1) • Are we putting agroforests or agroforestry systems into landscape contexts? – Value-adding options for linking “farms” at landscape scale – Restoration or recovery of degraded lands – Optimizing land use practices for native biodiversity (plants, animals) – Optimizing land use practices to mitigate alien invasives – Climate change adapation
  • 36. Emerging Science? (2) • How does agroforests or agroforestry systems influence landscape scale patterns/processes and vice versa? – Hydrological processes - watersheds – Agroforestry “stepping stones” as biological corridors – Erosion control on slopes – Climate change mitigation - Carbon sequestration Mainly SE Asia, some work in Western Kenya
  • 37. Strategic Alliances • ICRAF-CIFOR Biodiversity Platform – Understanding tropical landscape mosaics to improve livelihoods and conserve biodiversity • ICRAF-CI Hotspots Alliance – Science for climate change adaptation, habitat recovery and sustainable livelihoods in tropical hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas • ICRAF-WWF Carbon Alliance – Delivering cost-effective greenhouse gas emission reductions, while promoting biodiversity conservation, sustainable land use and improvements in rural livelihoods