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Anderson reed jan21-2008

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  • 1. APRIL ‘07 Evolving Wireless Markets & The Software Challenge, or Software Is The Answer, But What Is The Question? Willie Anderson and Rowland Reed Qualcomm CDMA Technologies DSP Development Group, Austin PAGE 1
  • 2. Overview • Motivation: The Evolving and Huge Wireless Market Opportunities • Hexagon DSP Introduction • Hexagon DSP V2 Verification • The Software Challenge & Its Effect On Overall Market • Practical Approaches Structured Specification Functional Coverage for Software / System Test Open-Source RTOS? Software System Simulation • Conclusion and Questions PAGE 2
  • 3. Wireless: Key Growth Drivers for Semiconductor Industry Converging 600+ Million Mobile Multimedia & Mobility Multimedia Users (2006) Combining location & mobility with audio, camera, video & gaming Migrating Voice to Data 1+ Billion Data 3G Network Deployments around the globe: DO, Users (2007) WCDMA, TD-SCDMA Increasing Tele-density ~1.8 Billion Voice Extending Voice Services into emerging markets Users (2008) Growth Drivers Sources (top to bottom): Yankee Group; ARC Group; Yankee Group PAGE 3
  • 4. Wireless: Key Growth Drivers for Semiconductor Industry Converging The Wireless Internet Will Soon HaveMillion Mobile 600+ Multimedia & Mobility Greater Impact Than& The Wired Internet Users (2006) Combining location mobility with Multimedia audio, camera, video & gaming • 1B+ Mobile Data User By End Of 2007 With Anytime, Anywhereto Data Migrating Voice Connectivity 1+ Billion Data 3G Network Deployments around the globe: DO, Users (2007) • Vast Portions Of The World Will Have WCDMA, TD-SCDMA Access To Only Wireless Internet Increasing Tele-density Mobile ~1.8 Billion Voice • Laptops Now Embedded With markets Extending Voice Services into emerging Users (2008) Wide Area Broadband Modules • Over 600M Phones Already Have Multimedia CapabilityDrivers Growth Sources (top to bottom): Yankee Group; ARC Group; Yankee Group PAGE 4
  • 5. “Tomorrow’s Cell Phone Will Entertain, Amaze… and Even Make Calls” (Fortune Magazine, October 2006) Live TV Channels Live TV broadcasts Health and Fitness Monitor your heart rate Tagging Share your favorite restaurant with friends Personal Identification Gain access to data Digital Wallet Mobile commerce Media Center Get connected with other Source: Fortune / Samuel Velasco / 5W Infographics in-home devices through Wi-Fi PAGE 5
  • 6. Mobile Phone Shipments Outstrip All Other Devices Global Device Sales (M's) 1400 1286 1252 1205 1156 1200 1086 986 1000 833 800 Millions 676 600 530 437 400 200 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Sources • Mobile phone sales – Strategy Analytics, Oct’06 • Laptop and Desktop data – IDC PC tracker – Q1’07 PAGE 6
  • 7. Moving Beyond Voice Wireless WAN Evolution From 1G to 4G UMB LTE 10,000 DO-rev B HSPA+ DOrB HSDPA 1000 HSDPA 7.2 Average Throughput 3.6 DO-rev A (Kbps) EVDO WCDMA 100 EDGE CDMA 1x GPRS 10 GSM CDMA AMPS 1 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 PAGE 7
  • 8. 3G Data Services Generating Increasing Revenue for Carriers 250 100% Premium Revenues 90% • Wireless data Messaging revenues 200 Data as % of revenues 80% accounted for 17% of service Data as % of revenues 70% Revenues ($B) 150 60% revenues in 2006 50% 100 40% • Messaging (SMS, 30% MMS, IM, Email) 50 20% is still the key 10% driver for data but 0 0% share of premium 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 data revenues was at 19% (Gaming, Audio, Video, Other personlization) in 2006 PAGE 8 Source: Strategy Analytics, Dec’06
  • 9. Wireless WAN Evolution All The Power Of A Laptop…In Your Pocket 1 GHz Scorpion + ARM 9 CPUs 600 MHz DSP 3000+ MIPS* 3000 Paging, Messaging, Voice Mail MSM7200 2000 Personal Information Manager Convergence Dual-Core ARM9 + ARM11 Up to 740 MIPS* (400 MHz) MSM6550 1600 Enhanced Platform ARM9 Up to 250 MIPS* MIPS (225 MHz) MSM6500 1200 Multimedia Platform ARM9 Up to 160 MIPS* (146 MHz) 800 MSM2 MSM2300 MSM3000 Intel 80186 ARM MCU ARM7TDMI 10 MIPS < 20 MIPS 23 MIPS* (27 MHz) (~2.5 MHz) 400 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 PAGE 9
  • 10. Wireless WAN Evolution All The Power Of A Laptop…In Your Pocket 1 GHz Scorpion + ARM 9 CPUs 600 MHz DSP 3000+ MIPS* Exponential Complexity Growth In 3000 Wireless Embedded Systems… • Driven By Moore’s Law & Economies Of Scale In Paging, Messaging, Voice Mail MSM7200 WirelessInformation Manager Electronics Segment ARM9 + ARM11 2000 Personal Consumer Convergence Dual-Core Up to 740 MIPS* (400 MHz) •1600 Nearly 10X Growth In CapabilityEnhanced Platform ARM9 In Less InMSM6550 Devices Up to 250 MIPS* Than 4 Years MIPS (225 MHz) MSM6500 1200 Multimedia Platform ARM9 • Mobile Device Storage Lags PC Industry By < 8 Years Up to 160 MIPS* (146 MHz) MSM3000 • 800 Intel 80186Device Performance Lags PC Industry By < 5 MSM2 Mobile MSM2300 23 MIPS* (27 MHz) ARM MCU ARM7TDMI 10 MIPS < 20 MIPS Years 400 (~2.5 MHz) • This Growth Portends The Current And Future Growth 0 Of Complexity Of Mobile Embedded Software 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 PAGE 10
  • 11. The Mobile Experience Requires Many Capabilities… • Productivity (MS Office) • Social Networking (Email, IM, VOIP, VT) • Multimedia: Streaming Audio/Video- MPEG4, MP3, AAC+, WMP… Gaming Image and Video Capture • Content Transfer: Local Networking (LAN/PAN) Peripherals, Removable Storage • Other Wireless Capabilities Location-Based Services Broadcast / Multicast • Fundamental Characteristics Stylish, Ergonomic and Easy-To-Use Low Power Low Cost PAGE 11
  • 12. Which Require A “Laundry List” Of Technologies… • Multimode, Multi-band WWAN and WiFi (data bandwidth) • Multimedia Processor: Audio/Video CODECS- MPEG4, MP3, AAC+, WMP… High Resolution Graphics Display Image Sensor and Processor • WPAN (BT, UWB, etc.) for data and audio support • Peripherals (USB, Removable Storage) • Large Internal Memory • GPS • Broadcast (DVB-H, MediaFLO) • Low Power, Size, Cost PAGE 12
  • 13. Handsets Increase in Capability while Prices Continue to Decline Wireless Handset ASPs $400 Smartphone Enhanced Phone $300 Low-End Ultra-Low-End Industry Average $200 $100 $- 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: ABI Research, August 2006 PAGE 13
  • 14. PAGE 14 Hexagon V2 Verification Methodology
  • 15. Hexagon V2 Verification Methodology Pillars • Code And Functional Coverage The Metric For Verification Completion • Constrained-Random Stimulus To Find The Dark Corners Missed By Functional Coverage • Unit- And Core-Based Environments • Checking And Coverage Independent Of Stimulus Allows Portability From Unit To Core PAGE 15
  • 16. Random Stimulus Without Functional Coverage Random stimulus without the visiblity provided by functional coverage is like shotgun blasts in the dark: Design space hit by random stimulus Design Space PAGE 16
  • 17. Functional Coverage without Random Stimulus Using directed tests as the primary mechanism to hit functional coverage points leaves you exposed to bugs in areas you don’t have coverage for: Functional Coverage Points Design Space PAGE 17
  • 18. The Magic Combination Functional Coverage in combination with constrained random stimulus yields high-quality, repeatable verification results: Design space hit by random stimulus Functional Coverage Points Design Space PAGE 18
  • 19. Hexagon V2 Unit Verification • Testbench Synopsys NTB, Ported From VERA • Stimulus Vera-based Constrained Random Limited Directed Testing • Correctness Checking Custom Models And Checkers Assertions – Blackbox: Developed By Verification Engineer – Whitebox: Developed By Design Engineer • Functional Coverage Blackbox: Developed By Verification Engineer Whitebox: Developed By Design Engineer PAGE 19
  • 20. Hexagon V2 Core Verification • Testbench • Functional Coverage NTB, Verilog Architectural Functional Coverage • Stimulus – Automatically Generated From XML Architecture Description Random – Leveraging Both Internal And Vendor Unit-level Coverage Ports Up Generators Directed • Emulation – Targets Specific Verification Plan Line FPGA-based Emulation Items – Targets Hard-to-hit Coverage Points Used To Run Applications Like H.264 Video Decode • Correctness Checking Golden Model: Instruction Set Simulator (ISS) Checking Ported Up From Units Additional Core-specific Checking – Generally Assertions PAGE 20
  • 21. Hexagon V2 Coverage Development • Code/Functional Coverage Is Our Fundamental Metric For Verification Completeness • Verification Plan Used To Define Functional Coverage Subject To Extensive Review By Design And Verification Engineers • ~20k Core-level Architectural Coverage Points • ~240k Total Core-level Coverage Points Including Coverage Points Ported From Units • How Much Functional Coverage To Create? Seems Like More Would Be Better But, You Can Bury Yourself In Data If You’re Not Careful PAGE 21
  • 22. Hexagon V2 Coverage Analysis • Initial Focus More On Code Coverage Can Identify Missing Functional Coverage Points • Transition Focus To More Functional Coverage • Review Process Is Meeting/Time Intensive Iteration Cycle-time Determines How Quickly You Can Converge On Coverage Goals – Review Data – Identify Changes Required To Improve Coverage – Run Cycles Against Updated Design -- Collect Data – Repeat • Synopsys .html Format Is One Interesting Slice Of Coverage Data, But Has Its Limits A Real Database To Slice And Dice Is Much More Useful • Coverage Convergence Newly Implemented Coverage Requires Debugging Coverage Definition Will See Refinement And Clean Up Stimulus Will Need To Be Modified/Enhanced To Hit Uncovered Areas PAGE 22
  • 23. QDSP6 V2 Coverage – Core Architecture Coverage Only PAGE 23
  • 24. Hexagon V2 Coverage – Core Stimulus Only PAGE 24
  • 25. QDSP6 V2 Coverage – Merged Core and Unit Stimulus PAGE 25
  • 26. PAGE 26 The Software Challenge…
  • 27. So, Wireless Looks Great - What Is The Problem? The Challenge Is Producing Complex Embedded Software • Software Is Now Well Over Half Of Cost Of Delivered Embedded Wireless Products, Even At The Chip Level • There Is No Moore’s Law For Software Development, Yet Moore’s Law Allows Exponentially More Complex Systems To Be Deployed • Fred Brooks Famously Wrote No Silver Bullet1 Over 20 Years Ago The Essential Difficulty of Software Is Its Specification, Design and Testing, While Coding Is Relatively Simple The Three Biggest Breakthoughs For Productivity: High-Level Languages, Time- Sharing and Unified Operating Systems Some Non-Solutions: Ada, OOP, AI, Expert Systems, Automatic and Graphical Programming, Program Verification, Workstations and Tools Some Promising Techniques: Off-The-Shelf Software, Rapid Prototyping and Positive Reinforcement For Great Software Designers • Today’s Handheld Devices Can Be Far More Complex Than Computer Centers Of 20 Years Ago, Yet Our Software Techniques Are Only Incrementally Better • What Are Some Practical Things That Could Improve The Ability To Produce High-Quality Embedded Software Systems? 1. No Silver Bullet – Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Univerisity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Information Processing ’86, ISBN No. 0-444- 700777-3, H.J. Kugler, Ed., Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North-Holland) © IFIP 1986. PAGE 27
  • 28. Better RTOS And Specification Capture Are Needed • Ideally, There Would Be An Open Source RTOS Which Is The “Moral Equivalent” To Linux, But This Has Yet To Happen “Real-Time” Variants Of Linux Exist Many Open Source RTOSes Exist None Have Become As Ubiquitous As Linux • “Real Time” Requirements Are Vastly Different For Different Systems Automotive, Wireless Modems and Multimedia All Have Significantly Different Real-Time Requirements • RTOSes Are Like Standards: There Are So Many To Choose From But Lack Of A Popular Open-Source RTOS Has Had Significant Impact • Structured Specification Capture For Embedded Software Modules Could Have Dramatic Impact On Quality Of Delivered Product Parseable Specification Can Enable Functional Coverage In SW Testing Functional Coverage May Be Able To Improve Software Development As Much As It Has Hardware Development PAGE 28
  • 29. Functional Coverage May Be Key Technology for Software • Functional Coverage Is Already Widely Used In ASIC Verification • Functional Coverage Finds Defects In Hardware Which Would Likely Never Be Seen In Field Testing Or Even Normal System Operation • Functional Coverage Is A “Results” Approach To Verification1 Describes System Design From User’s Viewpoint Monitors (Using “Coverage Checkers”) Stimulus Scenarios, Errors, Corner Cases, State Transitions, Protocols, etc. Tracks Combinations (“Crosses”) of Stimulus Points and Groups • Why Does Functional Coverage Work? It Focuses Engineer’s Attention On Areas Of Lowest Coverage It Can Tell You When Your Design Is “Good Enough” It Decouples Stimulus From Measurement, And Allows High Quality Stimulus • Tools: Focus, Meteor (IBM), PurifyPlus (Rational), xSuds (Telcordia) • IBM Has Website On Functional Coverage Methods for Software: http://www.haifa.il.ibm.com/projects/verification/coverage_advisor/index.html 1- Some definitions come from Design Verification with e by Samir Palnitkar PAGE 29
  • 30. What Does Functional Coverage Ideally Look Like? PAGE 30
  • 31. What Does Functional Coverage Ideally Look Like? PAGE 31
  • 32. What Does Functional Coverage Ideally Look Like? Tests Tests Tests Scenario Monitor Generator Transactors Monitor Drivers Monitor Functional Coverage Analysis System Under Test PAGE 32
  • 33. What Does Functional Coverage Ideally Look Like? Tests Tests Tests Scenario H Monitor Generator NC BE Transactors Monitor ST TE Drivers Monitor Functional Coverage Analysis System Under Test PAGE 33
  • 34. What Does Functional Coverage Ideally Look Like? Tests Tests Tests Scenario Monitor RS Generator KE Transactors Monitor EC Drivers CH Monitor Functional Coverage Analysis System Under Test PAGE 34
  • 35. What Does Functional Coverage Ideally Look Like? Tests Tests Tests Scenario Monitor Generator Transactors Monitor ER Drivers Monitor YZ Functional AL Coverage AN Analysis System Under Test PAGE 35
  • 36. If Software Takes Too Long To Develop, Start Earlier Engineering Resources Typical Embedded System Development $€¥£… Software Hardware Customer Integration Time PAGE 36
  • 37. If Software Takes Too Long To Develop, Start Earlier Engineering Resources Better Embedded System Development $€¥£… Software Hardware Customer Integration Time PAGE 37
  • 38. If Software Takes Too Long To Develop, Start Earlier • This Better Approach Requires Motivation To Improve The Overall Embedded System Development Process A Software Simulation System Capability • A Software Simulation System Provides Simulators For All Programmable Cores (CPU, DSP) And Hardware In The System • Simulation Of The Full System On A Software Simulator Offers Several Significant Advantages In Addition To Better “Time To Money” Allows Improved Hardware and Software Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Affords Embedded Software Developers Better Visibility Into Behavior Affords Customers A Very Early Start Into Integration • What Is Missing? An Open Source Standard (Like GCC, Linux, etc.) Software Simulation Platform To Encourage Reuse And Create A Simulator “Ecosystem” • “Cycle Approximate” Is Good Enough – The “80/20” Rule Applies PAGE 38
  • 39. Summary • Opportunities In Wireless Embedded Products Are Excellent! A Plethora Of Wireless Communications Protocols For Personal, Local and Wide Area Networks Is Creating Huge New Product Demand New Capabilities Are Migrating To Complex Handheld Systems, Driven By Consumer Desire For Wireless Internet Everywhere And Digital Multimedia The Challenge: Engineering Must Deliver Complex Products That Consume Very Low Power And Provide Gigabytes Of Software and Billions Of Transistors For Very Low Cost And Very Low Defect Densities • Embedded Software Development Will Continue To Present Challenges A Ubiquitous Open-Source Simulation Platform and RTOS Is Desirable Better, More Structured Methods For Specification Capture Can Facilitate Better Quality In Embedded Software, Particularly When These Specs Can Drive A Functional Coverage-Based Test System Software System Simulation Can Facilitate Better Overall Lifecycle Costs 1. H. Sackman, W.J. Ericson, and E.E. Grant, “Exploratory Experimental Studies Comparing Online and Offline Programming Performance,” CACM, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan. 1968, pp. 3-11. PAGE 39
  • 40. Summary • Opportunities In Wireless Embedded Products Are Excellent! A Plethora Of Wireless Communications Protocols For Personal, Local and Wide Area Networks Is Creating Huge New Product Demand Great designs come from great designers. Software construction is a New Capabilities Are Migrating To Complex empower and liberate the By creative process. Sound methodology can Handheld Systems, Driven Consumer Desire For Wireless Internet Everywhere And Digital Multimedia creative mind; it cannot inflame or inspire the drudge. The Challenge: Engineering Must Deliver Complex Products That Consume Very Low Power And not minor – they are rather like the differences The differences are Provide Gigabytes Of Software and Billions Of Transistors For Very Low Cost And Very Low Defect Densities very best between Salieri and Mozart. Study after study shows that the • Embedded Software structures that are faster, smaller, simpler, cleaner, designers produce Development Will Continue To Present Challenges and produced with less effort1. The differences between the great and A Ubiquitous Open-Source Simulation Platform and RTOS Is Desirable the average programmer approach an order of magnitude. Better, More Structured Methods For Specification Capture Can Facilitate Better Quality In Embedded Software, Particularly When“No Silver Bullet” - Fred Brooks, These Specs Can Drive A Functional Coverage-Based Test System Software System Simulation Can Facilitate Better Overall Lifecycle Costs 1. H. Sackman, W.J. Ericson, and E.E. Grant, “Exploratory Experimental Studies Comparing Online and Offline Programming Performance,” CACM, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan. 1968, pp. 3-11. PAGE 40
  • 41. PAGE 41 Thank you!

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