Basic sentence patterns and traditional classification of sentences surigao
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS ANDTRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES (COMPOUND, COMPLEX, COMPOUND- COMPLEX) John Paul George P. CardenasMarch 07, 2012 Wednesday 4th Year – Diocese of Surigao
RECALL: Sentence is defined as “a group of words containing asubject and a predicate and expressing a complete thought”.However, some sentences do not have such expressed subjectand predicate. The completeness of the said sentence is stillbased from what the statements that precede or follow say to it. e.g 1. Anna likes to study her English subject. 2. Go. 3. People talk.
RECALL: Sentence patterns refers to the general order of words in asentence in which these form the structural relationship of thesentence itself. In English, there are seven basic sentencepatterns used:1. S – IV (subject – intransitive verb)2. S – TV – DO (subject – transitive verb – direct object)3. S – TV – IO – DO (subject – transitive verb – indirect object –direct object)4. S – LV – PN (subject – linking verb – predicate noun)5. S – LV – Adj. (subject – linking verb – predicate adjective)6. S – TV – DO – OC (subject – transitive verb – direct object –object complement)7. S – TV – DO – AC (subject – transitive verb – direct object –adjective complement)
RECALL and REMEMBER: S – IV (Subject – Intransitive Verb) e.g. Dogs run.• uses verbs that are in the base form, most especially thedynamic verbs.• this pattern doesn’t need supporting information; the thought ofthe sentence was already completed by the action (verb)
RECALL and REMEMBER: S – TV – DO (Subject – Transitive Verb – Direct Object) e.g. Chris tutors Jennifer.• uses verbs that are in the –s form, most especially the stativeverbs.• this pattern need supporting information, especially the objectbeing pointed about on the sentence (noun)
RECALL and REMEMBER:S – TV – IO – DO (Subject – Transitive Verb – Indirect Object –Direct Object) e.g. The instructor assigned Steve poetry.• uses verbs that are in the past, present, future or base form ofthe verbs• this pattern contains indirect object in which that this object(noun) may be omitted from the sentence, but cannot stand alonewithout a direct object being pointed on the sentence
RECALL and REMEMBER: S – LV – PN (Subject – Linking Verb – Predicate Noun) e.g. She was the office manager.• Uses linking verbs; also, verbs in the simple past/present/futuretense and so as the progressive tenses can be used;• This pattern contains a predicate noun, which may also serve asthe subject of the sentence if the pattern was changed. Predicatenouns usually refer to the main subject of the sentence.
RECALL and REMEMBER: S – LV – Adj. (Subject – Linking Verb – Predicate Adjective) e.g. Roses smell delightful.• Uses linking verbs; like the fourth pattern, verbs in the simplepast/present/future tense and so as the progressive tenses can beused;• The predicate adjective refers to any adjective that modifies thesubject itself.
RECALL and REMEMBER:S – TV – DO – OC (Subject – Transitive Verb – Direct Object –Object Complement) e.g. Joan considered Will her friend.• Uses verbs that are in the simple past form ;• The object complement here refers to a specific description ofthe direct object being done by the subject, with the use of theverb. It could be a noun or an adverb.
RECALL and REMEMBER:S – TV – DO – AC (Subject – Transitive Verb – Direct Object –Adjective Complement) e.g. Mr. Anderson painted the house green.• Uses verbs that are in the simple past form;• The adjective complement is an adjective that refers directly tothe direct object.
RECALL and REMEMBER: Sentences, based on their grammatical structure, can beclassified into four different types:SIMPLE –the most basic of all sentence structures; it onlycomprises of a subject and a predicate that expresses onethought.COMPOUND – sentence structure that is a combination of two ormore independent clauses;COMPLEX – sentence structure that is a combination of anindependent clause and one or more dependent clauses;COMPOUND-COMPLEX – sentence structure that is acombination of compound and complex sentences;
RECALL: Clauses are group of words having a subject and apredicate. There are two types of clauses: INDEPENDENT andDEPENDENT. An independent clause is one that can make one completegrammatical statement and can stand alone; it may or may appear as asentence, or it may appear as a part of the sentence; e.g. A doctor’s firmest diagnosis often is only an educated guess. Although only a cynic would say so, a doctor’s firmest diagnosisoften is only an educated guess. Meanwhile, a dependent clause is one that is incapable of standingalone, one that depends for its meaning upon the reminder of the sentence inwhich it appears. It functions as nouns, adjectives and adverbs. e.g. What you said is not true. (clause in boldface is the subject of theverb)
REMEMBER: COMPOUND SENTENCES contain two or moreindependent clauses. They can stand alone, based from thedescription of independent clauses; however, their ideas are verymuch closely related to each other, thus getting them connectedto a single sentence through the use of the F.A.N.B.O.Y.S. e.g. She read and I listened to the radio. - The first action “read” refers to the pronoun “she”, thus creating a sentence with a dynamic verb. The second action, which is “listened” refers to the person himself. They are connected by the conjunction “and”.
REMEMBER: COMPLEX SENTENCES contains an independent clauseand one or more dependent clauses that need more informationthan from themselves. Prepositions are used to connect theseclauses. e.g. Carol said that she had walked for several blocks. - The first clause in boldface is shown as a dependent clause: it doesn’t have a predicate, thus it cannot stand alone. The second clause in boldface is the independent one: it can stand alone even without the dependent clause.
REMEMBER: COMPOUND – COMPLEX SENTENCES contain thecontents of the compound and complex sentences: two or moreindependent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. Bothprepositions and conjunctions are used to combine these clauses.e.g. Since the day was unpleasant, Judy looked at TV and Ned wroteseveral letters. - The first clause before the boldface shows the dependent clause ofthe sentence. The second one, just after the comma, is an independentclause, and so as the last clause in boldface. The preposition “since” and theconjunction “and” tell that this is a compound-complex sentence.