Preface         This book traces the historical backgroundof the Trinitarian doctrine. Thehistorical facts presented here ...
Acknowledgments        I am very pleased to thankDr. Maneh Al-Johani, Secretary General of theWorldAssembly of Muslim Yout...
Introduction        Are you aware of the historical controversybetween the Trinitarian and theUnitarian doctrines? Are you...
them all), had definitely exposed the Trinitarian doctrine to a critical,controversial state.This, however, did not stop t...
One ofthe early leaders of the Apostolic Church was Iranaeus, who succeededBishopPothinus of Lyons in 177 A.D., after the ...
Church.Although the Council ratified the Trinitarian Creed, the pro-Arians continuedtopractice their own Unitarian views. ...
blasphemy against God and HisUnitarian attribute. Unfortunately, most of the Christiansare not even awarethat such a myste...
hisconnection with the Christian clergy will also help unravel the paradoxunderlying theexistence of Rome as the capital o...
of those tyrants, who, by their vice andweakness, dishonored the Imperial purple"[28]. Itis worth noting that Emperor Cons...
he would be able to win the loyalty of the Christians,which he needed most to unite hisempire. Constantine was, in fact, s...
as theonly four canonical gospels. The Nicene Council also decidedto destroy all gospels written in Hebrew, resulting in t...
adhere to theAthanasian creed (the belief in Trinity!). By the sametoken, although Emperor Constantine ratified the Trinit...
[44] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.104.[45] See Edward Gibbon, Vol.II., op. cit., p.402.    The Influence of Paul And...
Trinitarian dogma wasmerely deduced from I John 5:7, which states: "For there are threethat bearrecord in heaven, the Fath...
Christians courage to doubt his self-madedogmas. Jesus and all the other prophets (peacebe upon them all) taught theunity ...
the original sin.[51] Romans 5:9.[52] I Peter 1:18-19.[53] I Corinthians 11:24.[54] I Corinthians 11:25.[55] 2 Corinthians...
“ God! There is no god but He, - the Living, theSelf-subsisting Eternal. No slumbercan seize Him nor sleep. His are all th...
is no other god; the Sovereign, the HolyOne, the Source of Peace (and Perfection) theGuardian of Faith, the Preserverof Sa...
“ They say: (God) Most Gracious has begotten a son!Indeed ye have put forth a thingmost monstrous! At it the skies are rea...
Christian concept ofsalvation (through Jesus Christ), Allah the Almighty explicitlyemphasizes thatones own sin is his sole...
Foranyone to strengthen his faith and attain salvation, he should, therefore,contemplatethe foregoing verse. He should alw...
Summary And Concluding Remarks        This book has shown historical factssurrounding the Trinitarian controversy. Ithas s...
himself a tyrant andcriminal who murdered his son, his wife and many more, because ofhis lust forpolitical power. Neither ...
Islam considerssalvation as a personal responsibility, that is based on ones faith,piety,righteousness, steadfastness and ...
•   Van Leeuwen, A. T. Christianity in World History: The Meeting of the Faithsof    East and West, trans. by Hoskins, H.H...
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oneness of god (the ultimate solution to the trinitarian controversy)

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This book traces the historical backgroundof the Trinitarian doctrine. The
historical facts presented here show howcontroversial this fundamental doctrine of
Christianity has been. This booklikewise digs into the influences of Athanasius,
Constantine and Paul on today'sChristianity. Furthermore, it presents the concept of One
God in Islam as theultimate, perpetual solution to the Trinitarian controversy.
This work should serve as an eye-opener for Christians who seek guidance andTruth,
hoping that it will help them revert to the original teachings of Jesus(peace be upon him)
- particularly the belief in One God, which is fundamentallyIslamic. The mysterious
nature of the Trinitarian doctrine has led manyChristians into confusion. Many of them
who really seek Truth discovered thatthis doctrine was an explicit innovation contrary to
the teachings of Jesus(peace be upon him). Those of them who have had the opportunity
to study theconcept of God in Islam have already become Muslims. As many more non-
Muslims(especially Christians) are reverting to the path of Allah (the One and OnlyTrue
God), Islam will certainly sustain its current position as the world'sfastest growing and
Number One religion - although it is 600 years younger thanChristianity. This will be so,
because the Unity of God in Islam is absolutelyunquestionable - a divine concept that was
professed by all the prophets,including Adam, Noah. Abraham, Moses, David. Jesus, and
Muhammad (peace be uponthem all).
As for the rest of Christians who still blindlyadhere to the Trinitarian doctrine, the time is
ripe for them to open theirminds to the fundamental Truth that verily there is no god
worthy to beworshipped, except the One and Only True God, Allah.

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  • The first book that impressed me about Islam and urged me to read the Holy Qur'an and eventually by ALLAH's Will and Mercy I decided to embraced Islam....
    SUBHAAN ALLAH WALHAMDULLILLAH WA ALLAHU AKBAR!!!
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oneness of god (the ultimate solution to the trinitarian controversy)

  1. 1. Preface This book traces the historical backgroundof the Trinitarian doctrine. Thehistorical facts presented here show howcontroversial this fundamental doctrine ofChristianity has been. This booklikewise digs into the influences of Athanasius,Constantine and Paul on todaysChristianity. Furthermore, it presents the concept of OneGod in Islam as theultimate, perpetual solution to the Trinitarian controversy.This work should serve as an eye-opener for Christians who seek guidance andTruth,hoping that it will help them revert to the original teachings of Jesus(peace be upon him)- particularly the belief in One God, which is fundamentallyIslamic. The mysteriousnature of the Trinitarian doctrine has led manyChristians into confusion. Many of themwho really seek Truth discovered thatthis doctrine was an explicit innovation contrary tothe teachings of Jesus(peace be upon him). Those of them who have had the opportunityto study theconcept of God in Islam have already become Muslims. As many more non-Muslims(especially Christians) are reverting to the path of Allah (the One and OnlyTrueGod), Islam will certainly sustain its current position as the worldsfastest growing andNumber One religion - although it is 600 years younger thanChristianity. This will be so,because the Unity of God in Islam is absolutelyunquestionable - a divine concept that wasprofessed by all the prophets,including Adam, Noah. Abraham, Moses, David. Jesus, andMuhammad (peace be uponthem all). As for the rest of Christians who still blindlyadhere to the Trinitarian doctrine, the time isripe for them to open theirminds to the fundamental Truth that verily there is no godworthy to beworshipped, except the One and Only True God, Allah.
  2. 2. Acknowledgments I am very pleased to thankDr. Maneh Al-Johani, Secretary General of theWorldAssembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY), for his positive remarkson my proposed WisdomEnrichment Forum. Under the aegis of Wisdom EnrichmentFoundation, the forum aims,among others, at encouraging young Muslimintellectuals to participate in Islamicresearch and propagation. Along thisline, Dr. Al-Johani has, indeed, inspired me to startwriting on Islam and otherrelated issues. Another WAMY official, brother HusainZulqarnain, has also encouraged me (during ourmeeting in Dhahran) to pursue myplans related to Dawa. His challenging words "if notnow, when shall we everimplement our noble plans" are still fresh in my mind. I sincerelythank him andI pray that he and the rest of WAMY Staff will always remain instrumentalin thepropagation of the true message of Islam and the development of Muslimyouthworldwide. I am very pleased to thank my brother in Islamfrom New York, Ahmad Nuroddin(Lecturer of English Language at the Institute ofPublic Administration and one of theprime movers of the Nasiriah IslamicPropagation Committee, both in Dammam, SaudiArabia), for proof-reading andmaking constructive comments on this work. I would liketo thank also the othermembers of Nasiriah Islamic Propagation Committee, especiallyHussain Ali andKhalid AI-Dossary, for encouraging me to put into writing my lecturedeliveredat Nasiriah Mosque on the 24th of December 1987 on the same subject. Thisbookis, in fact, an expansion of that lecture, hoping that it will be of interest toothers.Moreover, I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Salim Awath BinSilim, Sub-Branch Manager of A.S Bughsan&Bros. Co. (Komatsu Division) inDammam, SaudiArabia, for encouraging me to undertake further research into thesubject. Special acknowledgment goes to my wife, Dr. NorlainD. Mababaya, for her veryvaluable comments and suggestions as well asunyielding patience while I was writingthis work. I pray that our children,Maryam and Ahmad, will in the future carry on theplans and projects of our ownWisdom Enrichment Foundation, which are all gearedtowards active service toAllah.Above all, I thank Allah the Almighty for making thisbook a reality. Indeed, this bookwould not have been realized without His Graceand Guidance. I pray to Allah the Almighty that He willbless this work and become a source ofenlightenment to those who seekknowledge, truth and guidance. Ameen.M. P. MababayaMay 1988(Ramadan 1408).Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
  3. 3. Introduction Are you aware of the historical controversybetween the Trinitarian and theUnitarian doctrines? Are you also aware thatIslam offers the ultimate solution to suchcontroversy? TheTrinitarian controversy is one of the most crucial events in the annals ofChristendom.World renown Christian historian Edward Gibbon points out that theTrinitariancontroversy, which raged particularly during the fourth century, hassuccessivelypenetrated every part of the Christian world[1]. On onehand, the Pauline Church (currently known as the Roman Catholic Church) hasforcenturies fought for the global acceptance of the Trinitarian doctrine. Theconcept ofTrinity is the nucleus of the Athanasian Creed which states that:"There is one person ofthe Father, another of the Son, and another of the HolyGhost. But the Godhead of theFather, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is allone; the Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal... The Father is God, the Son isGod, and the Holy Ghost is God. And yet they arenot three Gods, but one God ...For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity toacknowledge every personby himself to be God and Lord, so are we forbidden by theCatholic religion tosay there be three Gods, or three Lords"[2]. The nature of this creed has forcenturies been so controversial and mysterious that evenits own author,Athanasius of Alexandria, one of the principal leaders of the Paulinechurch,failed to comprehend it. This champion of Trinity himself confessedthat,"Whenever he forced his understanding to meditate on the divinity of the Logos,histoilsome and unveiling efforts recoiled on themselves; that the more hethought, the lesshe comprehended; and the more he wrote, the less capable washe of expressing histhoughts"[3].The nature of the Trinity is somysterious that, as Edward Gibbon remarks, "as often aswe deduce any positiveconclusions from a negative idea, we are involved in darkness,perplexity, andinevitable contradiction"[4]. On the other hand, the Apostolic Church has over the yearsadvocated the belief in theUnity of God, and as such ruled out the deity ofJesus (peace be upon him). Among thosewho originally opposed the Trinitariandoctrine were the so-called Ebionites of Nazarenes.They considered Jesus as thegreatest of the prophets, endowed with supernatural virtuesand power[5].Themysteries of the Christian faith were dangerously exposed to public debatewhenArius, the champion of Apostolic Church, popularly confronted BishopAlexander,the champion of the Pauline Church. These two were in hot theologicaldisputefor a period of six years - from 318 A.D. through 325 A.D. Arius, the discipleofLucian of Antioch, the greatest critic of the Trinitarian doctrine, stronglyadvocated theview that God is absolutely One and alone Eternal[6]. Such Unitarian view,whichconformed to the original teachings of Jesus and all other prophets (peace beupon
  4. 4. them all), had definitely exposed the Trinitarian doctrine to a critical,controversial state.This, however, did not stop the Pauline Church from gainingcontrol of large part ofChristendom. This happened for known reasons discussedelsewhere. The next sectionpresents the historical background of theTrinitarian controversy.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[1] Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. II, ed. By J.B. Bury(New York: AMS Press Inc., 1974), p. 355.[2] Ulfat Aziz-su-Samad, Islam and Christianity (Riyadh: Presidency of IslamicResearch, Ifta and Propagation, 1984), p. 29.[3] Edward Gibbon, Vol. II op. cit., pp. 360-361.[4] Ibid., p. 361.[5] According to Edward Gibbon, the Ebionites "ascribed to his person (Jesus) and to hisfuture reign all the predictions of the Hebrew oracles which relate to the spiritualMessiah. Some of them might confess that he was born of a virgin; but they obstinatelyrejected the preceding existence and divine perfections of the Logos or Son of God…"Ibid., pp. 358-359.[6] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, Jesus: Prophet of Islam (Riyadh: Presidency of IslamicResearch, Ifta and Propagation, 1984), pp. 105. Some Historical Notes On The Trinitarian Controversy The Trinitarian view of Christianity cameinto being many years after thedisappearance of Jesus (peace be upon him).Undoubtedly, it was not professed by Jesusnor by the other prophets (peace beupon them all). As a matter of fact, the true followersof Jesus (peace be uponhim) continued to affirm the Oneness of God until about 90 A.D.This belief inthe Unity of God was manifested in the Shepherd of Hermas, which waswrittenduring this period and regarded as a book of revelation by the earlierChristians.Aside from its precept on the Oneness of God, this scripture alsocontains other relatedcommandments on sincerity, truthfulness, purity,patience, uprightness, piety and self-control. More specifically, the first ofthese commandments states:" First of all, believethat God is One and that Hecreated all things and organized them out of what did notexist made all thingsto be, and He contains all things but alone is Himself uncontained.Trust Himtherefore and fear Him and, fearing Him be self-controlled. Keep thiscommandand you will cast away from yourself all wickedness, Put on every virtueofuprightness, and you will live to God if you keep this commandment "[7]. TheApostles Creed " I believe in God the (Father) Almighty" began to be known totheearlier Christians in 120 A.D. The word father was, in fact, added to thiscreed onlybetween 180 A.D. and 210 A.D. A number of the Apostolic Churchleaders condemnedthis innovation, for they found it abominable to inject newideas into the originalteachings of Jesus (peace be upon him) "[8].
  5. 5. One ofthe early leaders of the Apostolic Church was Iranaeus, who succeededBishopPothinus of Lyons in 177 A.D., after the latters brutal murder. In 190A.D.,Iranaeus wrote to Pope Victor to stop the massacre of dissenting Christianswhosebelief did not agree with the doctrine of the Rome-based Pauline Church.Iranaeusbelieved in One God and supported the doctrine of the manhood ofJesus[9].Iranaeus and the rest of the early Unitarians abhored the Trinitarian dogma,being adeviation from the pristine teachings of Jesus (peace be upon him).Prior to 200 A.D. theterm "Trinity" (which is now the nucleus of the Christiantenets) was not at all known tothe Pauline Church. "Trinity" was derived fromthe Latin word Trinitas, which was firstused by Tertullian in 200 A.D. toexplain in Latin ecclesiastical writings the strangedoctrine of the PaulineChurch. Tertullian belonged to the African Church. He believed inthe unity ofGod and identified Jesus with the Jewish Messiah. He opposed Pope Callistusforteaching that capital sin could be forgiven after doing canonical penance.Tertullianwas the one who opened the way for a doctrine of salvation, at leastpartly by goodworks[10]. Indeed, those who belonged to the Apostolic Church acceptedthe plain meaning of thewords spoken by Jesus (peace be upon him), as embodiedin the earlier scriptures.Without resorting to mysterious dogmas, theycontinued to uphold the article of faith "Ibelieve in God, the Almighty" until250 A.D.[11]. In his attemptto refute the Trinitarianview of Christianity, Lactaneus (orthodox father)wrote in 310 A.D. that, "Christ nevercalls himself God." In 320 A.D., Eusebiusof Nicomedia wrote, "Christ teaches us to callhis father the true God and toworship Him". These early Unitarian leaders were courageousenough to expose their views to refute theTrinitarian dogmas, in spite of thepersecution campaign against them. Their realchampion, however, was Arius whoin 318 A.D. popularly opposed the Pauline view thatJesus was in reality the"Son of God" and "consubstantial and coeternal with the father".One of thearguments propagated by Arius was: "If Jesus was in reality the Son ofGod,then it followed that the father must have existed before him (the son).Therefore,there must have been a time when the son (Jesus) did not exist.Therefore, it followed thatthe son was a creature composed of an essence orbeing which had not always existed.Since God is in essence Eternal andEver-existent, Jesus could not be of the same essenceas God"[12]. In 321 A.D., Ariuspopularly confronted Bishop Alexander the forerunner ofthe Pauline Church. Inrefuting the Trinitarian belief, Arius argued that "God is absolutelyOne... Godis alone Ingenerate, alone Eternal, alone without beginning, alone Good,aloneAlmighty, alone Unchangeable and Unalterable, and that His being is hiddenineternal mystery from the outward eye of every creature"[13]. Four years later (in325A.D.), Emperor Constantine convened the First General Council at Nicea, nowcalledIznik, a Turkish village in north-west Asia Minor. This Council wasattended by 318bishops from Spain to Persia[14]. Emperor Constantine allegedly aimed at reconcilingtheprelates (particularly Arius and Alexander) who were involved in theTrinitariancontroversy. Bishop Alexander, however, could not attend thisEcumenicalCouncil, so he delegated Athanasius to represent him and the Pauline
  6. 6. Church.Although the Council ratified the Trinitarian Creed, the pro-Arians continuedtopractice their own Unitarian views. In 380 A.D., EmperorTheodosius of Rome made the orthodox faith (the Trinitarian-based Catholicfaith) obligatory for all his subjects, hence the state religion since then[15].By 381, the Council ofConstantinople, the Second General Council which was attendedby 186 bishops,gave the finishing touch to the doctrine of three persons in oneGod.Emphatically, this Council asserted the godhead of the Holy Spirit[16]. By 383 A.D.,Theodosiusthreatened to punish all who would not believe in the doctrine of Trinity.Thisthreat, however, did not result in the total destruction of the Arian tenets;they havesurvived, and are still the foundation of the belief of many UnitarianChristians[17]. In the 16th century, L.F.M. Sozzini challenged John Calvin(the leader of the Protestantreformation in Switzerland) on the doctrine ofTrinity. Sozzini denied the deity of Jesusand repudiated the original sin andatonement dogmas[18]. Another outspoken critic of the Trinitarian doctrine duringthe 16th century was MichaelServetus, who was regarded by many as "the founderof modern Unitarianism"[19].Helived at a time when the Roman Catholic Church was in chaos. This situationbroughtabout the emergence of the Protestant reformists such as Martin Lutherand John Calvin.Servetus, however, found the reformists views fundamentally atvariance with theteachings of Jesus (peace be upon him) - particularly that ofthe belief in the Unity ofGod. So, in 1531 A.D., he published a book entitled"The Errors of Trinity", in which hewrites: "The philosophers have invented athird separate being truly and really distinctfrom the other two, which theycall the third Person, or the Holy Spirit, three beings inone nature...Admitting therefore these three, which after their fashion they callPersons,they freely admit a plurality of beings, a plurality of entities, a pluralityofessences, a plurality of substances, and taking the word God strictly, they willhave aplurality of Gods"[20]. Because of his relentless belief in the Oneness of God,Servetuswas thrown into prison in Geneva on a charge of heresy. Subsequently,he was put todeath slowly under the torment of fire. One of his followers,Castello, expressed hisfeeling ostensibly in a melancholic tone: "To burn a manis not to prove a doctrine"[21]. In the 17th century, John Biddle (theleader of Unitarianism in England) published apamphlet entitled: TwelveArguments Refuting the Deity of the Holy Spirit"[22]. In 1645A.D., Biddle wasimprisoned for his Unitarian view. Later he was summoned to appearbefore theParliament, but he firmly denied the deity of the Holy Spirit. In 1648 A.D.,a"severe ordinance" was passed stating that "anyone who denied the Trinity, orthedivinity of Jesus, or the Holy Spirit, would suffer death without thebenefit of theclergy"[23]. In todays modern world, those who cling to the Trinitariandoctrine identify themselvesas Christians largely to quench their thirst forreligion. Most of them do not deny themysterious nature of the Trinity, whichis devoid of human logic and scientificexplanation. This emanates from the hardfact that it was the masterpiece of Athanasius!In other words, it was a humaninnovation of the worst kind, which is nothing but
  7. 7. blasphemy against God and HisUnitarian attribute. Unfortunately, most of the Christiansare not even awarethat such a mysterious doctrine was so controversial for manycenturies,particularly during the reign of Emperor Constantine. Many Christians onlyknowConstantine as a "hero". Let it be known, however, that Constantine - largelydue topolitical consideration - was merely one of those who played roles ofvarious sorts on theTrinitarian controversy. As a matter of fact, other Romanemperors and key religiousleaders in Christendom - particularly during thefourth century - were involved in theTrinitarian crisis in one way or another.How they got involved in this crisis is discussedin the next section.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[7] E. J. Goodspeed, the Apostolic Fathers, 1950; quoted by Muhammad Ata ur-Rahman,op. cit., 1984, p.46.[8] Ibid., p.7.[9] Ibid., pp.74-75.[10] A. M. Renwick, The Story of the Church (Bristol: Inter-Varsity Press, 1977), p.41.[11] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.7.[12] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, Jesus: Prophet of Islam, p.88.[13] Ibid., p.105.[14] A. M. Renwick, the Story of the Church (Bristol: Inter-Varsity Press, 1977), p.54.[15] Arend Th. Van Leeuwen, Christianity in World History: The Meeting of the Faiths ofEast and West, trans. By H. H. Hoskins (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1964) p.275-276.[16] A. M. Renwick, the Story of the Church (Bristol: Inter-Varsity Press, 1977), p.55.[17] Muhammad At ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.106.[18] Lonsdale and Laura Ragg, ed. and trans. From the Italian MS in the Imperial Libraryat Vienna, The Gospel of Barnabas (Karachi: Begum Bawamy Waqf, 1986), p.xvi.[19] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.119.[20] Quoted by Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.117.[21] Ibid., p.116.[22] Ibid., p.142.[23] Ibid. How Constantine, Other Roman Leaders And The Clergymen Influenced the Trinitarian Doctrine The Roman political leaders, since the timeof Emperor Nero, had played one roleor another in the Trinitarian crisis. Oneobvious case in point was that of EmperorConstantine who ratified theTrinitarian doctrine more than three hundred years after thedisappearance OfJesus (peace be upon him). Constantines role in the establishment ofTrinity asa standard creed among Christians cannot be undermined. Digging into
  8. 8. hisconnection with the Christian clergy will also help unravel the paradoxunderlying theexistence of Rome as the capital of Christendom. It is common knowledge that the Romans had for many yearsembarked on a persecutioncampaign against anybody who claimed to be aChristian, from the reign of Emperor Neroto that of Constantine. Gibbon saysthat, "About fourscore years after the death of Christ,his innocent discipleswere punished with death, by the sentence of a proconsul of themost amiable andphilosophic character, and according to the laws of an emperor,distinguished bythe wisdom and justice of his general administration[24]. The cruelpunishmentmeted out to Christians in the tenth year of the reign of Emperor Nero,wasdescribed by Gibbon as follows: " They died in torments, and their tormentswereembittered by insults and derision. Some were nailed on crosses; others sewn upinthe skin of wild beasts, and exposed to the fury of wild dogs; others againsmeared overthe combustible materials, were used as torches to illuminate thedarkness of the night.The gardens of Nero were destined for the melancholyspectacle, which was accompaniedwith a horse race, and honored with thepresence of the emperor, who mingled with thepopulace in the dress and attitudeof a charioteer. The guilt of the Christians deserved,indeed, the mostexemplary punishments, but the public abhorrence was changed intocommiseration,from the opinion that those unhappy wretches were sacrificed, not somuch to thepublic welfare, as to the cruelty of a jealous tyrant. Those who survey, withacurious eye, the revolutions of mankind may observe the gardens and circus ofNero onthe Vatican, which were polluted with the blood of the first Christians,have been renderedstill more famous by the triumph and by the abuse of thepersecuted religion"[25]. During the reign of Emperor Diocletian, at least four knownedicts of persecution againstChristians were issued and all their churches wereordered burned. Although the emperorabdicated his throne in 305, "thepersecution of the Christians continued for 10 years, andnearly 2,000 of theirleaders were executed"[26]. With all the inhumane treatment by the Romans against theearly followers of Jesus, it isostensibly paradoxical that Rome became thecenter of Christendom. The Romansthemselves were the worst enemies of JesusChrist, and they were the ones who allegedlycrucified him. Indeed the Romans,particularly Emperor Constantine, had played a vitalrole in the founding ofRome as the center of Christendom. This was a clear politicalmove by the Romansto maintain and expand their own empire, with a vast base ofsubservientsubjects that would include the Christians. For the firsttime, in 308 A.D., the Roman world was divided in the hands of sixemperors: inthe West, Constantine and Maxentius affected to reverence their fatherEmperorMaximian; in the East, Licinus and Maximin honored with more realconsiderationtheir benefactor Galerius[27]. During the reign of Emperor Constantine,therefore, theRoman world was plagued by internal civil strife, so he considered the questforreunification of utmost importance. Moreover, his reign witnessed the disarrayof theChristian world with respect to various conflicting dogmas. History showsthatConstantine himself was a very controversial figure. The Christiansconsidered him thedeliverer of the church, hence a hero. Others compared"Constantine to the most abhorred
  9. 9. of those tyrants, who, by their vice andweakness, dishonored the Imperial purple"[28]. Itis worth noting that Emperor Constantine himself fledfrom Rome, not because he was achampion of the Christian cause, but because hefeared that his life and empire were indanger. Why? He was at first reported tobe jealous of his eldest son, Crispus, who was thedirect heir to the throne.Crispus, who was invested with the title of Caesar at the age ofseventeen,became so popular by virtue of his military prowess and leadership thatheengaged the affections of the court, the army, and the people. This dangerouspopularityof Crispus soon excited the attention of Constantine, who wasimpatient of a strong rival.Instead of securing the allegiance of his son, theemperor resorted to a satanic move.Crispus was subsequently put to death,either by the hand of the executioner or by themore gentle operation ofpoison[29]. Clearly, therefore, Constantines lust for power led him tothe extreme of committing agrievous crime by murdering his son. Prior to this,it was reportedly known that Crispusstepmother, the Empress Fausta, had wantedone of her very own sons (namely:Constantine, Constantius and Constans) tosucceed the emperor. These three, however,were not the direct heirs to thethrone, so Empress Fausta had a motive to kill Crispus,"whom she consideredwith reason as the most formidable rival of her own children"[30].Obviously cognizant ofthis motive, Emperor Constantine reportedly manifested hisrepentance "only inacts of blood and revenge; and that he atoned for the murder of aninnocent son,by the execution, perhaps, of a guilty wife"[31]. One testimony, in thisconnection, states simply that"Constantine put to death his son and wife." Anothertestimony says that"Crispus was poisoned, Fausta suffocated by a hot bath"[32].Afterthe tragic murder of Empress Fausta, however, the situation, turned tochaos,apparently beyond the expectation of Emperor Constantine. With his empirealreadyon the brink of collapse because of civil war and external threats,Constantine fled toByzantium (later named Constantinople), where he met withunexpected success from thePauline church[33]. At Byzantium, Constantine was offeredby the Pauline church to undertake penance, sohe did[34]. Such privilege offered toa tyrant only manifested the looseness of Christiantheological norms. If suchnorms tolerate anyone to be absolved from murder simply bymaking confession(which should be the case if clergymen do not resort todiscrimination), thenanyone could kill anybody else without being punished;and,subsequently, thesociety would be in chaos. In other words, the community adhering tothose normswould appear as a big penal colony, composed of former convicts andothercriminals, who by the grace of clergy, carry the Christian identity. Thechurchmen,however, would certainly not welcome this view. But if Constantineescaped the penaltyof his crimes, simply by accepting the clergymens offer forpublic penance, why couldnot this hold true to others? The truth is thatConstantines penance was a special case andhad, in fact, served a mutuallydual purpose. On one hand, it apparently served the ulteriormotive of thePauline church in terms of imperial protection and peace with the Romans.On theother hand, as Emperor Constantine was worried not only about the repercussionofthe crime he committed back home, but also about the problems devastating theRomanEmpire (civil wars and the like), he collaborated with the Paulineclergymen, hoping that
  10. 10. he would be able to win the loyalty of the Christians,which he needed most to unite hisempire. Constantine was, in fact, sosuccessful that the priests went further by carrying outvery successfulunderground work for him, and they were indeed behind his success inreunitingthe Roman Empire. Constantine, thus, exploited the golden opportunitywherebythe prelate of Constantinople (overshadowed by the imperial courts andprotectedby the imperial armies) "tended to accept the claims of the emperors tocontrolthe church and to decide any dispute that arose in the ecclesiastical sphere"[35].After all, thoseclergymen in the new city, the Constantinople, felt no better choice,because"the emperors of fourth century were men of autocratic disposition, andtheyexpected everyone, including the leaders of the church, to obey them"[36]. Thoseemperors wereconcerned with maintaining "the unity of the public cult as the basisandguarantee of the unity of the empire"[37]. By virtue of political consideration as wellas his goodcontrol over the clergymen, Constantine, therefore, took advantage of havingaunited church which would be loyal to him and whose center would be based inRome(not in Jerusalem!). This means that the whole of Christendom had to beunder the realmof the Roman Bishop, who in turn was subservient to the emperor.Naturally, therefore,Christians obedience to the Roman bishop meant allegianceor loyalty to the emperor. Assuch, the followers of the Apostolic church,particularly the Berber communities of NorthAfrica under the leadership ofDonatus, strongly suspected this move as a politicalstrategy by a foreign rulerto subjugate them. They firmly believed that Jesus never saidanything aboutRome to be the center of his teaching. So, the Christian Berbers of NorthAfricaremained under the leadership of Bishop Donatus who stood firm againsttheBishop of Rome for forty years. They maintained for years their fundamentaltenets,notably that of the belief in the Divine Unity of God, and Jesus as Hisprophet[38]. Constantines leverage on Christianity does not suffice toprove that he himself was adevoted Christian. Historian R. Richter agrees withE. Gibbon that ConstantinesChristianity was due entirely to politicalconsiderations. Another historian, Burckhardt,developed the view thatConstantine was constitutionally indifferent to religion; and that"in his lateryears he exhibited personal inclinations rather towards paganism thantowardsChristianity"[39]. In fact,many of his subjects still believed in Roman gods (likeJupiter); and in orderto please them, Constantine in his later years (and in collaborationwith theclergymen) made some decisions in their favor, which quite proved that healsoworshiped the Roman gods. One such decision, for instance, was the declarationofthe Roman Sunday as the Christian Sabbath; another was the adoption of theRoman Sun-gods birthday (the twenty fifth of December) as the birthday ofJesus. These were justsome of the decisions made during the Nicene Council,which was ratified by EmperorConstantine himself. In fact, it was when the oldcontroversy between Arius and BishopAlexander re-emerged that EmperorConstantine convened the Nicene Council. So, the PaulineChurch won in the end! The Nicene creed was ratified by EmperorConstantine,whose religion was still a subject of doubt, and whose mind had notbeenenlightened either by study or by inspiration[40]. This Council ultimately agreed tocall Christ "the Son ofGod, only begotten of the Father... of the substance of the Father...very Godof very God"[41]. It alsoofficially declared the Trinitarian concept as the officialdoctrine of thePauline Church; and ratified the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John
  11. 11. as theonly four canonical gospels. The Nicene Council also decidedto destroy all gospels written in Hebrew, resulting in theburning of nearlythree hundred other accounts (many of them eye-witness accounts). ThePaulineChurch authorities went further by declaring possession of an unauthorizedgospela capital offense. This was part of Athanasius all out strategy to unifyChristendom, whichresulted in the killing of over a million Christians in theyears that followed the NiceneCouncil. The Gospel of St. Barnabas, however,reportedly survived until now as the onlyeye-witness account of the life andmission of Jesus Christ (peace be upon him). It wasaccepted as a canonicalscripture by the Christians of Alexandria till 325 A.D.[42]. ThisGospel foretold thecoming of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)[43]. Atthis point, it is worth noting that three years after the Council of Nicea,Constantineslack of objectivity in settling the dispute (being ignorant of thetheological roots of theTrinitarian controversy) had surfaced. Constantine,influenced by his sisters pro-Arianinclination, soon protected Arius byrepeatedly signifying his will that the latter berestored to the Catholiccommunion. Athanasius - a man who engineered the Athanasiancreed - objectedstrongly to this idea. Constantine was, however, determined to solemnlyadmitArius to the communion in the cathedral of Constantinople, but on the samedayfixed for his triumph in 336 A.D., the latter died.Athanasius was found to be responsible for the death of Arius. So, Constantinepersecutedthe former, and exiled him to the remote province of Gaul for abouttwenty-eight months.The Emperor was so greatly moved by the tragic death ofArius, and with the stronginfluence of his pro-Arian sister Constantina, hebecame a Christian. Just a year after hisreported conversion, EmperorConstantine died in 337 A.D. as an Arian Christian.Ironically, the Emperor diedin the faith of those he had persecuted and killed - themembers and leaders ofthe Apostolic Church who affirmed the Divine Unity of God, withJesus as Hisapostle[44]. After the death of Constantine, Athanasius had anot-too-long respite, when again he wassubjected to persecution by the thenEmperor Constantius, who was also pro-Arian.Athanasius, in fact, passed threeyears in the Vatican for his second exile from Alexandriaaround 339 A.D. Again,in 356 A.D he was expelled from Alexandria for the third time.His life was inmost imminent danger as the conspiracy by those prelates who opposed hiscreedwon the heart of Emperor Constantius, resulting in more terrible edicts againsthim.For instance, liberal rewards were promised, by Imperial edict, to the manwho shouldproduce Athanasius dead or alive; and the severe penalties weredenounced against thosewho should dare protect the public enemy. So, Athanasiusattempted to escape byembarking on several adventures, one of which led to anillicit, adulterous affair betweenhim and a young lady, who was celebrated inthe whole city for her exquisite beauty.During the six years of his exile andpersecution, he continued to pay her visits[45]. Thisdisclosure of an immoral affair involving the founderof the Athanasian creed is not verysurprising since many of the Christianclergymen have been involved in adultery andother major crimes. Considering thehistorical background pertaining to Athanasiusimmoral conduct and pervasivepersonality, it is a pity that Christians nowadays still
  12. 12. adhere to theAthanasian creed (the belief in Trinity!). By the sametoken, although Emperor Constantine ratified the Trinitarian doctrine, thefactthat he died in the faith of those who opposed it (the Christians who believe inOneGod the Almighty) proves that he did not adhere to it. This confirmed thevalidity of theproposition that his mediating role in the Trinitariancontroversy was politically motivatedand not spiritually inspired.Unfortunately, the foundation and growth of Christianity havebeen largelyinfluenced by politics and self-interests, rather than by the practical lifeandthe authentic teachings of Jesus (peace be upon him). The influence of Paul ontodaysChristianity is another obvious case in point. This is thoroughlycovered in the followingsection.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[24] Edward Gibbon, Vol. II. op. cit., p.77.[25] Ibid., pp.91-92.[26] Martin A. Larson and C. Stanley Lowell, The Religious Empire: The Growth andDanger of Tax-Exempt Property in the United States (Washington: Robert B. Luce Co.,1976), p.12.[27] Edward Gibbon, Vol. I, op. cit., p.440.[28] Edward Gibbon, Vol. II, op. cit., p.214.[29] Ibid, p.219-222.[30] Ibid, p.223.[31] Ibid.[32] See Appendix Note No.13, Edward Gibbon, Vol.II p.587.[33] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.78.[34] One source stated that, after Constantine murdered his son, and subsequently hiswife, he repented; the Christian clergymen (apparently the priests of the Pauline Church)reportedly offered him forgiveness and he became a Christian. See Appendix Note No.13, Edward Gibbon, Vol. II op. cit., p.587.[35] Brian Tierney, The Crisis of Church & State 1050-1300 (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,Inc., 1964), p.9.[36] Ibid., p.8.[37] Arend Th. Va Leeuwen, Christianity in World History: The Meeting of the Faiths ofEast and West, trans. By H. H. Hoskins (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1964),p.275.[38] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.81.[39] See Appendix Note No. 18, Edward Gibbon, Vol. II op. cit., p.593.[40] Edward Gibbon, Vol. II. op. cit., pp.376-377.[41] A. M. Renwick, op. cit., p.54.[42] Lonsdale and Laura Ragg, Ed. and Trans., The Gospel of Barnabas (Karachi: BegumAaisha Bawany Waqf, 1986) p.274.[43] Ibid, pp.122-123.[44] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.104.
  13. 13. [44] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.104.[45] See Edward Gibbon, Vol.II., op. cit., p.402. The Influence of Paul And The Pauline Church On The Trinitarian Dogmas Paul was a self-proclaimed apostle to theGentiles. References to his life andpersonality were partly based on primarysource, notably his letters, and partly on theaccount given by Luke in Acts.The primary nature of Pauls life account (history), in fact,aggravates thesuspicion that he tailored everything to suit his motive (apparentlyimplicit)of getting to the top of Christendom power. Indeed, the veryfoundation of Christianity today emerged through the great influence ofPaul. Asthe founder of todays Christianity, Paul testifies:"According to the grace ofGodwhich was given to me, as a wise master builder I have laid the Foundation,and anotherbuilds on it. But let each one take heed how he builds on it"[46].Michael Hart, an American mathematician, historian and publisher, in his rankingof the100 most influential persons in history places Paul (not Jesus Christ) asthe second mostinfluential person in history - next only to the ProphetMuhammad (peace be uponhim)[47]. In his ranking, Hart clearly recognizes the fact that Paulwas the real founder oftodays Christianity. Paul surprisingly outranks Jesusin Harts listing, because he wrotemore books of the Bible than those of itsother authors, whereas Jesus did not write asingle word in it. Surprisinglyenough, the so-called epistles of Paul to the Romans,Corinthians, Galatians,Ephiseans, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titusand toPhilemon have virtually no reference to the true words uttered by Jesus (peacebeupon him). Except for four repugnant verses, which wereallegedly attributed to Jesus (peace be uponhim), virtually all of the morethan two thousand verses of the epistles of Paul are his ownfabrications.Christians should know that Paul himself mentions his own gospel, notJesus, inhis epistle to the Romans when he says, "In the day when God will judgethesecrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel." (Romans 2:16). In fact,thePauline Epistle to the Romans serves as the foundation of todaysChristianity[48].Indeed,this is so strange and ironical, knowing that none of its more than 430 verseswereever formulated by Jesus. Paul should have made direct reference to thepristine teachingsof Jesus (peace be upon him), if only the formers claim forapostleship or divineinspiration was, indeed, true. Instead, large parts of hisepistles Biblical quotations(notably those in the Epistle to the Romans) weretaken from the Old Testament - Genesis,Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, 2Samuel, 1 Kings, Psalms, Proverbs, Isaiah, Ezekieland Hosea. His epistles were,indeed, a product of tedious efforts, but that does not makePaul far betterthan any of the other men who authored the Bible. It isworth noting that the Athanasian Creed, as mentioned earlier, was never taughtbyJesus (peace be upon him). In fact, the word Trinity or the Athanasian Creeditself isnowhere found in the Bible.
  14. 14. Trinitarian dogma wasmerely deduced from I John 5:7, which states: "For there are threethat bearrecord in heaven, the Father, the Word and the Holy Ghost: and these threeareone". Christian scholars of the Bible later found that this dogma was aninterpolation inthe King James version. In fact, no less than a group of 32Christian scholars of highesteminence, advised by a board of 50 representativesof various denominations came up in1946 with a revised standard version of theNew Testament, and of the whole Bible in1952, discarding the foregoingpassage[49]. One of the major innovations of the Pauline church is theblood atonement[50]. Inhisepistle to the Romans, Paul says:"Much more then, having now been justified byhisBlood we shall be saved from wrath through Him"[51]. Otherrelated Biblical passages, wherein the Christian dogma of blood atonementorvicarious sacrifice is probably inferred from, are as follows:"Knowing that youwere notredeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from youraimless conduct receivedby your fathers", "but with the precious blood ofChrist, as of a lamb without blemish andwithout spot"[52]."Take, eat; thisis My body which is broken for you; do this in remembrance of Me"[53]."This cup is thenew covenant in My blood. This do, as often as you drink it, inremembrance ofMe"[54]."My graceis sufficient for you, for My strength is made perfect in weakness"[55]. Theforegoing verses, indeed, contradict the key teaching of Jesus, pertaining tosalvation,which says:"For I say to you, that unless your righteousness exceedsthe righteousness ofthe scribes and Pharisees, you will by no means enter theKingdom of Heaven"[56]. Christians, however, may always find ways to defend theTrinitarian heresy. They may,for instance, bank on Pauls baseless imaginationconcerning the role of Jesus: "...Christcame, who is overall, the eternallyblessed God"[57]. This is, however, absurd, knowing that there is no single,unequivocal statement in theBible whereby Jesus himself declares: "I am God;therefore, worship me". Instead, hesaid: "I can of Myself do nothing. As Ihear, I judge; and My judgment is righteous,because I do not seek my own willbut the will of My father who sent Me."7 "...My Fatheris greater than I"[58]. "For I have not spoken ofmy own authority; but the Father whosent Me gave Me a command, what I shouldsay and what I should speak"[59]. "And Iknow that His command is everlasting life.Therefore, whatever I speak, just as the Fatherhas told me, so I speak"[60]. These are just few of theverses which explicitly prove thatJesus (peace be upon him) claimed that he wassent by God. In this regard, A Doctor ofDivinity and a noted Christianprofessor of Church History, A. M. Renwick, himselfemphasizes that the one whois sent is a messenger[61].Pauls explicit confession that he"separated to the Gospel of God"[62]should give
  15. 15. Christians courage to doubt his self-madedogmas. Jesus and all the other prophets (peacebe upon them all) taught theunity of God (as manifested, for instance, in Exodus 20:25;Isaiah 44:6; John5:44, 17:3). They had never taught Pauls innovations. So, any reverenceto Paulis, per se, a rebellion against Jesus himself. Moreover, ifSaul (the other name of Paul) had, indeed, heard in a vision: "Saul, Saul,whyare you persecuting Me?"[63]he obviously deserved this humiliating remark, becausehe had, in real life,severely persecuted the true followers of Jesus. Paul himselftestifies:"Indeed,I myself thought I must do many things contrary to the name of JesusofNazareth. This I also did in Jerusalem, and many of the saints I shut up inprison, havingreceived authority from the chief priests; and when they were putto death, I cast my voteagainst them. And I punished them often in everysynagogue and compelled them toblaspheme; and being exceedingly enraged againstthem, I persecuted them even toforeign cities"[64]. "For I am the least ofthe apostles, who am not worthy to be calledapostle, because I persecuted thechurch of God"[65]. Indeed, Paul was an avowed enemy both of Jesus and hisfollowers. Normative valuejudgment (let alone the Divine Law of God) woulddisqualify Paul from being an apostle,bearing in mind his known criminalbackground, particularly with respect to hispersecution campaign against thereal followers of Jesus. Ironically, his claim toapostleship brought him toprison in Caesarea, Ro, and during one of his trials, the thenGovernor ofCaesarea, Festus, said to him with a loud voice "Paul, you are besideyourself!Much learning is driving you mad!"[66]. In fact, he was slain for championingthe cause of hisself-made Christianity. Pauls criminal records, indeed, deservedcapitalpunishment. Other innovations by the Pauline Church includethe adoption of the following: theRoman Sun-day as the Christian Sabbath; thetraditional birthday of the Sun-god as thebirthday of Jesus; the emblem of theSun-god, the cross of light, to be the emblem ofChristianity; and theincorporation of all the ceremonies which were performed at theSun-godsbirthday celebrations into their own rituals[67].------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[46] I Corinthians 3:10.[47] See Michael Hart, The Top 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons inHistory (New York: Hart Publishing Co., 1978).[48] Ironically, Martin Luther himself asserts that the Pauline Epistle to the Romans is"the Most important document in the New Testament, the gospel in its purest form". SeeLewis W. Spitz ed., The Protestant Reformation (New Jersey prentice -Hall, Inc., 1966),pp.36.[49] See the section, "A Hint About the References", Reference No. 1 (d) in A. Abdel-Wahab Ali, The Christ As Seen in the Sources of the Christian Beliefs (Cairo: Wahbabook Shop, 1985).[50] Other related innovations are the divinity of Jesus, the divine sonship of Jesus and
  16. 16. the original sin.[51] Romans 5:9.[52] I Peter 1:18-19.[53] I Corinthians 11:24.[54] I Corinthians 11:25.[55] 2 Corinthians 12:9.[56] Matthew 5:20.[57] Romans 9:5.[58] John 14:28.[59] John 12:49.[60] John 12:50.[61] A. M. Renwick, The Story of the Church (Bristol: Inter-Varsity Press, 1977), p.19.[62] Romans 1:1.[63] Acts, 22:7.[64] Acts, 26:9-11.[65] I Corinthians 15:9.[66] Acts, 26:24.[67] Muhammad Ata ur-Rahim, op. cit., p.99. The Holy Quran Affirms The Unity Of God And Refutes The Doctrine of Trinity The Islamic concept of God is crystalclear, and it is purely of divine source - nothuman conjecture. Man, with allhis senses, sees Gods creation around him - bothanimate and inanimate objects.These include the heavens and the earth, and all betweenthem - mankind, thesun, the moon, the stars, the rain, the mountains, animals, vegetablesand allkinds of fruits, and many more[68]. All these have the same patterns of creation,and are,therefore, clear signs that there is One and only True God - Allah theAlmightyand the Supreme Creator. He has asked us to meditate on those signs, so wewouldbe able to realize that every creation has a definite purpose - not accidentalnor amere idle sport. Allah says:“ Not for (idlesport) did We create the heavens and the earth and all thatisbetween!”[69]. Elsewhere in the Quran, Allah the Almighty likewisesays:“ We created not the heavens,the earth, and all between them, butfor just ends.... For verily it is thy Lord Who is theMaster- Creator, knowingall things”[70].“ Your God is one God: as to those who believe not inthe Hereafter, their hearts refuseto know, and they are arrogant”[71]. Inorder to satisfy further those with inquisitive minds, they should ponder overthefollowing explicit accounts of the Oneness of God, as stated in the HolyQuran:“ Andyour God is One God: there is no god but He, Most Gracious,Most Merciful”[72].
  17. 17. “ God! There is no god but He, - the Living, theSelf-subsisting Eternal. No slumbercan seize Him nor sleep. His are all thingsin the heavens and on earth. "Who is therecan intercede in His presence exceptas He permitted? He knows what (appeared to Hiscreatures as) Before or After orBehind them. Nor shall they compass ought of Hisknowledge except as He willed.His Throne doth extend over the heavens and on earth,and He felt no fatigue inguarding and preserving them for He is the Most High, theSupreme (inglory)”[73].“ Verily, verily, your God is One!”[74].“ Say. He is God the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetsnot, nor isHe begotten; and there is none like unto Him”[75].Theforegoing verses are just some of the numerous Quranic injunctions, whichclearlymanifest the Oneness of God. But to rectify mans baseless conjectures,Allah theAlmighty Himself explicitly brands those who adhere to Trinity andother strangepolytheistic beliefs as blasphemers, as manifested in thefollowing verse:“ They doblaspheme who say: God is one of three in aTrinity: for there is no god except OneGod. If they desist not from their word(of blasphemy), verily a grievous penalty willbefall the blasphemers amongthem”[76].------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[68] See the Holy Quran, Nahl, 16:1-21.[69] Quran, Anbiyaa, 21:16.[70] Quran, Al-Hijr, 15:85-86.[71] Quran, Nahl, 16:22.[72] Quran, Baqara, 2:163.[73] Quran, Baqara, 2:255.[74] Quran, Saffat, 37:4.[75] Quran, Ikhlas, 112:1-4.[76] Quran, Maida, 5:74. Allah The One And Only True God: Devoid Of Any Partner The One and Only true God, Allah, hasabsolutely no partner. Indeed, He is self-sufficient. He does not need anyassociate. So, one should not venture into believing thatGod shares hisdivinity with anyone. Indeed, this is a blasphemous belief, which will onlypavethe way (for someone who cherishes it) to Hell-Fire. The following Quranicverseselucidate the nature of Allah, being the One and Only True God, who isabsolutely devoidof any partner:“ Allah is He, than Whom there is noother god; Who knows (all things)both secret and open; He Most Gracious, MostMerciful. Allah is He, than Whom there
  18. 18. is no other god; the Sovereign, the HolyOne, the Source of Peace (and Perfection) theGuardian of Faith, the Preserverof Safety, the Exalted in Might, the Irresistible, theSupreme: Glory to God!(High is He) above the partners they attribute to Him. One dayshall We gatherthem altogether. We shall say to those who ascribed partners (to us):Where arethe partners whom ye (invented and) talked about?”[77].“ He knows what is hidden and what is open: too high is He for thepartners theyattribute to Him!”[78].“ He is God, the Creator, theEvolver, the Bestower of Forms (or Colors). To Himbelong the Most BeautifulNames. Whatever is in the heavens and on earth, dothdeclare His Praise andGlory: and He is the Exalted in Might, Wise”[79]. Anyrational human being who sincerely acknowledges the unique attributes ofAllah,which are absolutely Divine and true to Himself alone, will neverassociateanything with Him. Allah, the one and only true God, is the sole Living Godofthe Universe. He is Eternal, Absolute, Most Compassionate, MostGracious,Omnipresent, Omniscient, Omnipotent, Most Powerful and Self- Sufficient. Heisthe Giver of Life, the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, and all betweenthem. He isthe best Disposer of Affairs. He is Most High, Great. He is MostForbearing and the Bestof Planners. He is quick in retribution, but forgivingand merciful. He is Exalted in power,Wise, free of all wants and worthy of allpraise. He is the Lord of the Throne of Honor. ToHim belong the End and theBeginning. He is above time and space; hence, no vision canever grasp Him.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[77] Quran, Anam, 6:22.[78] Quran, Mu-minun, 23:92.[79] Quran, Hashr, 59:22-24. Allah Rectifies The Christians Misconception Concerning The Divinity Of Jesus The Christian concept of God includes Jesusas one of three in a Trinity. This isobviously a sort of misconception, whichis based on their allegation that Jesus is the"Only Begotten Son of God". BeingAll-Knowing, All Perfect and devoid of allanimalistic qualities the Christiansattribute to Him, God categorically rectifies suchmisconception as thefollowing verses show:“ They say: God hath begotten a son! -Glory be toHim! He is self-sufficient! His are all things in the heavens and on earth!Nowarrant have ye to say this! Say ye about God what ye know not?”[80].“ It is not befitting to (the majesty) of God that He should beget a son.Glory be to Him!When He determines a matter, He only says to it: Be and itis”[81].
  19. 19. “ They say: (God) Most Gracious has begotten a son!Indeed ye have put forth a thingmost monstrous! At it the skies are ready toburst, the earth to split asunder, and themountains to fall down in utter ruin,that they should invoke a son for (God) MostGracious. For it is not consonantwith the majesty of (God) Most Gracious that Heshould beget a son”[82].“ No son did God beget, nor is there any god along with Him: (if therewere manygods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, andsome wouldhave lorded it over others! (He is free) from the (sort of) thingsthey attribute toHim!”[83].“ Did He (then) choose daughtersrather than sons”[84]. The misconception that Jesus(allegedly being the "Only Begotten Son") has the samedivine essence as theSupreme Creator is, indeed, a great unforgivable sin, should anindividual diebelieving such. Every Christian knows that Jesus was a man; and as such,he doesnot possess any of the divine attributes of Allah. In fact, the Bible testifiesthat,"God is not a man"[85]. After all, their Bible tells them more than once thatJesus was aman[86]. By thesame token, the Bible mentions the weaknesses of Jesus. Just like anyother man,Jesus felt the basic human needs of hunger and thirst[87]. By the same token,likeanyone who needs to rest when the day is gone, Jesus also slept[88]. The case ofAllah isentirely different as:“ No slumber can seize Him nor sleep”[89], and:“ thereisnothing whatsoever like unto Him...”[90].Thus, the Christian concept of thedeity of Jesus absolutely contorted the Divine Unity ofGod. The Holy Quranstates:“ They do blaspheme who say: God is Christ the son OfMary. Butsaid Christ: O Children of Israel worship God, my Lord and your Lord.Whoeverjoins other gods with God, - God will forbid him the Garden, and the Firewillbe his abode. There will for the wrong doers be no one to help”[91].“ God has said: Take not (for worship) two gods: for He is just One God;then fear Me(and Me alone)”[92].The Christian doctrine that Jesus hadto die on the cross (because nothing in this world isholier than his blood toatone for the sins committed by the entire human race) is soobscure. It isabsolutely unthinkable, for instance, that those of the previous generationswhoreceived and followed the divine messages through the chain of formerprophets(Noah, Abraham, Moses and the like) could not attain salvation simplybecausethey did not affirm Jesus Christ as their savior. Thus, accepting thismisconceptionwould be against all laws ever known to man, let alone the DivineLaw of Allah.Allah the Almighty is All-Knowing, and forsure He is fully aware of how the ChristianChurch imposed their own fabricateddogmas (like the divinity of Jesus and bloodatonement) on peoples worldwide.Such dogmas were not at all taught by any of theprophets, including Jesus andMuhammad (peace be upon them all). In refuting the
  20. 20. Christian concept ofsalvation (through Jesus Christ), Allah the Almighty explicitlyemphasizes thatones own sin is his sole responsibility, and should not be borne byanother.The Holy Quran states:“ Say: Shall I seek a lord other than Allah, whileHe isthe Lord of all things? No person earns any (sin) except against himself(only), and nobearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another. Then untoyour Lord is yourreturn, so He will tell you that wherein you have beendiffering”[93].[80] Quran, Yunus, 10:68.[81] Quran, Maryam, 19:35.[82] Quran, Maryam, 19:88-92.[83] Quran, Mu-minun, 23:91.[84] Quran, Saffat, 37:153.[85] Numbers 23:19.[86] I Timothy 2:5; Acts 2:14-22 and John 1:29-30.[87] Matthew 21:18; John 19:28.[88] Mark 4:38; Luke 8:23.[89] Quran Baqara, 2:255.[90] Quran, Shura 42:11.[91] Quran, Maida, 5:73.[92] Quran, Nahl, 16:51.[93] Quran, Anam, 6:164. Belief In One God: The Key to Salvation For one to attain salvation (that is, forhim to be saved from the torment of Hell-Fire), he has to firmly believe thatthere is no god but the One and Only True God (Allah).Prophet Muhammad (peacebe upon him) says:“ He who died knowing (andacknowledging it) that thereis no god but Allah, he is in fact entitled to get intoParadise”[94]. Bythe same token, any person who deviates from the belief in Allah (the One andOnlyTrue God) will have Hell-Fire as his ultimate abode, as evidenced in thefollowing sayingof Prophet Muhammad (peace be-upon him):“ Two thingsyield inevitable results. Aperson said. Allahs Messenger, what these twothings are? He said. He who diedassociating anything with Allah woulddefinitely enter into Hell-Fire and he who diedwithout associating anythingwith Allah, he in fact entitled himself to go intoParadise”[95]. Theforegoing Hadith conforms to Allahs saying that He forgives sins other thanthat ofassociating other gods with Him, as the following Quranic versemanifests:“ Godforgives not (the sin of) joining other gods-with Him; butHe forgives whom He pleasedother sins than this: one who joins other gods withGod, hath strayed far, far away(from the right)”[96].
  21. 21. Foranyone to strengthen his faith and attain salvation, he should, therefore,contemplatethe foregoing verse. He should always bear in mind that, being theWisest of Judges,“God is never unjust in the least degree...”[97]. Furthermore, thefollowing verses,reflecting Allahs justice, should inspire every man to seeksalvation through completefaith in Him, instead of irrationally seekingsalvation through blood atonement.“ Whoever worksrighteousness, man or woman, and has faith, verily, to him will Wegive a newLife, a life that is good and pure, and We will bestow on such theirrewardaccording to-the best of their actions”[98].“ He that works evil will not be requited but by the like thereof: and hethat works arighteous deed - whether man or woman - and is a believer - suchwill enter the Garden(of Bliss): therein will they have abundance withoutmeasure”[99].“ That man can have nothing but what he strivesfor”[100].“ Then shall anyone who has done an atoms weight ofgood, see it! And anyone whohas done an atoms weight of evil, shall seeit”[101]. Thus, complete faith in Allah (the One and Only True God) isessential for ones ownsalvation. Faith becomes meaningful only when it istranslated into practice. So, fortunateis he whose belief and deeds are alwaysmeant for pleasing Allah alone.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[94] Reported by Uthman (Allah be pleased with him) and also compiled by Muslim.Ibid., p.23.[95] This Hadith (Prophetic Saying) was reported by Jabir (Allah be Pleased with him),and compiled by Muslim. Ibid, p.24.[96] Quran, Nisaa, 4:116.[97] Quran, Nisaa, 4:40.[98] Quran, Nahl, 16:97.[99] Quran, Mu-min, 40:40.[100] Quran, Najm, 53:39.[101] Quran, Zilsilah, 9:7-8.
  22. 22. Summary And Concluding Remarks This book has shown historical factssurrounding the Trinitarian controversy. Ithas shown that the Trinitariandoctrine was ratified only in the fourth century, proving thatJesus (peace beupon him) was not its own author. Christendom has for centuries beenindisarray, and the real followers of Jesus (peace be upon him) found theTrinitariandoctrine very strange and abominable. They not only opposed it inwords, but many ofthem also stood firmly in defense of the Divine Unity of God,a doctrine taught by Jesushimself and all other prophets (peace be upon themall). The leaders and members of theApostolic church - a group of the realfollowers of Jesus (peace be upon him) - died inthousands as a result ofpersecution against them by the Romans in collaboration withthose of thePauline church. The Unitarian Christians preferred to die for a noblecause(i.e., in their great attempt to defend their monotheistic belief) rather thanaccept themysterious doctrine of Trinity. The Trinitarianschool of thought dominated the Christian world only after the Paulinechurchimposed it by force on those who neither understood it nor sincerely accepted itasa divine precept. Such coercion was strongly condemned and resisted by thosewhobelieved that Jesus was a mere prophet of God, and not one of three in aTrinity. Politics,however, played a very significant role in selling the ideaof Triune God to the Christianmasses. In fact, it took Christendom more thanthree hundred years to ratify the Trinitariandoctrine. But even afterratification, the Unitarian Christians continued to defy it.Imposition of thedeath penalty for those who opposed the Trinitarian system hadultimately givenit a clear commanding edge over the pristine tenets of the Apostolicchurch. The book has likewise examined some of the controversialpersonalities behind thesuccess of the Trinitarian doctrine. These includeAthanasius, Constantine and Paul. Theseindividuals were as controversial as theTrinitarian doctrine itself. For instance,Athanasius was considered by virtueof an Imperial decree as a public enemy who waswanted by the then EmperorConstantius "dead or alive", and this happened years after theratification ofthe Trinitarian doctrine. In his attempt to save his life, he resorted tohidingfrom one place to another until he discovered a young woman who was knownforher exquisite beauty. Their clandestine affair resulted in an illicit,adulterous crime by aman who had engineered the Athanasian creed (theTrinitarian doctrine).By the same token, EmperorConstantine (who ratified the Doctrine of Trinity) was
  23. 23. himself a tyrant andcriminal who murdered his son, his wife and many more, because ofhis lust forpolitical power. Neither did he understand the real theological foundationofChristianity nor was he himself a real Christian. His crimes, including themurder ofthousands of innocent individuals, coupled with his paganistic belief,were grievous.Ironically, however, life was made easy for him by the Christianclergymen. They offeredhim forgiveness, despite the fact that only God canforgive those grievous sins! So, inreturn, Constantine gave them imperialprotection; and, subsequently, he ratified for themtheir doctrine of Trinity. Moreover, the very founder of todays Christianity (Paul)was himself very controversial.Christians belief that he was a divinelyinspired apostle is so obscure. First of all, Paul(who had never personally metJesus) was not among the twelve disciples. Second, he hadpersecuted many of thereal followers of Jesus. Third, Pauls teachings, in general,contradict thoseof Jesus (peace be upon him). In fact, large part of the New Testament,whichwas ratified by Emperor Constantine during the Nicene Council in 325 A. D.,wasPauls own fabrications. Specific, Pauls letters to the Romans, the Galatians,thePhilippians, and the like were his own making, which do not at all conformto the realteachings of Jesus (peace be upon him). In fact, this book has shownthat virtually all ofthe Pauline epistles had no reference to the practicalteachings, personal sayings and realpersonality of Jesus (peace be upon him). Based on the historical facts presented in this book,Christians only need to use theirobjectivity and rational thinking to realizethat the man-made Trinity that they have beenworshipping all the years isnothing but a product of political and personal manipulationsby such men asAthanasius, Constantine and Paul. Their criminal backgrounds orimmoralitieswere enough grounds that they were devoid of any divine inspiration. Itfollows,therefore, that the Trinitarian doctrine is human and not divine in nature. This book has also shown that the mysterious nature of thecontroversial Trinity can besolved through the concept of God in Islam. SeveralQuranic injunctions are presented,which explicitly refute the Trinitariandoctrine and the divinity of Jesus; affirm the DivineUnity of God; stress thefundamental Truth that God is self reliant, hence devoid of anypartner; andhighlight the belief in Allah (the One and Only True God) as the keytosalvation. On the other hand, joining partners with Allah is the key toHell-Fire, so Hecommands us not to worship anyone other than Him. Indeed, AllahIs self-sufficient; Hedoes not have to share His Divinity with anyone else.Therefore, Christians who reallyseek Truth only need to revert to the belief inthe absolute Oneness of God, for them to beable to avoid the confusion ormystery underlying the Trinitarian doctrine. After all, Jesusand all otherprophets (peace be upon them all) taught the Divine Unity of God, which isthevery creed of Islam - the peaceful submission to the Will of God. Today, Islam has already surpassed Christianity as theNumber One religion in the world.This is so, because the real seekers of Truthfound Islam as the only religion that trulyadvocates the belief in the absoluteOneness of God. Furthermore, Islam is growing sofast, because many of those whoembraced it as their new faith have played a verysignificant role in conveyingits message to the rest of mankind.
  24. 24. Islam considerssalvation as a personal responsibility, that is based on ones faith,piety,righteousness, steadfastness and noble service - not an object of bloodatonement orvicarious sacrifice. It abolishes idolatry, a practice which iscommonplace to all otherreligions. It is the only religion in the world thathas upheld the absolute Oneness of God -a divine concept, which in everyrespect serves as the ultimate solution to the Trinitariancontroversy. Bibliography • Ali, A.A.W. The Christ As Seen in the Sources of the Christian Beliefs.Cairo: Wahba Bookshop, 1985. • Ali, A.Y. (trans.). The Holy Quran Text, Translation and Commentary.Beirut: Dar-ul-Quran Al-Karim, 1983. • Al-Tabrizi, W.M.B. Mishkat ul-Masabih with Arabic Text, Vol. 1, trans. andannot. by Siddiqui, A. H. New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan, 1984. • Ata Ur Rahim, M. Jesus: Prophet of Islam. Riyadh: Presidency of IslamicResearch, Ifta and Propagation, 1984. • Aziz-us-Samad, U. Islam and Christianity. Riyadh: Presidency of IslamicResearch, Ifta and Propagation, 1984. • Gibbon, E. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Vols. I&II, ed.by Bury, J.B. New York: AMS Press Inc., 1974. • Hart, M. The Top 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History.New York: Hart Publishing Co., 1978. • Larson, M. A. and Lowell, C.S. The Religious Empire: The Growth and Dangerof Tax-Exempt Property in the United States. Washington: Robert B. Luce Co.,1976. • Ragg, L. and Ragg, L. (eds.and trans.). The Gospel of Barnabas. Karachi:Begum Bawany Waqf, 1986. • Renwick, A.M. The Story of the Church. Bristol: Inter-Varsity Press 1977. • Spitz, L.W. ed.). The Protestant Reformation, New Jersey: Prentice Hall,Inc., 1966. • Tierney, B. The Crisis of Church&State 1050-1300. New Jersey:Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964.
  25. 25. • Van Leeuwen, A. T. Christianity in World History: The Meeting of the Faithsof East and West, trans. by Hoskins, H.H. New York: Charles Scribners Sons,1964.• The Holy Bible The New, King James version. Nashville: Thomas NelsonPublishers, 1984.

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