Objective Capital Rare Earth and Minor Metals Investment Summit: Where will future lithium supplies come from? - Gerry Clarke
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Objective Capital Rare Earth and Minor Metals Investment Summit: Where will future lithium supplies come from? - Gerry Clarke

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Objective Capital Rare Earths, Speciality and Minor Metals Investment Summit
Where will future lithium
supplies come from?
18 March 2010
by Gerry Clarke, International Lithium Alliance

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Objective Capital Rare Earth and Minor Metals Investment Summit: Where will future lithium supplies come from? - Gerry Clarke Objective Capital Rare Earth and Minor Metals Investment Summit: Where will future lithium supplies come from? - Gerry Clarke Presentation Transcript

  • Investment Conferences RARE EARTHS, SPECIALITY & MINOR METALS INVESTMENT SUMMIT 1.40 – 2.05 Where will future lithium supplies come from? Gerry Clarke – Chairman, International Lithium Alliance THE LONDON CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY ● THURSDAY, 18 MARCH 2010 www.ObjectiveCapitalConferences.com
  • Where will future lithium supplies come from? Gerry Clarke International Lithium Alliance
  • Lithium Resources Basics The lightest, smallest, highly reactive metallic element 150 mineral species & 4 brine types Hard Rock Minerals: Spodumene 8.0% Li2O Petalite 4.9% Li2O Soft Rock Minerals: Hectorite 1.2% Li2O Jadarite 7.3% Li2O Brines: Continental 200-1600 ppm Li Geothermal up to 400 ppm Li Oilfield up to 700 ppm Li Seawater 0.1-0.2 ppm Li
  • Major Lithium Suppliers Today Australia Talison Minerals Rock Argentina FMC Corp Brine Chile SQM, Chemetall Foote Brine China Numerous growing Brine/Rock USA Chemetall Foote Brine Zimbabwe Bikita Minerals Rock 15 companies produce Li mineral concentrates in 7 countries (+Brazil, Canada, Portugal, Spain) 7 companies harvest Li chemicals from brines in 4 countries FMC, SQM, Chemetall account for 7.8m tonnes Li Reserves
  • Global Lithium Demand Outlook Prospective high demand growth Steady industrial use & mobility technology shift Internal combustion to electric propulsion Lightweight strategic alloys FEVER FMC estimates double demand over next 6 years Li2CO3 low 65k in 2009 to 135k in 2016 Met by incremental global capacity increases And after that…………
  • What’s in the lithium pipeline? 7.2m tonnes Li reserves Sentient: Salar de Rincon, Argentina Sales de Jujuy (Orocobre) Salar de Olaroz, Argentina Canada Lithium: Quebec, Canada Nordic Mining: Finland Galaxy Resources: Australia/China Western Lithium: Nevada Rio Tinto: Serbia Simbol Mining: California
  • Lithium prospect A North America USA: Clayton Valley, Nevada: 9 Brines Projects Elsewhere: 5 Brines/Pegmatite Projects Canada: Alberta: 9 Brines Projects Elsewhere: 29 Pegmatite Projects Mexico: 2 Brines Projects
  • Lithium prospect B? South America Argentina: 5 Brines Projects Bolivia: Salar de Uyuni Salar de Pastos Grandes Other salars Chile: 4 Brines Projects
  • Lithium prospect C Africa, Australia, Europe Namibia: 2 Projects (HR) Mozambique: 1 Project (HR) Mali: 1 Project Australia: 5 Projects (WA/Queensland) (B&HR) Ireland: 1 Project (HR)
  • Lithium prospect D Asia China 16 Projects (B&HR)
  • Critical Factors for Lithium Low lithium content in Li-ion battery: “1m tonnes Li will suffice for 395m Chevrolet Volts” “1m tonnes Li will suffice for 250m Nissan Leafs” Other essential Li-ion battery content: RE, C, Co Supply security – national & corporate Corporate activity – oligopoly/alliances/structural change Geopolitical matters: e.g. Europe China remoteness Bolivian culture (Eramet) Resource diversity including Recycling Niche or mass vehicle market attainment………demand!
  • RECENT STUFF – THE FEVER CONTINUES POSCO, S Korea • Invested $4.8m in Pan American Lithium, January 2010 • PAL has a property, Region 111, Chile and a geothermal property in Mexico with a plan to produce 10,000 tpa Li2CO3 from each. • POSCO also spending $12.9m in a j.v. to extract lithium from seawater! Panic?
  • RECENT STUFF – THE FEVER CONTINUES ERAMET, France • Signed exploration contract with Bollore with a call option on a property in Argentina owned by Minera Santa Rita. • Both appear to have lost patience with Bolivia which is viewed officially as long term.
  • RECENT STUFF – THE FEVER CONTINUES AMERILITHIUM CORP, USA • 9 March 2010: Changed name from Kodiak International Inc. • 15 March 2010: Announced acquisition of Paymaster Project, Paymaster Canyon, Esmerelda Co, Nevada. About 80 claims worth with Li brine content in 100-300 ppm range with 1,000 ppm recorded in the vicinity. • 17 March 2010: Announced acquisition of 650 acre Americana Property lithium asset in Alberta.
  • RECENT STUFF – THE FEVER CONTINUES TOYOTA, Japan • Investing $5m. in Sales de Jujuy (Orocobre) taking 25% when feasibility complete.
  • GRAPHITE ALERT Projections for lithium indicate double present world production of natural flake graphite will be required and most of world’s production today is from, guess where, China! Graphite is second largest material used in Li-ion batteries, e.g. each car battery will need 3-7 kg graphite. Likely gap bridged by synthetic graphite from petroleum coke by companies such as ConocoPhillips or Hitachi Chemical. There are trade-offs between synthetic and natural graphite in terms of quality and cost. Synthetic is undesirably porous and preferred natural spherical graphite refined from flake graphite is expensive and wasteful of up to 70% of the starting material – costs around $3,000-4,000 per tonne ($1.4-1.8/lb) compared with $4,850 per tonne Li2CO3 ($2.2/lb).
  • The Future Will be Different Thank You