Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Natural Solutions at WorkProtected Areas: Helping People to Cope with Global Challenges Kathy MacKinnon, IUCN WCPA Trevor ...
Climate Change - Likely Impacts                         Source: Stern 2006.
Likely Regional Impacts of Climate Change on Human             Communities and LivelihoodsAfrica By 2020, 75-250 m people...
Ecosystems As Part of the Solution   Enhance resilience to climate change:   Mitigation   Store: Prevent loss of C in v...
Ecosystems & Global Carbon Cycle Forests 35% of land, 50% terrestrial C – Remove 2.4 b tons C/yr (=1/3 fossil fuel emissio...
Amazon Region Protected              Area Program   The ARPA program (Brazilian Amazon)     – Created 22.28 million ha of...
Ecosystem-Based Adaptation   Natural ecosystems maintain water flows and quality.   Provide coastal protection and natur...
Forests and Water Security   Quantity: cloud forests increase water flow   Quality: 33/105 major cities depend on PAs   ...
Protecting against hazards   Coral reefs & mangroves – coastal    protection, fisheries & food security.   Mangroves $30...
Looking Forward   PROTECT: More & larger protected areas: marine;    areas high C & BD; watersheds, peat, lowland, FW   ...
Advocacy to Action – How to Mainstream?            For more         information         please visit:   www.worldbank.org ...
IUCN defines a protected area to be:                       “a clearly defined                       geographical          ...
CBD Strategic Plan: Target 11At least17 % of terrestrial and inland water, and10 % of coastal and marine areas,especially ...
What does this imply for theestablishment, management andgovernance of protected areas?         Kathy MacKinnon          C...
1. PA system design“ecologically representative and well-  connected systems”                        % of North American ...
Distribution of the Number of North American                                          Protected Areas by Size Class       ...
Species are being lost in small protected areas:e.g. Changes in Amphibian species richness in Pt. Pelee Species           ...
Tracking Target 11: Protection ofecoregions                        We need to get here!                  We are here!
2.   Management capacity“effectively....managed”Standards and guidance forprotected area managers• Category assignment• M...
2+ Financial capacity  “effectively....managed”• A global assessment of  PA financing• Application of a suite of  financi...
3.   Facilitating equitable     governance “equitably....managed”• Address inadequacies in  protected area  legislation• ...
Governance          A. Governance by                B. Shared Governance                  C. Private                      ...
Kathy MacKinnon CBD & Climate  IUCN’s Global Protected Area ProgrammeINTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
3+ Facilitate equitable governance “other effective area- based conservation measures”• Social assessment of PAs• Enable ...
4. Meeting global challenges“integrated intothe wider landscapeand seascape”• Developing guidance  for embedding  biodive...
IUCN’s Global Protected Area ProgrammeINTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
IUCN’s Global Protected Area ProgrammeINTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
5. Achieving and communicating   effective performance“Areas that are particularly important forBiodiversity are conserve...
THE IUCN GREEN LIST OF WELL-  MANAGED PROTECTED AREAS Values stated, objectives declared and  being met Protected area l...
World Database on Protected Areas•   Only global database of protected areas•   30 years old•   200,000 + records•   Partn...
5+ Using the power of social   networks           IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme         INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR C...
IUCN’s Global Protected Area ProgrammeINTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
Mackinnon sandwithiucnu kconferenceapril2012
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Mackinnon sandwithiucnu kconferenceapril2012

349

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
349
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Background to the WDPA that fits under the first objective of Protected Planet
  • Transcript of "Mackinnon sandwithiucnu kconferenceapril2012"

    1. 1. Natural Solutions at WorkProtected Areas: Helping People to Cope with Global Challenges Kathy MacKinnon, IUCN WCPA Trevor Sandwith, IUCN
    2. 2. Climate Change - Likely Impacts Source: Stern 2006.
    3. 3. Likely Regional Impacts of Climate Change on Human Communities and LivelihoodsAfrica By 2020, 75-250 m people suffering water shortages Some countries - 50% reduction yield from rain-fed agriculture Strong links to poverty, migration and food securityAsia By 2050s, freshwater availability projected to decrease. Coastal areas, esp. heavily populated delta regions, flooding risk Increased pressures on natural resources from agriculture expansion Endemic morbidity and mortality due to diarrhea/disease rise.Islands Sea level rise -inundation, storm surge, erosion, other coastal hazards. By 2050, reduced water resources and shortages With higher temperatures, increased invasion by non-native species.
    4. 4. Ecosystems As Part of the Solution Enhance resilience to climate change: Mitigation Store: Prevent loss of C in vegetation & soils Capture: Sequester CO2 from atmosphere Adaptation Protect : maintain ecosystem integrity, buffer climate, reduce risks and impacts of extreme events (droughts, floods, storms, sea level rise) Provide: maintain essential services: water supplies, fisheries, agricultural productivity
    5. 5. Ecosystems & Global Carbon Cycle Forests 35% of land, 50% terrestrial C – Remove 2.4 b tons C/yr (=1/3 fossil fuel emissions) – Wetlands, seagrass beds, mangroves, kelp forests some of the most efficient C sinks. BUT Land Conversion 20% global emissions Deforestation:1.6 b ton C/yr. Peat - 3% land; degradation equiv. 6% fossil fuel emissions.Many areas high BD, high C valueGlobally 15% terrestrial C stored in PAs
    6. 6. Amazon Region Protected Area Program The ARPA program (Brazilian Amazon) – Created 22.28 million ha of new PAs. – Better management 8.65 m ha existing PA – Mosaic of state, provincial, private, & indigenous reserves (30.93 m ha). ARPA contributes to avoided deforestation. Carbon stock estimated 4.5 bn tons. Reduced emissions estimated at 1.8 bn tons of carbon. Role recognized in the 2006 Stern Review.
    7. 7. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Natural ecosystems maintain water flows and quality. Provide coastal protection and natural flood control and pollution-reduction mechanisms. Maintain nursery, feeding and breeding grounds for fisheries and wildlife Protect reservoirs of wild crop relatives, pollinators, pest control. (genetic diversity and resilience for crop improvements; increased agricultural production). Healthy ecosystems restrict spread of invasive alien species (IAS) and disease vectors. Proven, cost-effective and sustainable solutions – reducing the impact of CC
    8. 8. Forests and Water Security Quantity: cloud forests increase water flow Quality: 33/105 major cities depend on PAs for domestic water – Jakarta, Quito, New York Another 10%:water from protected watersheds Forests reduce sedimentation - irrigation canals and reservoirs e.g. Bogani Nani Wartabone NP Value to downstream agriculture – Madagascar - 6m hectares of PAs
    9. 9. Protecting against hazards Coral reefs & mangroves – coastal protection, fisheries & food security. Mangroves $300,000/km coastal defences Malaysia. Vietnam: Investment US$1.1m saved est.US$7.3 m/year sea dyke maintenance. Typhoon Wukong 2000. Flood control New Zealand: Whangamarino Ramsar site, swamp – flood prevention worth US$4 m (1998). Switzerland 17% forests - stop avalanches, landslides & flooding, valued at US$2-3.5 billion per year Green infrastructure – Argentina, Parana flood control Mali - role of national parks in desertification control. PA reservoirs of drought-resistant species
    10. 10. Looking Forward PROTECT: More & larger protected areas: marine; areas high C & BD; watersheds, peat, lowland, FW CONNECT Protected areas in landscapes/seascapes Full range of PA governance (state to communities) Improve protection & management for C, BD & ES RESTORE - degraded habitats within & around PAs. Incorporate PAs into CC/Adaptation/Disaster Reduction Strategies and spatial planning COST $23b/yr (4x current) – REDD, C funds, PES
    11. 11. Advocacy to Action – How to Mainstream? For more information please visit: www.worldbank.org /biodiversity
    12. 12. IUCN defines a protected area to be: “a clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long- term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values” IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    13. 13. CBD Strategic Plan: Target 11At least17 % of terrestrial and inland water, and10 % of coastal and marine areas,especially areas of particular importance for biodiversityand ecosystem services, are conservedthrough effectivelyCBD & Climate and equitably managed, Kathy MacKinnonecologically representative and well-connected systemsof protected areas, andother effective area-based conservation measures,and integrated into the wider landscape and seascape. IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    14. 14. What does this imply for theestablishment, management andgovernance of protected areas? Kathy MacKinnon CBD & Climate IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    15. 15. 1. PA system design“ecologically representative and well- connected systems” % of North American Ecozones Protected 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 CBD Target 0.15 Kathy MacKinnon 0.1 CBD & Climate 0.05 0 IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    16. 16. Distribution of the Number of North American Protected Areas by Size Class 20000 18478 18000Number of Protected Areeas 16000 90% of North American Protected Areas are Less Than 14000 100 km2 in area 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 1428 296 27 0 11 4 4 0 - 100 100 - 1000 1000 - 10000 10000 - 20000 20000 - 30000 30000 - 40000 > 40000 Size Class in Km2
    17. 17. Species are being lost in small protected areas:e.g. Changes in Amphibian species richness in Pt. Pelee Species Historical 1972 1994 Mudpuppy  ? ? Tiger salamander  gone gone American toad    Fowler’s toad  gone gone Blanchard’s frog   gone Spring peeper    Western Chorus frog    Gray treefrog  Kathy MacKinnon CBD & Climate gone gone Bullfrog   gone Green frog    Leopard frog    11 7 5 IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    18. 18. Tracking Target 11: Protection ofecoregions We need to get here! We are here!
    19. 19. 2. Management capacity“effectively....managed”Standards and guidance forprotected area managers• Category assignment• Management planning• Community engagement• Communication and education• Managing in the face of Kathy MacKinnon CBD & Climate climate changeProfessional developmentstandards, curriculum, quali-fications IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    20. 20. 2+ Financial capacity “effectively....managed”• A global assessment of PA financing• Application of a suite of financing mechanisms (government funding, trust funds, payments for ecosystem services, mitigation Kathy MacKinnon CBD & Climate offsets)• Skills to motivate, manage and deploy finance IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    21. 21. 3. Facilitating equitable governance “equitably....managed”• Address inadequacies in protected area legislation• Focus on recognition of all PA governance types in the production landscape/ seascape Kathy MacKinnon CBD & Climate IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    22. 22. Governance A. Governance by B. Shared Governance C. Private D. Indigenous Peoples & type Government Governance Community Governance Federa Local/ Govern Trans- Collaborativ Joint Declared …by …by for Indigenous bio- Community l or municip ment- boundar e management and run non- profit cultural areas & Conserved Areas nation al delegate y managemen (pluralist by profit organisat Territories- - declared and al ministry d manage t (various management individu organisat ions (e.g.Category ministr or manage ment forms of board) al land- ions (e.g. corporat declared and run by run by Indigenous Peoples traditional(manag. y or agency agency in ment (e.g. to pluralist influence) owner NGOs, univ. e land- owners ) peoples and localobjective) change an NGO) etc.) communitiesI - Strict NatureReserve/Wilderness AreaII – NationalPark (ecosystemprotection;protection ofcultural values)III – NaturalMonumentIV – Habitat/ Kathy MacKinnonSpecies CBD & ClimateManagementV – ProtectedLandscape/SeascapeVI – ManagedResource IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    23. 23. Kathy MacKinnon CBD & Climate IUCN’s Global Protected Area ProgrammeINTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    24. 24. 3+ Facilitate equitable governance “other effective area- based conservation measures”• Social assessment of PAs• Enable multiple agency, biosphere reserve and transboundary protected areas governance• Pilot, test and demonstrate Access and Benefit Sharing arrangements IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    25. 25. 4. Meeting global challenges“integrated intothe wider landscapeand seascape”• Developing guidance for embedding biodiversity and PAs into development and land-use planning• Achieving sectoral support for the critical role of PA systems IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    26. 26. IUCN’s Global Protected Area ProgrammeINTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    27. 27. IUCN’s Global Protected Area ProgrammeINTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    28. 28. 5. Achieving and communicating effective performance“Areas that are particularly important forBiodiversity are conserved” The IUCN GREEN LIST of well-managed protected areas that achieve conservation of biodiversity Recognize and measure progress, celebrate success, innovation and endeavour in protected area management IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    29. 29. THE IUCN GREEN LIST OF WELL- MANAGED PROTECTED AREAS Values stated, objectives declared and being met Protected area legally established, boundaries secure Management capacity, policies and actions to achieve objectives in place Governance, participation, equity and benefit-sharing fulfils standards Visitor management and communication meets standards IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    30. 30. World Database on Protected Areas• Only global database of protected areas• 30 years old• 200,000 + records• Partnership between UNEP and IUCN• Includes nationally designated parks and protected areas• International sites (World Heritage, UNESCO MAB, Ramsar, etc.) World Database on Protected Areas, 2012 Panamanian protected areas from protectedpla
    31. 31. 5+ Using the power of social networks IUCN’s Global Protected Area Programme INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    32. 32. IUCN’s Global Protected Area ProgrammeINTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×