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Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
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Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries

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The presente Obitel Yearbook is the sixth of a series started in the year 2007, and it reflects the maturity of a methodological model that combines quantitative study with the contextual analysis of …

The presente Obitel Yearbook is the sixth of a series started in the year 2007, and it reflects the maturity of a methodological model that combines quantitative study with the contextual analysis of television fiction, its transmediation into other screens and the sociocultural dynamics that are circumscribed to each of the different member countries.

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  • 1. Transnationalization of Television Fiction inIbero-American CountriesThe present OBITEL Yearbook is the sixth of a series Transnationalization ofstarted in the year 2007, and it reflects the maturity ofa methodological model that combines quantitative Television Fiction instudy with the contextual analysis of television fiction,its transmediation into other screens and the Ibero-American Countriessociocultural dynamics that are circumscribed to eachof the different member countries.OBITEL is made up of eleven national research groups general Guillermo Orozco Gómez coordinatorsthat throughout a year systematically monitor fiction Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes Transnationalization of Television Fiction inshows that are broadcast through open televisionchannels in their respective countries. The results of national Morella Alvarado, Gustavo Aprea, Fernando Aranguren,this monitoring are presented through the singularities coordinators Alexandra Ayala, Catarina Duff Burnay, Borys Bustamante, Ibero-American Countriesand tendencies of fiction in each country. In addition, Isabel Ferin Cunha, Valerio Fuenzalida, Francisco Hernández,every OBITEL yearbook has a comparative chapter that César Herrera, Pablo Julio Pohlhammer, Mónica Kirchheimer,provides a general panorama of the member countries. Charo Lacalle, Juan Piñón, Guillermo Orozco Gómez, RosarioFiction, as industry and format, is one of the most Sánchez Vilela and Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopesrepresentative cultural and media products oftelevision in Ibero-America. Its cultural, symbolictradition is a place of agreement and disagreementthat is now the setting not only of the main characters’loves and intimate secrets in the telenovelas and series,but also that of public life, politics, the citizenship,since ever more fiction anchors its narrative on themultiple problems that affect us as a region and at thesame time separate us as countries.The Obitel countries decided to make the theme of“transnationalization in the fiction television” the topicof the year for this 2012 Yearbook, with the objectiveof mapping the characteristics of the transnationalflows among and outside the countries participating inthis project. OBITEL 2012 reflected on the threespheres where the transnational element makes animpact or is reflected: the industry, the contents andthe flows and audiences.
  • 2. Ibero-American Observatory on television fiction Obitel 2012
  • 3. Ibero-American Observatory on television fiction Obitel 2012Transnationalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries Guillermo Orozco Gómez and Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes General Coordinators Morella Alvarado, Gustavo Aprea, Fernando Aranguren, AlexandraAyala, Catarina Duff Burnay, Borys Bustamante, Isabel Ferin Cunha,Valerio Fuenzalida, Francisco Hernández, César Herrera, Pablo JulioPohlhammer, Mónica Kirchheimer, Charo Lacalle, Juan Piñón, Guill-ermo Orozco Gómez, Rosario Sánchez Vilela and Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes National Coordinators
  • 4. © Globo Comunicação e Participações S.A., 2012.Capa:Letícia LampertProjeto gráfico:Niura Fernanda SouzaEditoração:Vânia MöllerRevisão:Felícia Xavier VolkweisTradutores:Thais Deamici de Souza e Danaé Müller FranceschiRevisão gráfica:Miriam GressEditor:Luis Gomes Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) Bibliotecária Responsável: Denise Mari de Andrade Souza – CRB 10/960T772 Transnationalization of television fiction in ibero-american coutries: 2012 Obitel yearbook / organized by Guillermo Orozco Gómez and Maria Immacolata Vassallo. -- Porto Alegre: Sulina, 2012. 618 p.; il. ISBN: 978-85-205-0665-3 1. Television – Programs. 2. Fiction – Television. 3. Programs Television – Ibero-American. 4. Media. I. Lopes, Maria Immacolata Vassallo de. II. Gómez, Guillermo Orozco. CDU: 654.19 659.3 CDD: 301.161 91.445Direitos desta edição adquiridos por Globo Comunicação e Participações S.A.Editora Meridional Ltda.Av. Osvaldo Aranha, 440 cj. 101 – Bom FimCep: 90035-190 – Porto Alegre/RSFone: (0xx51) 3311.4082Fax: (0xx51) 2364.4194www.editorasulina.com.bre-mail: sulina@editorasulina.com.brAgosto/2012
  • 5. This work is a result of a partnership between GloboUniversidade and Ibero-American Television Fiction Observatory(Obitel). Such partnership, started in 2008, aims to present anddiscuss the analyses on production, audience and socioculturalresponse of the television fiction in Latin America and in theIberian Peninsula. Publications produced: • Obitel Yearbook 2008: Global markets, local stories • Obitel Yearbook 2009: Television fiction in Ibero- America: narratives, formats and advertising • Obitel Yearbook 2010: Convergences and Transmediation of the Television Fiction • Obitel Yearbook 2011: Quality in television fiction and audience’ transmedia interactions About Globo Universidade: Globo Universidade, created in 1999, has as a mission thesharing of experiences in order to add knowledge. To accomplishit, a permanent partnership with the academia is established.Through debates, seminars, publications and research support,Globo Universidade contributes to the scientific productionand dissemination, as well as the formation of personnel. Since2008, Globo Universidade has been present in Rede Globo’sprogramming: every Saturday, at 7h, the program featuresinformation about the main universities in Brasil and in the world.In 2011, this program became part of Globo Cidadania, which alsocounts on the participation of the programs Globo Ciência, GloboEducação and Globo Ecologia e Ação.
  • 6. OBITEL National Research Teams General Coordinators Guillermo Orozco Gómez (Universidad de Guadalajara) Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes (Universidade de São Paulo)ARGENTINA Maria Cristina Palma MungioliGustavo Aprea (Universidad (Universidade de São Paulo), Nacional de General Sarmiento Adjunt research; e Instituto Universitario Claudia Freire, Clarice Greco Nacional del Arte) y Mónica Alves, Helen Emy Nochi Kirchheimer (Universidad Suzuki, Issaaf Santos de Buenos Aires e Instituto Karhawi, Ligia Maria Prezia Universitario Nacional del Arte), Lemos, Neide Maria de National Coordinators; Arruda, Silvia TerezinhaMaría Victoria Bourdieu Torreglossa de Jesus, (Universidad Nacional de (Universidade de São Paulo) General Sarmiento); Research Associates;Florencia Bacarin, María Lorena Milanesi Brettas, Belzunces, María Fernanda Gustavo Silva Barranco, Cappa, Victoria De Michele, Angelina Moreira de Souza, Marina Dragonetti, Silvia Isabela Cicalise Silberschmidt, Grinfas, Noelia Morales, Centro de Estudos de Telenovela Laura Oszust, Agustina – CETVN – da Escola de Pérez Rial, Ezequiel Rivero Comunicações e Artes da (Universidad de Buenos Aires), Universidade de São Paulo), Collaborators. Research Assistants.BRASIL CHILEMaria Immacolata Vassallo de Valerio Fuenzalida y Pablo Lopes Julio Pohlhammer (Pontificia (Universidade de São Paulo), Universidad Católica de Chile), National Coordinator; National Coordinators;
  • 7. Verónica Silva, Ignacio ESPAÑA Polidura, Independent Charo Lacalle (Universitat Researchers; Autònoma de Barcelona),Alejandro Caloguerea (Camara National Coordinator; de Exhibiciones Multisalas de Mariluz Sánchez, Lucía Trabajo Chile A.G.); (Universitat AutònomaConstanza Mujica, Alejandro de Barcelona), Research Bruna (Pontificia Universidad Associate; Católica de Chile), Research Berta Trullàs (Universitat Assistants. Autònoma de Barcelona), Research Assistant.COLOMBIABorys Bustamante Bohórquez ESTADOS UNIDOS y Fernando Aranguren Díaz Juan Piñón (New York (Universidad Distrital University), National Francisco José de Caldas), Coordinator; Tanya Cornejo, Linnete National Coordinators; Manrique, Wendy Yuen TingHugo Sánchez, Alejandra (New York University), Research Rusinque, Diana Mendoza Assistant. (Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas), MÉXICO Research Assistants. Guillermo Orozco Gómez y Francisco Hernández LomeliECUADOR (Universidad de Guadalajara),Alexandra Ayala Marín y César National Coordinators; Herrera (Centro Internacional Darwin Franco Migues, Adrien de Estudios Superiores de Charlois Allende (Universidad Comunicación para América de Guadalajara), Research Latina - CIESPAL), National Associates. Coordinators;Pamela Cruz, Cecilia Vergara, José Rivera (Centro PORTUGAL Internacional de Estúdios Isabel Ferin Cunha Superiores de Comunicación para (Universidade de Coimbra) y América Latina - CIESPAL), Catarina Duff Burnay Research Associates. (Universidade Católica
  • 8. Portuguesa), National VENEZUELA Coordinators; Morella Alvarado MiquilenaFernanda Castilho (Universidade (Universidad Central de de Coimbra), Research Associate. Venezuela), National Coordinator;URUGUAY Luisa Torrealba Mesa Rosario Sánchez Vilela (Uni- (Universidad Central de versidad Católica del Uruguay), Venezuela), Fernando National Coordinator; Vizcarra SchummPaula Santos Vizcaíno, Lucia (Universidad Allegro, Eugenia Armúa, Autónoma de Baja California), Guillermo Sabella Research Associates; (Universidad Católica del Massimo Dotta Botto (productor Uruguay), Research Assistants. of Film and TV).
  • 9. Table of contentsAuthors’ Note .......................................................................... 15Methodological Note ........................................................ 17Part OneFiction in the Ibero-American Space in 2011Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 ................... 23Guillermo Orozco Gómez and Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes 1. The audiovisual contexts in the Obitel countries .................. 24 2. Comparison of fiction in Ibero-American countries in 2011 31 3. The Top Ten television fiction of the year ............................... 40 4. Highlights of the year in Obitel countries ......................... 51 5. Transmedia reception in the Obitel countries ....................... 58 6. The topic of the year: Transnationalization of television fiction in Ibero-American countries ......................................................... 76PART TWOFiction in Obitel Countries 1. ARGENTINA: Fiction drops while national production grows .................................................................... 93 Authors: Gustavo Aprea and Mónica Kirchheimer Team: Florencia Bacarin, María Belzunces, María Victoria Bourdieu, María Fernanda Cappa, Victoria de Michele, Marina Dragonetti, Silvia Grinfas, Noelia Morales, Laura Oszust, Agustina Pérez Rial and Ezequiel Rivero 1. Audiovisual context in Argentina ................................... 93 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 104 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 118 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 121 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ........ 132
  • 10. 2. BRAZIL: The “new middle class” and social networks enhance television fiction ..................................................... 139 Authors: Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes and Maria Cristina Palma Mungioli Team: Clarice Greco Alves, Claudia Freire, Issaaf Karhawi, Helen N. Suzuki, Ligia Maria Prezia Lemos, Lorena Brettas, Neide Arruda and Silvia Torreglossa 1. Audiovisual context in Brazil .............................................. 139 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 154 3. Highlights of the year ........................................................... 172 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 177 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ...... 186 3. CHILE: Changes in the industrial landscape ...................... 201 Authors: Valerio Fuenzalida and Pablo Julio Pohlhammer Team: Verónica Silva, Ignacio Polidura, Constanza Mujica, Alejandro Caloguerea and Alejandro Bruna 1. Audiovisual context in Chile ............................................ 201 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 209 3. Transmedia reception ........................................................ 221 4. Highlitghts of the year ..................................................... 231 5 Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ........ 235 4. COLOMBIA: From the unanimism discourse to the opening, innovation and international expansion ............. 243 Authors:Boris Bustamante and Fernando Aranguren Team: Hugo Sánchez, Diana Mendoza and Alejandra Rusinque 1. Audiovisual context in Colombia ........................................ 243 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 252 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 265 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 268 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ....... 275 5. ECUADOR: Between national sitcoms and imported telenovelas ..................................................... 285 Authors: Alexandra Ayala and César Herrera Team: Pamela J. Cruz, Cecilia Vergara and José Rivera
  • 11. 1. Audiovisual context in Ecuador ...................................... 285 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ..................................................................................... 295 3. Highlights of the year ......................................................... 309 4. Transmedia reception ......................................................... 314 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ....... 3206. SPAIN: 2011. New strategies, new markets ........................... 331 Author: Charo Lacalle Team: Mariluz Sánchez, Lucía Trabajo and Berta Trullàs 1. Audiovisual context in Spain ........................................... 331 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ..................................................................................... 342 3. Highlights of the year ......................................................... 362 4. Transmedia reception ......................................................... 365 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ....... 3747. UNITED STATES: Demographic shifts in Latino popula- tion and the strategies of the Hispanic television industry 383 Author: Juan Piñón Team: Linnete Manrique and Tanya Cornejo 1. Context in the United States ............................................ 383 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 391 3. Highlights of the year ......................................................... 403 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 404 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ....... 4138. MÉXICO: “Fiction à la carte”: programs to rhythm of politics 429 Authors: Guillermo Orozco, Francisco Hernández and Darwin Franco Team: Adrien Charlois 1. Audiovisual context in Mexico ........................................... 429 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 438 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 450 4. Transmedia reception ........................................................... 455 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction .......... 4649. PORTUGAL: Old strategies for new times .......................... 475 Authors: Isabel Ferin Cunha and Catarina Duff Burnay
  • 12. Team: Fernanda Castilho 1. Audiovisual context in Portugal ...................................... 475 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ....................................................................................... 479 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 493 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 495 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ........ 503 10. URUGUAY: Ways of learning .............................................. 515 Author: Rosario Sánchez Vilela Team: Paula Santos, Lucia Allegro, Eugenia Armúa and Guillermo Sabella 1. Audiovisual context in Uruguay ......................................... 515 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 526 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 539 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 541 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ......... 546 11. VENEZUELA: One organization and multiple markets for fiction .................................................................. 557 Authors: Morella Alvarado Miquilena and Luisa Elena Torrealba Mesa Team: Massimo Dotta, Carolina jover Pineda (Traductora) and Fernando Vizcarra Schumm (UABC) 1. Audiovisual context in Venezuela ...................................... 557 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 568 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 581 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 584 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ........ 590Appendix: Top Ten TV Fiction in Obitel Countries ........................ 605
  • 13. Authors´ Note THE PRESENT YEARBOOK is the sixth consecutive one. It ispublished simultaneously in three languages: in print in Portugueseand Spanish and in digital format in English. Its predecessorsare the 2007 Obitel Yearbook published in Spanish by EditorialGedisa, Spain; the 2008 Obitel Yearbook published in Portugueseand English by Globo Universidade with the label Editora Globo,Brazil; the 2009 Obitel Yearbook published in Spanish by theEuropean Observatory for Children’s Television (OETI), Spain,and in Portuguese and English by Globo Universidade, Brazil; the2010 Obitel Yearbook published in Portuguese and Spanish, by thesame publishing label; and finally the 2011 Yearbook published byGlobo Universidade in Portuguese and Spanish, and in English ine-book format. In July, 2008, Uruguay joined Obitel as a new member. Lateron, with the incorporation of Ecuador in 2010, Obitel becamestronger as an international institution focused on the comparativeresearch of television fiction in eleven Ibero-American countries,which now make up the national chapters of this 6th Yearbook.The increase in the Obitel membership and its consolidation asan intercontinental project demonstrate its growing leadership inthe analysis of the region’s television fiction. As general and national coordinators of this Yearbook, we wouldlike to express once again our gratitude to Globo Universidadefor its continuous support and determined participation in thispublication. Likewise, we thank again the following IBOPEinstitutes for their collaboration: IBOPE (Brazil), Time-IBOPE(Chile), IBOPE (Colombia, Uruguay), IBOPE-AGB (Mexico),Media Monitor-Marktest Audimetria (Portugal), Kantar Media
  • 14. 16 | Obitel 2012and Barlovento Comunicaciones (Spain), Nielsen (United States),AGB Nielsen Media Research (Venezuela) and all the universitiesand member centers in the countries participating in this Yearbook.
  • 15. Methodological Note The IBERO-AMERICAN FICTION TELEVISION OBSER-VATORY, referred to as OBITEL, since its inception in 2005,works as an intercontinental project for the Iberian Peninsulaand the Latin American region (Ibero-America), including LatinAmerican and Iberian countries and the United States Hispanicpopulation. In a moment it was considered important to speakabout an Ibero-American scope due to the increasing interest ofthe different national states in making a series of media creations,cultural and artistic exchange, production as well as distinctivecommercial policies converge, in the hopes that the area mightbecome a region of important geopolitical and cultural reference. The observation that has been carried out in Obitel intendsto distinguish at least five dimensions of this vast object of analysis:its production, exhibition, consumption, commercialization andthematic proposals. The phenomenon of “transmediation” hasbeen into these dimensions since the 2010 Yearbook. Even thoughthis phenomenon is just incipient, it bears a high potential forunderstanding production itself and the expectations withfiction, its distribution and consumption from the companies andtelevision channels. Transmediation was included in this yearbookas the “topic of the year”. In the present 2012 Yearbook which is the sixth consecutiveone, we continue with the same line of its predecessor, but nowwe are focused on transnationalization, without eliminating thetransmedia reception that has already been incorporated due tothe fact that it is considered an essential dimension for the analysis,a complement for the Obitel countries. With this analysis, weintend to explain the new forms in which the audiences relateand connect with television fiction that they now watch and
  • 16. 18 | Obitel 2012consume through the Internet or through mobile devices such ascell phones, laptops, IPods, etc.1. The methodological activities used for this 2012 Yearbook have been mainly the following ones:2. The systematic follow-up of the fiction shows that are broad- cast by the open channels in the 11 countries that participate in the network;3. The generation of comparable quantitative data from these countries: schedules, premiere shows, number of chapters, indexes, audience profile, and central fiction themes;4. The identification of plural and bilateral flows of fiction genres and formats, which translates into the ten most viewed fiction titles, their central topics, rating and share;5. The analysis of the tendencies in narrative and the thematic contents in every country (data on consumption through other means such as the Internet and other program genres, investment in advertising, outstanding legal and political events of the year), as well as what every national research team considers “The most outstanding in the Year”, especially in terms of changes in production, their narratives and the thematic contents preferred;6. The analysis of transmedia reception and the interactions of the audiences with fiction in every country; the selection of the case to be analyzed was made taking as reference some of the ten most outstanding titles or else by selecting one that, due to its singularity, has had a unique behavior on the Internet or any other social network;7. The publication of the results of the systematic monitoring in the yearbook format, paying special attention to a topic in particular. The topic of the year for this Yearbook 2012 is Transnationalization in Television Fiction. Our observation was carried out by a network of research teamsfrom 11 countries and different universities from the Ibero-Ameri-can region: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Spain, theUnited States, Mexico, Portugal, Venezuela and Uruguay.
  • 17. Methodological Note | 19 The main sources of audience-measuring data were providedby the entities in charge of undertaking said studies in thedifferent countries: IBOPE (Brazil), Time-IBOPE (Chile), IBOPE(Colombia, Uruguay), IBOPE-AGB (Mexico), Average Monitor-Marktest Audimetria (Portugal), Kantar Media and BarloventoComunicaciones (Spain), Nielsen (United States), AGB NielsenMedia Research (Venezuela). Work is also being done with the data generated by theresearch teams, from other sources such as press releases, Internetinformation, audio and video material, as well as those derivedfrom direct contacts with agencies and actors of the audiovisualmedia in each country. The statistical treatment of the data was carried out accordingto productive typologies (programs bars, time slots, duration of eachfiction product, chapters or episodes) and measuring typologies(audience ratings, and share), which makes it possible to makecomparative tables on the offer conditions and the productionprofiles of television fiction in each country, which include suchcategories as programs volumes, formats, producers, scriptwriters,creators and exhibition strategies. The general analysis of this Yearbook is divided into three parts. The first is an introductory chapter that contains acomparative synthesis of fiction in the Obitel countries. Thiscomparison is made from a quantitative and qualitative point ofview that makes it possible to observe the development of fictionin each country, highlighting their main productions, as well asthe topic of the year: “Quality in television fiction”. In the second part there are eleven chapters (one for eachcountry), with an internal structure where the Yearbook sectionsare usually fixed, though some are more specific than others. Thesections that make up each of the chapters are the following:1. The country’s audiovisual context: This section presents general information about the audiovisual sector regarding
  • 18. 20 | Obitel 2012 the production of television fiction: the story, tendencies and more relevant events;2. Analysis of premiere fiction: It is presented through different tables that show specific data about national and Ibero- American shows that were released in each country. In this section, special emphasis is laid on highlighting the ten most viewed titles of the year.3. Transmedia Reception: In this section, the yearbook presents and exemplifies which offer the television companies give their audiences to access via the Internet, as well as a description of audiences’ behaviors when watching, consuming and interacting with their fictions through websites.4. The most outstanding productions of the year: the most important productions not only in terms of rating, but also in terms of the sociocultural impact or the innovation that they generate in the television industry or market;5. Finally, there is the Topic of the Year, which in this issue is: Trasnationalization of Television Fiction. This phenomenon, which is at the same a growing tendency, is received in three dimensions: 1. The transnational element “behind” the screen, where we present a media ownership index in each country; 2. The transnational element “on” the screen, by locating the origin of the stories for the premiere Top Ten, the casting and the production locations; 3. The transnational element “beyond” the screens, where we place the import and export flows of the fiction products in the OBITEL countries. The third part is an Appendix. Since the release of theprevious Yearbook, it was decided to modify some tables to offer thereader a more fluent reading of each chapter, so that the technicalspecifications of the 10 most viewed fiction titles in each country,with basic, necessary information about their production, are notan integral part of the chapters, but they are offered at the end ofthem as an “Appendix”.
  • 19. Part OneFiction in the Ibero-American Space in 2011
  • 20. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes and Guillermo Orozco Gómez This first part of the Obitel Yearbook presents a brief andcomparative panorama of the main data of the research conductedin 2011 about production and broadcast of first-run televisionfiction in Ibero-American countries in that year. Programs from 68 open broadcast channels, both private andpublic, were monitored in the 11 countries that constitute thegeocultural scope of Obitel. Table 1. Obitel countries and examined channels – 2011 Obitel Broadcaster Private Channels Public Channels Countries Total América 2, Canal 9, Argentina Televisión Pública 5 Telefé, El Trece Rede Globo, Record, SBT, Brazil TV Brasil 6 Band, Rede TV! UCV TV, Canal 13, Chile Chilevisión, Mega, Red, TVN 7 Telecanal Señal Colombia, Canal Colombia RCN, Caracol, Canal Uno 5 Institucional Teleamazonas, RTS, Ecuavisa, ECTV, Gama TV, TC Ecuador 7 Canal Uno Televisión Televisa, TV Azteca, Mexico Once TV, Conaculta 5 Cadena Tres Portugal SIC, TVI RTP1, RTP2 4 Antena3, Tele5, Cuatro, Spain La 1, La 2 61 LaSexta
  • 21. 24 | Obitel 2012 Obitel Broadcaster Private Channels Public Channels Countries Total Azteca América, Telefutura, United Telemundo, Univision, Estrella -- 6 States TV, V-me Montecarlo TV, Saeta, Televisión Nacional Uruguay 4 Teledoce/La Tele (TNU) Canal I, Globovisión, La Tele, ANTV, C.A. Tele Sur, Venezuela Meridiano, Televen, TV Tves, VTV, COVETEL 13 Família, Vale TV, Venevisión Total 48 20 68Source: OBITEL Brazil In the universe of the 68 open channels with national coverageof the 11 Obitel countries, private networks totalize 48 (70.5%),more than twice the number of public ones (20, 29.5%). The onlycountry that has the same number of private and public networksis Portugal, and that number is similar to Colombia, Ecuador andMexico as well. In other countries, private networks are largelypredominant. The United States is the only country where thereis not a single public channel aimed at the Hispanic population.1. The audiovisual context in the OBITEL countries The topic of telecommunications, its policies and its diverseapplications is among the ones which, with its different nuances,continued setting the course and perspective for the production offiction in the OBITEL countries in the year 2011. These changes materialized both in the creation of laws thatintend to regulate the contents or the production guidelines inevery country and in the application of the different modelsof Terrestrial Digital Television (TDT) and they have broughtabout the restructuring of the audio-visual sectors in most of the1 Spain has 33 autonomous television channels that produced fiction in 2011, but theyare not analyzed in this comparative chapter, which is based only on national coveragenetworks. The most significant data about these regional or local channels can be found inthe respective national chapters.
  • 22. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 25countries by promoting the merger of different media companiesor by promoting the setup of communication systems ran by boththe State and civil society. In this light, it is well known that in many of the Obitelcountries, as it had already been happening since 2010, thestruggle among the existing media companies was intensified.These companies, seeking to obtain privileged positions on thesubject of digital convergence, resorted to different strategies toincrease their positions into the telecommunication markets. Some governments, in view of this situation, responded byexerting a greater control in the tender processes for grantingauthorizations, and some went even a step further; such is thecase of Ecuador, that confiscated the signal of Gama TV; orArgentina, that took their legal battle against the Clarín Group tounpredictable consequences. Contrariwise, in other countries the governments chose tokeep a low profile and left the dispute of digital convergence inprivate hands; that is what happened in Mexico, where few legalactions have been taken to stop the war between two of the mostimportant media corporations in Latin America: Televisa andTelmex, both seeking to head the so-called quadruple play in thiscountry (digital and conventional television, mobile telephonyand the Internet). A similar situation is happening in Brazil,where Rede Globo undertook several actions to keep on headingthese integrated communications services. In Chile, the entry into the integrated communicationssystems is happening not by means of a concessions system,but rather by the merger of some companies from each of thesesectors. For example, Mega, the number one Chilean privatetelevision channel, was acquired by the Bethia group, whichhas also undertaken several strategies to enter the Chilean cellphone market. If this objective were achieved, Mega would be the
  • 23. 26 | Obitel 2012first Chilean channel to expand its operations from the TV totelecommunications. In regards to the creation of regulative laws, the case ofEcuador stands out, where the general guidelines of the OrganicCommunication Law was passed and will come into force nextyear: it tries to democratize the Ecuadoran media system so that33% of the radio electrical spectrum is allotted to the public media;another 33% to private media and the last 34% to communitymedia. Just the opposite is supposed to happen in countries likeColombia and Mexico, where the stage set for the tender andcreation of a third national private television network, which isbeing blocked by the already existing TV networks. This happens inUruguay too, a country where the debate for the democratizationof the radio electrical spectrum is not even addressed by thegovernment or by the private groups that concentrate the openand cable television signals. Another country that will radically modify its media systemis Portugal, since the government announced that the Radioand Television system (RTP) will be privatized. Curiously, thisannouncement coincides with an increase in participation by thecompanies Newshold (Angola) and Rede Globo (Brazil) withinthe Portuguese media ecosystem. The Brazilian network went asfar as opening a new production center for Europe in Lisbon. These changes in Portugal are also accompanied bythe creation of a Regulatory Communication Entity and aCommission for Media Studies Analysis, by means of which thePortuguese government intends to control the tender processesresulting from the privatization of its media sector, as well as tomediate in hearings so as to regulate the advertising market. Something similar is being proposed in Ecuador, exceptthat in this South American country the emphasis is laid on thecontents; for example, in the year 2011, the government submitted
  • 24. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 27a referendum in which 44.9% of the electorate voted for alegislation that would regulate the contents with violent, sexualand/or discriminatory messages on television, radio and print.This will result in the creation of the Council for CommunicationRegulation and Development that will aim at dividing thebroadcasting hours into sections (family, shared responsibility andadults) as well as classifying the contents by genres (informative,opinion, formative/educational/cultural, entertainment, sportsand advertising). Venezuela also lived through a new system of media regulationafter the Organic Telecommunications Law and the Law of SocialResponsibility on Radio, Television and Electronic Media cameinto force. They both made an impact on the country’s radioelectric media map since it favors public communication overprivate investment. Nevertheless, this has not prevented thepublic networks and its contents from constantly making directand indirect reference to the government project and the figure ofPresident Hugo Chávez. This situation also occurred in Mexico when the governmentannounced that its public channels (Once TV and Channel 22)would have national coverage. However, this process – just as ithas happened in Venezuela – has been accompanied by endlessinterruptions to promote some government programs throughthese signals. In Spain the public media were also affected due to thebudget cutback that the government imposed on the PublicTelevision System (Canal TVE). This measure caused Canal TVEto announce the possible privatization of some autonomousnetworks and the end of the stipulation forcing private networksto invest 6% of their incomes in the production of good qualityTV movies and miniseries. One of the countries that present a promising media scenario,which is at the same time contradictory, is the United States.Despite the strong political and legislative atmosphere against
  • 25. 28 | Obitel 2012the migrating community2 (of which the Latin community is thelargest), the six major Hispanic networks Univision, Telemundo,Telefutura, Azteca America, Estrella TV and V-Me continuedexpanding throughout the US market, re-shaping thus one of themost important television markets in the world. This change is due to the fact that the Hispanic populationhas continued growing and, with it, its purchasing power. Thiscaused Channel V-Me to become the sixth largest Hispanictelevision national network, and Multinational Fox to launch“Mundo Fox”, a project that along with Colombian RCN, willoffer a strong entertainment option for the Latin population inthe United States. An example of the importance Hispanic television and whatthe fiction industry has achieved in the United States is the wayin which the telenovelas La Reina del Sur and Teresa managed todisplace, in terms of rating, ABC and CBS network programs –both networks dedicated to the English speaking majority. Thishas been quite a tremendous achievement and success for theLatin companies Telemundo and Univision. Brazil, for its part, has seen how its media space re-shapes as aresult of the expansion of its middle class. In sheer numbers, it hasresulted in the entry of 40 million Brazilians in the labor marketand, consequently, increasing the pool of potential consumers. Within this growth, fiction stands out as one of the mostrecognizable products within this middle class’ media practices,since as it is specified in the chapter on Brazil, what is at stake isnot only reception and rating but the “drama of recognition” thatsurrounds decision-making when it comes to making televisionprograms more popular and profitable for a new middle class thatseeks to be portrayed in at least the three major screens: television,phone and computer.2 During the year 2011, several US states issued bills to modify the 14th Amendment of theUS Constitution; the objective is to prevent the children of illegal immigrants born on USsoil from obtaining US citizenship automatically.
  • 26. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 29 Nevertheless, this is something that shall be taken intoconsideration by the telecommunications policies that came intoforce this year or those that were debated in Brazil: the Service ofConditional Access (SEAC) -the new pay TV law- and the reviewof the Brazilian Telecommunications Code. The SEAC, for example, determines the opening of thepaid TV market and establishes obligatory quotas to promotenational production, which undoubtedly might benefit thefiction industry, since it would accommodate many independentproducers. This, however, must go hand in hand with the reformsthat were proposed to the Brazilian Telecommunications Codeduring 2011; among them, the modification in the way in whichradio and television concessions are audited. The OBITEL countries, as one may notice, exhibit differentand even contradictory audio-visual contexts, some favorcommunication as a right (even though behind this there is agovernment communication), in others the resolutions of oneof the most relevant sectors for national development, that is,telecommunications, have simply been left in private hands.TDT, a hope for the industry and the sector There is hope that the digital convergence, materialized forsome with the entry of Terrestrial Digital Television (TDT) willsubstantially modify the countries’ media panorama by favoringthe democratization of the signals. The fact is perhaps that thisopening or convergence in some cases, like Mexico with highconcentration of media ownership, would favor concentrationstill more. As regards TDT, the most advanced Obitel country is Spain,where this system started this year generating a fragmentation ofits television ecosystem, which was modified both by the merger ofsome companies (Antena3 absorbed LaSexta) and by the restrictivemeasures that the new government adopted because of the
  • 27. 30 | Obitel 2012economic crisis, which would undoubtedly affect the productionof Spanish fiction, although this did not happen in 2011, sincebecause of the exacerbated competitiveness among the Spanishnetworks, production of premiere fiction programs of their ownincreased in the new TDT channels and in the paid channels. Contrariwise, production was affected in other countries thatalso started their TDT models, such as Portugal and Argentina,since the fragmentation of their television signals did not translateinto an automatic rise in fiction production. Quite the contrary,it increased in open television perhaps as a way of opening up tothe competition that involves the transmission of foreign fictionin the digital signals. In this light, it is remarkable that in Argentina this growthin fiction production should owe to the government’s directparticipation, which through the National Institute of Movies andAudiovisual Arts (INCAA) put into practice the guidelines theLaw of Audiovisual Services, approved in 2009, and for the firsttime it participated in financing 10 fiction series. The implementation of TDT is still not a reality that may begeneralized in all the OBITEL countries, since in some of themthere is still debate as to what system will be adopted to carry outthis process (Colombia), in others technical tests are still beingdone to determine the characteristics of the receptors (Ecuadorand Venezuela), still others are trapped in the creation of anintegral legislation that would first pave the way for the analogicalblackout so as to later determine the TDT scopes (as it happens inUruguay and Mexico). The Mexican case has been very special and polemical, sincedespite the presidential decree announcing that the “analogicalblackout” would be implemented earlier, it was not possible tocarry out because the President did not take into considerationthat this decision corresponded solely to the sector’s regulatoryorgans, that is why the judicial authorities turned down thepresidential decree.
  • 28. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 31 What happens in Brazil is the exact opposite; there theprocess of the digitization of its television signals has beenaccompanied by the National BroadBand Plan, which aims atexpanding broadband Internet coverage in 68% of the householdsin three years, increasing speed to 1 Mbps and reducing the costfor Brazilian users.2. Comparison of fiction in Ibero-American countries in 2011 The comparative exposition of television fiction among the11 Obitel countries will be based on the quantitative productionindicators established in the common methodology protocol, themain ones being: the annual total of fiction hours, total of titles,formats, time slot, number of chapters and episodes, circulationdata (import, export) and co-productions. Table 2. Offer of national and Ibero-American fiction hours – 2009 to 2011GLOBAL 2011 2010 2009 OFFER OF National Ibero National Ibero National Ibero TOTALHOURS 10,780 20,220 9,510 20,702 9,690 13,769 TOTAL 31,000 30,212 23,459 84,671Source: OBITEL Brazil From 2009 to 2011 the global offer of first run fiction in theObitel countries summed up 84,671 hours. The largest growthoccurred between 2009 and 2010, with an increase of almost 30%
  • 29. 32 | Obitel 2012in fiction hours due to the inclusion of Ecuador and the return ofColombia to the Obitel scope. From 2010 to 2011 there is a slightincrease in the global offer of fiction, with 788 hours (2.6%).Throughout these three years, the offer of hours of Ibero-Americanproductions has always been larger than national productions,reaching almost twice the number of national production (65%against 35%). Table 3 – Offer of national and Ibero-American fiction hours by country – 2009 to 20113 National Fiction Total 10,127 9,509 9,690 Total 3,357 4,355 2,032 2,736 494 2,768 2,591 4,910 3,702 143 2,238 29,326 Source: OBITEL Brazil Ibero-American Fiction Source: OBITEL Brazil3 In all charts the number zero [0] in a country’s column indicates the lack of production,while the minus symbol [-] indicates that the country did not belong to the Obitel networkin that year.
  • 30. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 33 The first data to stand out in table 3 is the increase inthe number of national fiction hours in the Obitel countries,reversing the declining scenario of 2010. Mexico led the nationalfiction production in 2011, with almost twice the amount of hoursfrom the previous year. Brazil occupies the second place and hasalso reversed the drop from 2010. Argentina follows (booming),Colombia (decreasing) and Spain (booming). Portugal is in sixthplace with a marked decline when compared to 2010. All eleven Obitel countries imported Ibero-American fictionprograms in 2011 and five of them increased their broadcast hourscompared to 2010. In the triennium, Venezuela, the United Statesand Uruguay led broadcasting hours of Ibero-American fiction. In 2011 the United States figures as the largest importer ofIbero-American fiction, followed by Uruguay, Ecuador and Chile.This leadership is justified by the demand of fiction from the sixtelevision networks dedicated to Hispanic audiences, in whichmore than 80% of all fiction is imported from the Obitel scopecountries. Spain and Brazil were the countries that least airedhours of imported fiction. But, proportionally, Brazil is the countrythat produces the most hours and least imports Ibero-Americanhours (20.4%). Brazil is followed by Mexico (22.2%) and Spain(28.7%). We must remember that this equation between first-runproduction and foreign production imports is the main indicator ofthe production capacity of a country in television fiction.
  • 31. 34 | Obitel 2012 Table 4. Offer of national and Ibero-American fiction titles – 2009 to 2011 National Fiction - Titles Total 252 256 223 Total 61 131 78 56 9 145 35 64 87 8 37 711 Source: OBITEL Brazil Ibero- American fiction - Titles Total 302 289 175 Total 86 13 126 35 82 17 122 20 40 104 121 766 Source: OBITEL Brazil Observing table 4, it can be noticed that the Obitel countriesproduced 711 national titles in the triennium. The largest numberof national titles was produced by Brazil and Spain, with 41productions, followed by Portugal, Chile, Mexico, Argentina andColombia. Despite leading in national hours with almost twicethat of the previous year, Mexico presented an increase of only twotitles, revealing that the growth in hours is due to the broadcast oflong seriality formats, such as the telenovela. Argentina broadcast
  • 32. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 35seven more national titles than in the year of 2010, an increasedue to the influence of the new Audiovisual Services Law in forcein the country. Nevertheless, this growth has not presented asignificant increase in the number of hours, but is an indication ofa larger presence of series and unitaries. However, it is suitable toremark that, despite the slight increase in national hours in 2011,Argentina’s national hours remain 10 percent inferior to thenumber recorded in 2009. On the other hand, Brazil and Spain,even having a reduction of 8 and 7 titles respectively, increased thenumber of national hours produced. In the triennium, Mexicoand Brazil were the largest producers of fiction in their owncountries, both in number of hours as and in titles aired. Table 5. National fiction formats in number of titles – 2009 to 2011 Source: OBITEL Brazil In the triennium, Brazil and Mexico uncontestably lead inthe production of Telenovela with a total of 42 each. They reaffirmthus their condition of countries with a great production capacity inthe Obitel scope, since one of the best indicators of that productivecapability is the permanent production of long serial narrative, ofwhich the telenovela is the prime example. In a second level appearsChile and Colombia and in the third, Argentina, Portugal and theUnited States.
  • 33. 36 | Obitel 2012 In 2011, Mexico was the country that most produced tele-novelas with a total of 15 titles. Brazil comes just behind, with14 and Chile in third with 13 productions. Colombia presents avertiginous fall in half of number in telenovelas, from 20 to 10 pro-ductions, which seems related to the current investment in series. Moving to other formats, since 2007, before the presenttriennium, Spain maintains itself as the largest producer of seriesamong Obitel countries. In the same three year span, it leads theproduction with twice as many as runner-up Brazil, with Portugalcoming in third. It is also important to notice that, in the triennium, thesame ranking can be observed in the production of miniseries:Spain, Brazil and Portugal. We then have made clear that in thisperiod three countries are in the leadership of production of shortseriality fiction: Spain, Brazil and Portugal. The clear hegemony that Spain displays in the productionof series and miniseries characterizes that, unlike Latin Americancountries, it invests and specializes strongly in the short serialityformat. However, by taking into consideration the criterion of thebest ranked in the set of different formats, Brazil is the countrythat best presents the best rankings equally in the production oftelenovelas, series and miniseries. Its fiction therefore operates inits diversity of formats, which implies the mastery of different andspecific processes of production. It’s also revealing that Portugal,with a recent national fiction production, is also following thismodel, since it appears as the second country with the mostdiversity, in a balanced manner, in its production between thethree most important formats: telenovela, series and miniseries. Other formats like unitaries, telefilms and docudramas stillpresent weak production among Obitel countries.
  • 34. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 37 Table 6. National and Ibero-American fiction offer of chapters/ episodes – 2009-2011 National Fiction – Chapters/episodesSource: OBITEL Brazil Ibero-American Fiction - Chapters/episodesSource: OBITEL Brazil The total number of national chapters/episodes aired in 2011was roughly 13,000, presenting stable during the last two years.Mexico aired the largest chapter/episodes count in 2011, andBrazil appeared in second place, with Colombia in third. Suchdata are due to the increase in the number of telenovelas aired inthe aforementioned countries. In 2011, imported Ibero-American productions came abovenational fiction in countries such as Uruguay, Venezuela,
  • 35. 38 | Obitel 2012Ecuador, Chile, EUA and Argentina. Uruguay was the countrythat most aired imported Ibero-American chapters/episodes,which occupied 98% of fiction programming in the country, whileits production increased by only 11 chapters/episodes. Looking at the triennium data, over 100 thousand chapters/episodes, by adding national and imported Ibero-American, werebroadcast in Obitel countries, 40% of which were national and60% imported Ibero-American. The countries which, during theperiod, least aired imported Ibero-American chapters/episodeswere Brazil, Spain and Mexico and the ones that most aired themwere Uruguai, Venezuela and Ecuador. Table 7. Length of Chapters/Episodes (without commercials) – 2009 to 2011Source: OBITEL Brazil The length of chapters or episodes may show a tendencyof production directly connected to the formats and styles ofnarrative. Medium (30 to 60minutes) and long (above 60 minutes)length are usually associated to telenovela chapters, which is thesort of plot that can run for long periods. The predominant lengthin Obitel countries is the medium length and that is especiallyclear in countries such as Venezuela, United States, Mexico andBrazil, while long length is cultivated in Ecuador, Argentina
  • 36. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 39and Uruguay. Short length (less than 30 minutes) is associatedto sitcom episodes and fiction sketches that stand out in Chile,Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil. Table 8. Co-productions – 2009 to 2011CO-PRO- Co- Argen- Bra- Chi- Ecua- Mexi- Portu- Uru- Vene- DUC- lom- Spain USA TOTAL tina zil le dor co gal guay zuela TIONS bia 2011 1 0 0 3 6 0 3 0 0 1 2 16 2010 1 3 0 - - 2 1 1 1 3 0 12 2009 3 0 2 - - 6 0 1 0 4 2 18 TOTAL 5 3 2 3 6 8 4 2 1 8 4 42 2009-11Source: OBITEL Brazil The association between countries to produce fiction isdirectly proportional to the degree of internationalization of theirtelevision, in particular the fiction genre. As it will be observedin the Theme of the Year, this association can be due to thecapital invested, to the plot, cast, sets, etc. A recent occurrence,co-productions are still few in broadcast television in the Obitelcountries, but the tendency is for their growth in the short term,perhaps at a good pace. In 2011, the Obitel countries developed 16 co-productionsand that number represents a relative recuperation of such anendeavor after a decrease from 18 to 12 productions in 2010. In the three-year period, the countries that increased theirco-productions were Colombia, Ecuador and the United States,while Argentina, Chile, Spain and Mexico had a reduction.Brazil, after investing in three co-productions in 2010, did notparticipate in any during 2011. The same happened to Portugal.In a general observation of the triennium, the country with thehighest number of co-productions was Ecuador (6), followed byColombia (3) and the United States (3).
  • 37. 40 | Obitel 2012 Table 9. Time Period of Fiction Source: OBITEL Brazil Stories with plots that take place in the present are still thefavorite, representing 85% of fiction aired in 2011, putting inevidence the tendency of approaching current subjects in televisionnarratives. We can notice a small increase in Vintage productionscompared to 2010, while fiction set in a Historical period did notdemonstrate large alterations. Spain appears as an exception among Obitel countriessince it diminished plots that take place in the present andconsiderably increased vintage fiction, which accounted for morethan half of all fiction with that timeframe broadcast in all Obitelcountries in 2011.3. The Top Ten television fiction of the year
  • 38. Table 11. The ten most watched titles: origin, format, audience rating and share Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script1 Passione 44.0 67.1 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil2 Fina estampa 40.1 64.0 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil3 Insensato coração 37.1 59.3 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil A corazón Abierto (2nd Vista Producciones4 35.7 49.7 Series RCN Private USA Colombia season.) /RCN5 Ti-ti-ti 32.4 57.4 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil6 Morde & assopra 32.2 54.1 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil7 El Joe la leyenda. 31.7 43.1 Telenovela RCN RCN Private Colombia Colombia Teleset for RCN8 Tres milagros. 29.9 44.5 Telenovela RCN Private Colombia Colombia Televisión Los 80: más que una9 29.8 43.2 Series Canal 13 Wood Producciones Private Chile Chile moda10 Cordel encantado 29.6 52.4 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil11 Tapas e beijos 28.9 48.8 Series Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil El man es German 1a y12 28.8 42.2 Series RCN RCN Private Colombia Colombia 2nd season13 A grande família 28.8 50.1 Series Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil14 Aquele beijo 28.1 51.3 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 41
  • 39. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script15 El secretario 25.7 36.4 Telenovela Caracol Caracol Televisión Private Colombia Colombia Spain/ R.T.I./Telemundo/ 42 | Obitel 201216 La reina del sur 25.3 36.4 Telenovela Caracol Private Colombia/ Colombia Antena 3 Mexico17 Araguaia 25.2 48.3 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil18 Correo de inocentes 24.1 40.2 Series RCN CMO Producciones Private Colombia Colombia19 La bruja 22.2 31.2 Series Caracol Caracol Televisión Private Colombia Colombia20 El hombre de tu vida 21.4 32.7 Other Telefé 100 bares / Telefé Private Argentina Argentina Confidencial Segunda Caracol TV21 21.3 28.7 Miniseries Caracol Private Colombia Colombia temporada Internacional. Univisión/22 Eva Luna 20.9 30.4 Telenovela Univisión Private Venezuela United States Venevisión23 Malparida 20.9 33.8 Telenovela El Trece Pol–ka Private Argentina Argentina24 Los únicos 20.8 30.3 Other El Trece Pol–ka Private Argentina Argentina Herederos de una25 20.8 32.1 Telenovela El Trece Pol–ka Private Argentina Argentina venganza26 Los Canarios 20.7 33.0 Unitary Caracol Caracol Televisión Private Colombia Colombia27 Una familia con suerte 29.4 Telenovela Televisa Private Argentina Mexico 20.6 Canal 228 Triunfo del amor 20.6 30.8 Telenovela Univision Televisa Private Venezuela United States29 Fuerza del destino 20.2 30.4 Telenovela Univision Televisa Private Mexico United States
  • 40. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script30 El punter 19.7 34.0 Telenovela El Trece Pol–ka Private Argentina Argentina31 El laberinto de Alicia 19.6 26.2 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile32 Dos hogares 19.4 25.8 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private Mexico Mexico Vista Produc. for33 Amor sincere 18.5 24.9 Telenovela TC Expropriated* Colombia Ecuador RCN34 La que no podía amar 18.4 27.1 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private Mexico Mexico35 Teresa 18.2 28.4 Telenovela Univisión Televisa Private Mexico United States36 La fuerza del destino 18.2 27.8 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private México Mexico37 Aquí mando yo 18.0 32.1 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile38 La Doña 17.2 24.8 Telenovela CHV Own Channel Private Chile Chile39 40 y tantos 17.2 27.0 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile40 Una familia con suerte 16.0 25.0 Telenovela Univisión Televisa Private Argentina United States TVI / Plural41 Espírito Indomável 15.4 40.8 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment42 Rosario Tijeras 15.3 22.8 Telenovela Teleamaz. Teleset para RCN Private Colombia Ecuador Telemundo/Antena43 La reina del sur 15.2 23.7 Telenovela Canal 9 Private Spain Mexico 344 Vivir la vida 15.2 27.2 Telenovela Canal 12 Rede Globo Private Brazil Uruguay Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 4345 Su nombre es Joaquín 15.0 21.7 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile
  • 41. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script46 Los únicos 14.9 25.2 Series Canal 12 Pol-ka Private Argentina Uruguay47 El encanto del águila 14.8 Series Canal 2 Televisa Private Mexico Mexico 44 | Obitel 2012 19.648 El equipo 14.6 19.8 Series Canal 5 Televisa Private Mexico México49 Amorcito corazón 14.6 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private Venezuela Mexico 24.1 Herederos de una50 Telenovela Private Uruguay venganza 14.3 30.2 Canal 12 Pol-ka Argentina51 Cesante: todo por la pega 14.2 20.7 Telefilm CHV Own Channel Private Chile Chile52 Peleles 14.1 19.7 Telenovela Canal 13 Own Channel Private Chile Chile53 Adicciones 14.1 25.9 Unitary Canal 12 Contenidos TV Private Uruguay Uruguay54 Infiltradas 14.0 20.2 Telenovela CHV Own Channel Private Chile Chile55 La reina del sur 13.8 20.8 Telenovela Telemundo Telemundo/RTI Private Spain United States56 Témpano 13.8 21.4 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile57 Llena de amor 13.5 22.0 Telenovela Univisión Televisa Private Venezuela United States58 Cuna de Gatos Telenovela Private Uruguay 13.5 30.3 Canal 12 Rede Globo Brazil59 La Pareja Feliz I 13.4 22.2 Series Teleamaz. Teleamazonas Private Ecuador Ecuador El Arbol / Telefé60 El elegido 13.2 22.6 Telenovela Private Argentina Argentina Telefé contenidos
  • 42. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script61 Águila Roja 13.0 29.1 Series La 1 Globomedia Public Spain Spain62 Los héroes del norte 12.9 19.6 Series Canal 5 Televisa Private Mexico Mexico63 Malparida 12.8 26.8 Telenovela Canal 12 Pol-ka Private Argentina Uruguay64 Ni contigo ni sin ti 12.8 21.0 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private Brazil Mexico Venevision65 Sacrificio de mujer 12.7 27.4 Telenovela TC Expropriated* Venezuela Ecuador Productions66 Cuna de gato 12.4 17.8 Telenovela Ecuavisa Rede Globo Private Brazil Ecuador Underground67 Un año para recorder 12.4 18.6 Telenovela Telefé Private Argentina Argentina contenidos68 Mi Recinto 12.3 18.4 Series TC TC Televisión Expropriated* Ecuador Ecuador69 Mar de Amor 12.3 31.8 Telenovela Canal 12 Televisa Private Mexico Uruguay70 La rosa de Guadalupe 12.1 20.0 Unitary Univisión Televisa Private Mexico United States71 Mujeres asesinas 12.0 19.0 Series Univisión Televisa Private Argentina United States72 Cuando me enamoro 12.0 21.0 Telenovela Univisión Televisa Private Mexico United States73 Passione 12.0 25.6 Telenovela Canal 12 Rede Globo Private Brazil Uruguay RTI, Antena 3, Spain/74 La reina del Sur 12.0 19.6 Telenovela Canal 4 Private Uruguay Telemundo Colombia Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 45
  • 43. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script Sony Entertainmen75 La Ninera  11.9 22.6 Series Canal 10 Private United States Uruguay Televisión / Telefé 46 | Obitel 2012 TVI / Plural76 Remédio Santo 11.8 32.2 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment77 La Pareja Feliz III 11.6 19.6 Series Teleamaz. Teleamazonas Private Ecuador Ecuador78 El Fantasma del GH 11.6 22.6 Telenovela TC Teleset for RCN Expropriated* Colombia Ecuador Spain/ Telemundo/Antena79 La Reina del Sur 11.2 18.7 Telenovela Ecuavisa Private Colombia/ Ecuador 3 (Es) United States RGB Enterteinme/80 Cuando me sonreis 11.1 16.3 Other Telefé Private Argentina Argentina Telefé contenidos81 La Rosa de Guadalupe II 11.0 15.6 Telenovela Gama TV Televisa Expropriated* Mexico Ecuador TVI / Plural82 Anjo Meu 10.8 33.2 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment TVI / Plural83 Mar de Paixão 10.7 34.1 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment SIC/SP Televisão /84 Laços de Sangue 10.4 30.0 Telenovela SIC Private Portugal/Brazil Portugal Rede Globo85 Cuéntame cómo pasó 9.9 22.5 Series La 1 Grupo Ganga Public Spain Spain TVI / Plural86 O Dom 8.8 33.9 Miniseries TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment
  • 44. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script Morangos com Açúcar TVI / Plural87 8.3 27.9 Series TVI Private Portugal Portugal VIII: Agarra o teu futuro Entertainment88 Rosa Fogo 8.2 23.1 Telenovela SIC SIC/ SP Televisão Private Portugal Portugal89 El barco 8.1 18.9 Series A3 Globomedia Private Spain Spain90 La República 8.0 17.1 Series La 1 Diagonal TV Public Spain Spain91 Gran reserve 7.9 18.4 Series La 1 Bambú Producciones Public Spain Spain A3, Bambú92 Marco 7.8 17.1 Miniserie A3 Private Spain Spain Producciones93 Aída 7.8 17.2 Series Tele5 Globomedia Private Spain Spain94 El ángel de Budapest 7.8 18.7 Telefilm La 1 TVE y DLO Public Spain/Hungry Spain95 Mañana es para siempre 7.7 16.8 Telenovela Canal 9 Televisa Private Mexico Argentina96 Gran hotel 7.6 18.5 Series A3 Bambú Producciones Private Spain Spain97 La fuerza del destino 7.4 16.4 Telenovela Canal 9 Televisa Private Mexico Argentina98 La viuda joven 7.2 29.5 Telenovela Venevisión Venevisión Private Venezuela Venezuela99 Los misterios de Laura 7.1 16.6 Series La 1 Ida y Vuelta P.F. Public Spain Spain100 Conta-me como foi 6.9 17.1 Series RTP1 RTP/SP Televisão Public Spain Portugal TVI / Plural101 Sedução 6.7 29.3 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 47
  • 45. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script102 La mujer perfecta 6.5 26.7 Telenovela Venevisión Venevisión Private Venezuela Venezuela103 Pasión Vallenata 5.9 24.5 Miniseries Venevisión Caracol TV Private Colombia Venezuela 48 | Obitel 2012104 La Leyenda Continua 5.8 23.2 Miniseries Venevisión Caracol TV Private Colombia Venezuela105 Chepe Fortuna 5.7 23.6 Telenovela Televen RCN Televisión Private Colombia Venezuela Venevisión Intern/ Venezuela/106 Eva Luna 5.7 27.6 Telenovela Venevisión Private Venezuela Univisión United States Colombiana107 Oye Bonita 5.6 33.1 Telenovela Venevisión Private Colombia Venezuela Televisión108 Tierra de Cantores 5.6 23.2 Miniseries Venevisión Caracol TV Private Colombia Venezuela109 Natalia del Mar 5.5 33.6 Telenovela Venevisión Venevisión Private Venezuela Venezuela110 La Fuerza del Destino 5.5 32.8 Telenovela Venevisión Televisa Private Mexico Venezuela*These are channels managed by the State since their expropriation.Source: OBITEL Brazil
  • 46. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 49 Table 11 presents the ten most watched titles in each ofthe Obitel countries totalizing 110 fiction programs classified byaudience ratings. Among the ten first places there are six Brazilianfiction programs, three Colombian and a Chilean one. Eightof them are telenovelas and two are series: one Colombian andthe other Chilean. It should be highlighted that in first place isthe Brazilian telenovela Passione, followed by Fina Estampa andInsensato Coração, all made by Rede Globo. In fourth place is theColombian series A corazón abierto, a development of the telenovelaof the same name, which took first among the Top Ten in 2010. Italso stands out for having an imported plot, a fact that had neverbeen seen in the most watched list. In 2011, another imported plotonly figured in the 22nd position, Eva Luna, original of Venezuelaand broadcast in the United States. Focusing on the circulation of scripts among higher ratingtitles, 37 are imported scripts (34%), while 73 (64%) originatefrom the country that produced them, showing the preference fornational stories, as it has been highlighted by the Obitel analysissince the beginning of the research. Among the 110 productions that appeared in the Top Ten,16 of them are co-productions, a smaller number than the 26observed in 2010. In 2011, among the overall Obitel Top Ten,there are two Colombian co-productions: A corazón abierto (2ndseason, Vista Produciones and RCN) in fourth place, and Tresmilagros (Teleset and RCN). With regards to the type of network, it is observed thelarge prevalence of private channels. From the 110 titles, around10 percent were broadcast on public channels.
  • 47. Table 12. Formats and Time Slot of the Top Ten Country Formats Time Slot Telenovela Series Miniseries TV movie Unitary Docudrama Others Morning Afternoon Prime time Night 50 | Obitel 2012Argentina 7 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 8 0Brazil 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 0Chile 8 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0Colombia 4 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0Ecuador 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 0Spain 0 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0United States 8 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 10 0Mexico 6 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 5 3Portugal 7 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 0Uruguay 7 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 5 3Venezuela 7 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 1 TOTAL 69 26 6 3 2 0 4 0 14 89 7Source: OBITEL Brazil
  • 48. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 51 Among the 10 most watched titles in each country, we cannotice the absolute leadership of the telenovela format, whichcorresponds to 69 productions. Regarding the 10 productions mostwatched in Brazil, Chile and Mexico, 80% are in the telenovelaformat, and in all Obitel countries this format is never under60 percent of the most watched fiction of the year. Colombia isthe single country with a balanced production – 40 percent oftelenovelas and 40 percent of series. The series format occupies the second position in number ofproductions within the Top Ten titles, with a total of 26 fictions. Regarding the time slot, prime time is when 81% of the mostwatched fictions are broadcast in 2011, followed by the afternoonslot, with 13%, and the night slot with 7%. On the other hand,the morning slot is not used at all for the broadcast of any of theTop Ten programs, even as an alternative rerun period.4. Highlights of the year in the OBITEL countries In a year of multiple configurations in the media ecosystems,one characterized by changes in the consumption and receptionrules by Ibero-American television audiences, fiction – as anindustry and format – has tried to find ways to diversify its narrativeand thematic offer so as to reach out all the possible audiences. One of the strategies that is visible in all the Obitel countriesis the search for interactivity in the fiction products, for -as it isshown in the transmedia reception of this comparative chapter-most of the productions are moving their narratives to otherscreens, mainly the computer and the cell phone, both in theirsymbiosis with the Internet. Of course these transmedia changes have also been accom-panied by a narrative restructuring of fiction; for example, Brazilhas once again gained the leading position by providing a sense ofself-reference to its fictions, promoting the expansion of the rela-tions between reality and the possible worlds that exist in fiction.
  • 49. 52 | Obitel 2012 The number of Hispanics in the United States has gainedgreat importance, in the year 2011 they amounted to 50 million.Paradoxically, while the immigration from the south is restricted,the attention increases to what has already become the new bigconsumers’ market in general and of viewers in particular, whowatch especially fiction products.Humor and drama as narrative hooks What is also changing is the way in which the narrative offeris constructed as well as the transmission of television fiction. Inview of the fragmentation of the signals, due to the digitalizationof the television signals, countries such as Spain, Portugal andArgentina have witnessed the birth of new television schemeswhere the production and broadcast of fiction is made keeping inmind consumption needs of specific audiences; for example, theseries production is focused mainly on a children-teenager publicalthough this format is also being used to catch the attention ofmale audiences. These detailed actions in all the Obitel countries make itevident that great effort is made to maintain high rating and,ultimately, the industry’s profitability, which, as it can be observedin many of the countries is in a sort of pause that is evident in aproductions decrease of fiction titles, not necessarily with regardto the number of hours that fiction has traditionally occupied inthe programs slots. To recover the grounds lost, the year 2011 was characterizedby a thematic search and innovation and by a constant narrative inthe Ibero-American fiction industry. This fact brought about thediversification of fiction formats both in series and telenovelas,some of the most recurrent in the Obitel countries were: comedy,suspense and the return of fiction with political content, whichcoexisted with the already classic and profitable melodramas. The genre that managed to maintain the highest ratingsamong the audience was comedy, no doubt that it not only was
  • 50. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 53consolidated in some countries such as Mexico, Argentina,Colombia and Portugal as the most successful fiction narrative,but also it expanded in terms of number of productions andschedules. Traditionally this format was aired between seven andnine in the evening, a time when the family gathers around theTV set; however, this formula has been moved -at least that is whatappears to be happening in these countries- to other afternoonhours where their rating had diminished as of late. This formula works so well that countries such as Ecuadorhave bet everything on the comedytype production. The resulthas been that three productions of this type entered its Top Ten,displacing even the local soap operas that do not even appear insaid countdown this year. This new turn to comedy has generateda sort of transformation forcing the Ecuadoran industry to turnto the telenovelas format in the shape of a sitcom, as it happenedwith the titles El Combo Amarillo and La Panadería. Drama and suspense as narrative engines also grew during2011, Spain -one of the countries that has explored and consolidatedthis genre the most- remained at the head and incorporated intoit a detective-novel style that aims at imitating the manufacture ofUS series though recovering that sense of cultural proximity, asthey do in the production of Los Misterios de Laura. This also happened in Venezuela with the melodrama LaViuda Joven, a production that made it possible for the Venezuelanindustry to maintain a certain degree of hegemony in an internalmarket dominated by the Colombian productions. Portugal alsojoined the interest in this genre through the thriller Tempo Final,which managed to catch again the interest of young audiences infiction; they also achieved the same phenomenon by combiningfiction and action in the series O Ultimo Tesouro and with themusical in Morangos com Açúcar. Back in Spain, the diversification within its Top Ten isnoteworthy, not only in terms of subject-matters (ranging from
  • 51. 54 | Obitel 2012historical productions, comedies, teen dramas, science fiction,etc.), but also in terms of involvement with the audiences, sincemany of its fictions do manage to expand their narrative throughthe Internet. Ibero-American fiction begins to stand out beyond theOBITEL countries through contests and international awards.The most paradigmatic case of awards won by fiction productionsis Brazil that won an Emmy in 2011 for a coproduction withPortugal and it also won the prestigious prize Seoul InternationalDrama Awards, 2011 in the Drama Series category with the teleno-vela Passione.Between social merchandising and fiction “à la carte” One of the newest features of fiction during 2011 in somecountries, like Mexico and Argentina, is the appearance of“fiction à la carte,” these are productions that are custom-madeat the request of the governments’ political and social policiesbeyond the traditional social merchandising that had already becomea distinctive element of Brazilian fiction, for example. To differentiate “fiction à la carte” from social merchandisingit would be necessary to explain that the latter model aims atincluding different social or educational activities and subject-matters in the fictional plots so as to provoke, through them, aheated discussion among the audience, the mass media and thesocial networks. Exactly the opposite of what happens with fictionproductions where the objective is not to generate debate butrather to create a specific idea about reality in the audiences. A clear example of social merchandising can be observed inBrazilian fiction, which in 2011 brought about a strong debateafter productions such as Malhação, Insensato Coração, Ti-ti-ti, FinaEstampa (Rede Globo), Vidas em Jogo (Record), Amor e Revolução(SBT), and Natália (TV Brasil), dealt with homosexuality and theproblem of homophobia present in Brazilian society.
  • 52. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 55 What is truly outstanding is not just the thematic-narrativeincorporation, but the fact that by means of this process it waspossible to intervene in favor of the gay rights, who through thecharacters (gay or otherwise) reflected an ample vision of the gaymovement’s recognition by showing favor for the acceptance ofdiversity and for the bill that is being debated in the BrazilianCongress on this matter.4 Uruguay also sought greater involvement with its audiencesthrough their fiction Adicciones, which did not only addressseveral issues related to the world of drugs but it also offered veryconcrete actions to solve them, all of them -of course- linked to thegovernment programs against addictions In the framework of the productions financed by thegovernment, Argentina incorporated in its fiction this socialsense through shows such as Maltratadas, Television por la inclusion,Decisiones de vida and Tiempo para Pensar, in which gender violenceand the actions generated by the government to fight themwere the essential part; nevertheless, as it is pointed out in theChapter Argentina in this Yearbook, they are fictions with verygood intentions, but without any social impact, since they neithercreated a polemic, nor generated an empathy adherence betweenthe citizens and the government programs. That did not happen with the production El Pacto, wherebeyond what is considered “politically correct“ it tells the storyof the spurious origin of the company Papel Prensa, whose mainshareholders are the media opposing the government: Clarínand La Nación. This show was aired in response to El Puntero, apolitical series dealing with the topic of the elections, as well asseveral other conflicts of the Argentine government. All this inthe context of an electoral year and in the middle of the conflict4 Said Bill typifies as a crime discrimination against the gay community or any other hetero-sexual community, the handicapped or the elderly. The motion for this bill was presentedafter several homophobic attacks were brought to light in 2011.
  • 53. 56 | Obitel 2012between President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner and the groupEl Clarín, one of the nation’s strongest media companies. This issue of the production of à la carte fiction had its climaxin Mexico where the federal government invested a large sum ofmoney for Televisa to make, produce and broadcast the seriesEl Equipo, a production that depicted the federal government’sideological and political vision regarding its security strategyagainst organized crime. This production was not only made with public resources butalso it was filmed in the Federal Police facilities, and it managed to- as it is explained in the chapter on Mexico - not only place itselfamong one of the most viewed fiction shows but also it turned outto be one of the most effective strategies that the government usedto revert public opinion regarding a strategy that has generatedmore negative than positive effects among the population. At the same time, the fiction industry in Mexico made useof the social context to put two productions on screen El OctavoMandamiento and La reina del sur, the former (without muchsuccess in terms of rating, but with a lot of social echo) is a bitingcriticism of the government strategy against drug traffic, revealing,in the fiction, the government-drug traffic connections. In thesame tenor, La Reina del Sur presented the problems of organizedcrime from the fictional vision of a woman who managed to climbup the criminal ladder. Both fictions served to counteract the official sense of theseries El Equipo, since they were aired simultaneously. As inArgentina, this political theme and the criticism accorded thegovernment of the moment, took place right before an electoralperiod. This fictional theme that links the government to organizedcrime was also visible in Colombia, a pioneering country inthe creation of this type of series and soap operas. With Labruja they dealt with the emergent drug traffic subcultures and
  • 54. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 57the paramilitarism in the Colombian region in the context of afictitious presidential campaign. Still, this theme seems to have been more successful in theUnited States where La Reina Del Sur, coproduced by Telemundo,RTI (Colombia) and Antena 3 (Spain), managed to garner theinterest of the Latin community and made this theme seem lessalien since it is a phenomenon that is equally suffered both inthe American union and in the countries where this immigrantcommunity comes from. An equally critical view of this reality appeared in Chile wherethey have been narrating their history and memories through fictionsince 2007. With resources from Fondo de Fomento a la Calidad delConsejo Nacional de Televisión de Chile (Fund for the Promotion ofQuality of the Chilean National Television Council), the series Los80 and the miniseries Los Archivos del Cardenal represented some ofthe most painful moments of the Chilean dictatorship, the latterfiction has a clearer historical anchoring, since it deals directlywith the topic of the people arrested and tortured by AugustoPinochet’s dictatorship. This interrelation between fiction and history continued in2011 when several productions were aired in allusion to relevanthistorical moments, as it happened with Venezuela where theBicentenary of its Independence was celebrated with the titles:Bolivar el genio de la libertad; Nuestros niños de nuestra América;Nuestro Miranda and Sucre. The criticism to these productionsturned around the fact that their narrative was permeated by apro-government bias. Mexico also presented El Encanto del Águila along this line butit was aired shortly after the celebration of the Centenary of theMexican Revolution. El Encanto was a series that portrayed the keymoments of this great military adventure. However, just like in theVenezuelan case, this production conditioned the historical senseto the ideology of the government of the moment.
  • 55. 58 | Obitel 20125. Transmedia reception in the OBITEL countries The analysis of transmedia TV fiction made in the 2010and 2011 Obitel Yearbooks reveal both networks and audiencescommunicative practices characterized by a diverse degree ofspectator/user participation in multiple platforms (websites, blogs,and social networks). This participation could be observed eitheron platforms and models built by networks, or on social networks.In both cases, we notice the appropriation of subject and plots offiction programs by part of the audience revealing different levelsof involvement. The results obtained in the studies above mentionedpoint out to the necessity of monitoring the reception oftelevision fiction beyond watching it in front of the televisionscreen. This necessity comes from the understanding that “weare witnessing a process of convergence between old and newmedia, beyond the mutual influence in ways not yet predicted.”It is in this scenario that “significant changes in the condition ofproduction, distribution and cultural consumption, with greatemphasis in audiences’ involvement and active participation”(Lopes & Mungioli, 2010, p. 244) emerge enabling theparticipatory culture5 (Jenkins et al. 2006). The strengthening of aspects of participative culture thatemerge in the universe of transmedia reception of television fictionwill be found in the second part of this Yearbook throughoutthe chapters of each country. Collating some of the results wasmade possible by the creation of a unique Methodology Protocolin which we explored the production and reception centers,emphasizing the diversity of interaction mediated by the Internet. The process was started with the analysis of the types ofinteraction made possible by producers on websites and social5 Jenkins et al., (2006) identified twelve basic skills developed in a participatory culture: Play,Performance, Simulation, Appropriation, Multitasking, Distributed Cognition, CollectiveIntelligence, Judgment, Transmedia Navigation, Networking and Negotiation.
  • 56. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 59networks, and then the levels of interaction that spectators/users developed with this content. After that, interactions wereclassified from an adaptation of language functions (Jakobson,2003). These methodological procedures enable each country toidentify, collate and analyze interactions, taking in considerationits own communicational reality. Thusly, it is expected that the setof 11 studies contribute to construction of a singular cartographyof transmedia reception for the Obitel countries. However, thisadaptation to each local reality does not prevent the observationof how, among the group of the Obitel countries, one can observethe indicators of emergency of the participatory culture. Moreover,what is reported here regarding the transmedia reception is asynthesis that must necessarily be sustained by reading the chapterfrom each country in which details of the local context is found.Television Fiction and transmedia reception: interaction andengagement Interaction and engagement are heterogeneous phenomenawhose distinctions permeate the fans’ everyday life and the variedinteraction possibilities offered by television fiction producers.This is hopefully the best definition that will allow a draft of thetransmedia reception panorama, in its third consecutive year ofinvestigation, in the context of Obitel countries. What we observed in the research conducted in 2011 isthe producers’ investment to incorporate fan practices on theInternet and social networks through their relationship with theaudience, not only as strategies of marketing and publicizing offictional content, but also as a way of engaging audiences withtheir productions. Lopes (2009); Lopez and Orozco (2010),consider that, in this scenario, it is possible to observe an incipientemergency of transmedia practices from Latin American fans. Inthis context, the fans correspond to the part of the viewers that notonly watch television, but also produce contents related to fiction
  • 57. 60 | Obitel 2012and/or assume a critical attitude developing their “arts of making”(De Certeau, 2007). The analysis of User Generated Content (UGC) in fictionof eleven countries emphasizes fans’ affectivity in the dialogueregarding their favorite stories. Most content was regarded aspositive. When dealing with the plot, characters and the productitself, the fans liked, shared and showed “passionate” comments,connecting the narrative to feelings about everyday situationsand the country’s contemporary social condition. This fact wasalso observed in other countries outside the Obitel scope (Baym,2000). We may even risk a hypothesis that an emotion transmittedby a telenovela is small when compared to the potency of theemotion of sharing feelings and impressions in small groups thatcharacterize common interest communities, something typicalof online audiences. Such audiences are distinct in their highemotional attachment, making us ask if the engagement wouldnot be related more so to the pleasure of sharing, interacting withpeople who share the appreciation for the fiction. It is widelyaccepted that blog and social network discussion endures after thefiction is done being run by the TV network. Another aspect that stands out is the importance of diversityobserved in each country and this can be verified both in thetransmedia offers made by producers as in social networks. Onone side, we have the block composed by Chile, Portugal andUruguay, which presents a low offer of options in the fiction’sinteractive menu, since it is a relatively incipient practice thatis still growing in these countries; Spain, Brazil, United Statesand Argentina register the biggest interaction intensity betweenfans and producers throughout the issuer’s offers and audiences’media practices. Finally, the block with the remaining countries,Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, finds itself in averagelevels of interaction between fans and the producers’ offers. Picture 1 presents a summary of the producers’ offer menu in
  • 58. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 61eleven countries for the Top Ten fiction. It illustrates the currentdilemma of the offering of transmedia products from televisionfiction as a reaction towards audiences’ habits of creating contenton the Internet, as well as the coexistence of spaces appropriatedby fans and by networks. Picture 1. Summary of the transmedia offerings of the Top Ten fiction programs in 2011 Source: OBITEL Brazil When compared to the offer of transmedia content relatedto television fiction presented in the 2011 Obitel Yearbook, onecan observe that there was an expansion of the interactive menu,especially with the creation of content for social networks: fanpages, character’s Facebook pages, profile pages and character’spages on Twitter and specific channels of the series and telenovelason Youtube. Webseries remain as secondary products, mosttimes created by the unfolding of the initial plot, admitted as acomplement to the audience.
  • 59. 62 | Obitel 2012 The highlight was the growing offer of fictional contentfor cellphones, especially polls, excerpts of chapters and thesummary of chapters of the fiction. Transmedia platforms offeredby producers of the Top Ten programs in the countries studiedpresent possibilities of both active and passive interaction by theaudience. In some countries, however, this expansion manifestsitself only as a new channel to publicize content by the network,not promoting any type of feedback for the fans. There is a highlight in Argentina of the investment by theEl trece and Telefe channels, whose official fiction websitesare divided in character and plot pages on Facebook, as well asofficial blogs. In Brazil, the Top Ten fiction programs of 2011 are all fromRede Globo, offering a common basic menu to all its telenovelasin which there are sections that allow only for the visualizationand sharing, as well as more interactive parts, such as games,polls and apps in which the user can create his own content byremixing images from the producers. Among the standouts isthe continuous investment in the exclusive creation of contentson characters’ blogs and Twitter accounts, as well as those of theauthors and actors from each fiction program. The innovationcomes in the form of the so-called “external media”, available onlocal transportation systems (bus and subway), in which there arescreen that broadcast Rede Globo content, with special attentionfor fiction. In Chile, Television Nacional (TVN) seeks to create theirown Internet content developed by a multidisciplinary team called“Equipo 360”. Each telenovela has an official web site with linksto official Facebook and Twitter pages. At the same time thechannel publicizes its contents on YouTube, as well as allowsdownloads of pictures and videos from the official website. Thefirst Chilean webseries comes from the official series and are,nevertheless, an expansion of the fiction’s plot for the Internet.
  • 60. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 63The audience has the habit of watching the online content, suchas the Catch up TV channel, and creating entries about theirfavorite fiction on Wikipedia. In Colombia, Caracol Televisión made available to theaudience a range of possibilities of interaction and involvementwith fictional content, with the WAP portal standing out byallowing users to keep connected on their cellphones. Thepossibilities of comment, criticism and recommendation withsharing for social networks predominate. This interactivity has thegoal of only absorbing the audience in different media, since itdoes not allow creative participation of the audience. In Ecuador, transmedia narrative does not occur in production,few television series present the possibility of migrating to other me-dia, they do not create content for other platforms and the fiction’sofficial pages find themselves under the portal of each channel. In Spain, network Antena3 stands out in the creation oftwittersodes to the series El barco. In this country, the femaleparticipation in comments about fiction on social networks wasbigger than their male counterpart. Mostly women accessed theplatform to interact with the protagonists and creators of fiction,often in real time, that is, while the series was being aired onTV. There were several mentions to Spanish series in Twitter’sTop trending topics throughout 2011. There were interference andfeedback of TV1 on the network’s official Twitter and Facebookofficial pages, filtering the comments made by the audience. Thehabit of participating in official forums in the series website duringairing was also mentioned. In the United States, producers of Univisión and Televisapresent different forms of audience interactivity, with fictioncontent made available by Telemundo being considered moreaccessible and easier to navigate. The new factor is the addition ofcontent to the Hulu platform, an online repository of TV content,which allows audiences to watch series episodes at any time.
  • 61. 64 | Obitel 2012 In Mexico, the transmedia proposals presented by Televisainclude all media platforms (television, radio, press, magazinesand Internet). The goal of the enterprise is to multiply televisioncontent on all screens, allowing for the creation of overwhelmingstories and allowing users to make from the channel a transmediaexperience. Since 2010 the network invested in official pages offictions on Facebook and Twitter, as well as exclusive channels onYouTube, where it makes the programming available and offersspace for free comments from the audience. In Portugal, fans are encouraged to search for new informationregarding fiction and interact with other consumers, preferentiallythrough the official sites. Audience participation on Facebook andTwitter are still timid. A larger fan presence regarding their favoritefictions occurs on blogs, created to publish news, stories, sharingand allowing for comments. On YouTube there is a large spread ofvideos of the Top Ten fiction. Pages created by users are dedicatedpreferentially to TVI productions. On the other hand, SIC officialpages are very successful and have a large considerable viewing.RTP1 is the network that has the smallest number of fictionalcontent on the Internet, either by producers or consumers. In Uruguay, most transmedia projects offer few options ofinteraction with the audience (official site with parts of onlinechapters and Facebook page). There are, however, more ambitiousprojects made with co-producers that aim to develop products forexport. In these, transmedia configuration is innovative, aimedat young audiences, including content for Twitter, blog and chatwith protagonists. There was also the mention of fictional contentfor consumer’s cellphone of specific phone companies In Venezuela networks created the habit of generatingfiction content especially through the creation of Facebook pages.They also develop products for Twitter and specific channelson Facebook for broadcasting chapters of telenovelas and seriesbeyond the official site.
  • 62. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 65Television fiction and transmedia reception: interaction andinteractivity Aiming to capture the interaction types offered by producersto the audience in 2011, the Top Ten fictions were observed in eachcountry starting with a common classification. The classificationwas oriented by a methodological protocol, considering thefollowing categories: (1) Interactive: the user can interact with other people about the content of the fiction. The site makes available materials for download and visualization (pictures and interviews), but it does not allow the user to watch the full chapters; (2) Interactive in real time: products that promote user’s interaction during the airing time of the fiction on TV; (3) Visualization: it allows users only to watch the chapters, but they cannot leave comments; (4) Interactive visualization: it allows users to leave comments and interact with other people who visit the website. (5) Interactive visualization on the web: it allows users to watch the fiction, leave comments and disseminate the content of the fiction on social networks. (6) Transmedia visualization: it presents the same characteristics from the interactive visualization online; however, the site offers exclusive products for visualization on the Internet and interaction dynamics with the fiction, such as chats, games and tweetcam with the protagonists. It also allows the download of pictures and videos. Among the total of 110 Top Ten fictions presentedby the eleven countries in the Obitel scope, 298 frequencies ofinteraction types were listed to each of the fiction programs.Graphic 1 illustrates the frequency of interaction types consideredpredominant among Top Ten fiction programs according thecommon classification established between the countries.
  • 63. 66 | Obitel 2012 Graphic 1: Interaction types proposed by producers in the Top Ten fictionsBase: 298 frequencies of interaction typesSource: OBITEL Brazil It should be observed that there was predominance among thecountries of the frequency of interactive and real time interactivepossibilities offered by producers in the Top Ten titles. It standsout that allowing only visualization is not a plausible investment forthe industry anymore, although users will not interact accordingto the networks expectations, probably due to the fact that theyhave already created their own interaction spaces about telenovelasand series way ahead of the offer of these products, especially onFacebook, blogs and YouTube. The country with the highest offerof interaction frequency of the transmedia visualization type, thatis, with the highest offer of products that allow user participationwere Colombia¸ Spain and Mexico. However, in these countries,it is mentioned that the official web site itself favors onlyvisualization, concentrating the transmedia characteristics tospaces aggregated to the site, especially on Facebook and officialblogs of the fiction. Another item observed refers to the characteristics ofusers’ interactivity levels from the producers’ offers. This itemwas categorized according to three perspectives: (1) Passiveinteractivity: when the user consumes content without givingfeedback. He uses links, navigates through pages in a silent way
  • 64. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 67without making his presence noticed. Interaction is related only tothe content; (2) Active interactivity: user responds to an incentivegiven only within the conditions offered by the issuer himself,answering a poll, for instance. The interaction is propositional orcritique given regarding the content. (3) Creative interactivity: theuser becomes a content producer, creating something new fromwhat he was given. Encouraged by the original content producerto elicit some response, the websurfer creates overcoming itscondition of receptor and also reaching the level of producer. Graphic 2 demonstrates the tendencies of interactionlevels proposed by producers in the Top Ten and also the frequencyof practices observed in these interactivity spaces in the scope ofthe eleven countries. Graphic 2. Interaction levels proposed by producers in the Top Ten fictionsSource: OBITEL Brazil In Graphic 2 the predominance of the offer of possibility orlevels of active interactivity by most producers can be observedwith 59% of the frequency coming from observation on sites andaggregated products of the series and the Top Ten television fictionin 2011. This data illustrates the networks’ explicit positioning inmaintaining some “control” over the fans’ interactive activities,while the encouragement to participation is given only inside
  • 65. 68 | Obitel 2012the very own conditions offered by the site or social network,for instance, the participation in a poll, game or test; or yet, inblogs, which require registration to comment. These are filtered byissuers who decide which ones will be effectively published. Only 18% of the Top Ten productions offered the possibilityof the creative interactivity level from the audience. In thispercentage are countries such as the United States, Brazil,Portugal, Spain and Venezuela, whose producers try to offerproposals of interaction levels allowing websurfers to reach thelevel of co-producers. The new concept in 2011 was a larger opening for commentsdue to the range of products offered on social networks beyondofficial sites. Since 2010 the possibility of sharing and liking contenthas remained and these are also considered in its interactivitylevels an expressive form of celebration. There are, nevertheless,heterogeneous aspects in interactivity levels. Another factor, notless important, is that nothing assures that the offer of creativeinteractivity will actually bring the fans’ effective involvement,since this seems to depend more on affective factors related tothe narrative than the innovative resources offered for them. Infact, spaces destined to critique and discussion were the leastappropriated as dominant practices by fans. When one observesthe interactivity levels in each country, one realizes the emergenceof the dilemma in which producers try at the same time to offerprojects whose nature favors passive interaction and invest ininnovative ones, favoring audiences’ active interaction level.Television Fiction and the transmedia reception: UGC in aTop Ten program The analysis of the transmedia reception in 2011 seemsmore consistent in comparison to the 2010 Obitel Yearbookdue to improved orientation to the categorization of the data– a fact that highlights the deepening of the methodology on
  • 66. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 69reception research about television fiction on social networks inan international level. But it was also due to the way in whichwe tried to further delve in aspects related to audiences’ habits,starting from the definition and monitoring of the content createdby users in the Top Ten fiction of the year. The choice should beoriented by the following criteria: (1) Most watched fiction in theyear; (2) Most representative fiction as to the transmedia offer andproposal. The goal was to monitor and select the comments madeby users to develop the analysis, through the process of analysis ofthe content, of the themes approached by fans when talking aboutthe narrative and the content creation on the web, transferring TVseries and telenovela to a transmedia instance. As in 2010, the observation period lasted a week. Eachcountry had to select a platform to be analyzed (official site, blog,social networks) according to the importance of the fiction andthe proposal presented by producers. The observation period forthe data collecting in each of the selected platforms should bedefined by choosing the last airing week of the series or telenovela,but there were some exceptions. The number of comments collected for analysis on the sitesor social networks was different in each country. In total: 68,747pieces of content created by users in different platforms in elevencountries were analyzed following the proposal. Opposed to whathappened in 2010, the most researched platforms were socialnetworks and not official sites. Graphic 3 presents the platforms in which the countries incurthe investigations about the fiction.
  • 67. 70 | Obitel 2012 Source: OBITEL Brazil Table 1. Fictions selected by countries, format and justification Country Title Origin Network Format JustificationArgen- El hombre National Telefe Series Higher ratingstina de tu vida Distinctive thematic and Cordel Rede Tele-Brazil National aesthetic universe encantado Globo novela Higher ratings Tele-Chile Tempano National TVN Higher representativeness in novela transmedia reception El Tele-Colombia National Caracol Higher ratings secretario novela La pareja Teleama- feliz National zonas Series Higher ratingsEcuador Mi National TC Tele- Series Higher ratings recinto visión Higher ratings ÁguilaSpain National TVE1 Series Presented innovative transmedia roja proposals Univi- Higher ratingsUNITED Tele- Eva luna National sion/ Higher representativeness inSTATES novela Televisa transmedia reception Innovation in fictional narrative Sponsored by the Ministry ofMexico El equipo National Televisa Series Public Security against organized crime Espírito Tele-Portugal National TVI Higher ratings indomável novela
  • 68. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 71Country Title Origin Network Format Justification Dance! Co-pro- PowWow Aimed at teenage audiences La fuerzaUruguay duction Media Series Presented innovative transmedia del UY/AR Canal 10 proposals corazónVenezu- La viuda Venevi- Tele- National Higher ratingsela joven sion novelaSource: OBITEL Brazil Most countries selected national fiction to make the analysisof a transmedia reception, the exception being Uruguay, whichselected a co-production made with Argentina in 2011. Regardingthe format, six telenovelas and six series were chosen by thecountries. The predominant justification for the choice was thecriteria of higher audience, presenting innovative proposals andtransmedia resources in production and higher representativenessin reception (more interaction by the audience). Different criteriawere presented by Mexico in choosing the El equipo series, especiallydue to the fact that it is a production sponsored by the Ministryof Public Security, and its theme advocated against organizedcrime. According to the country, there was an investment of 118million pesos in the fiction because it was part of the government’s“security strategy”. In Brazil, the telenovela Cordel encantadowas chosen due to the characteristics of its theme and aestheticuniverse, unusual for its time slot, which approached elements ofthe popular culture of the Brazilian Northeast. In Uruguay Dance!La fuerza del corazón was chosen according to the teenage target andits innovative transmedia proposal. Based in the presented data, one notices a diverse culturalinterference regarding audience’s behavior in each country,showing contradiction of uses and preferences. Many timesthe network chosen for research was not the one in which theaudience posted a higher number of content pieces about thetelenovela or series. However, the justification for choosing theplatforms revealed the teams’ preferences for research on networks
  • 69. 72 | Obitel 2012in which there were more consistent data for analysis of thefans conversations, forming a diverse picture that demonstratesthe concerns of the Obitel group towards exploratory activity intransmedia reception research. As the platforms themselves presented pre-determinedformats of communication and content broadcast, it becameextremely complicated to define a unique methodology whichwould house all content created in these varied environments. Afirst problem observed to those who are willing to research thistype of content is what it is itself. Diverse, this content presentsitself in conversation on social networks not only in the textform, but also includes visual representations (drawings, pictures,graphics, images, crafted images), audio (songs, remix, homevideos with soundtracks), the most diverse types and themes invideos, informal conversations, documents (links, news, data ofgeographic nature, among others.) This problem, of semanticorigin that involves the nature of the content itself, has forcedmany researchers to define the type of study to be contemplated intheir research about social networks, filtering it by the format inwhich they present themselves in the community or social network.In another way, the definition according to the platform forcesthe researcher to register the occurrence of different semanticqualities of the content posted by the users, without, however,joining the specificities so characteristic of fans’ literacy. A secondproblem in communication research about Internet content isrelative to the volume of postings made by users on a daily bases.These data present characteristics such as volume, speed andvariation. Therefore, it ensues in the problem of the content andits multiples and unstable characteristics, as well as its implicationsand demands to the researchers’ choice to data treatment. In all countries the number of visits and comments increasedduring the last airing week, which was reflected on the sharingand the number of followers as revealed by the research made
  • 70. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 73on Facebook and Twitter. The majority of user comments in thecountries were positive. This data demonstrates the fans’ appreciationto the conclusion of plots and the emotiveness emerging in thediscourses on networks. The comments were classified according tothe following dominant themes: (1) story; (2) themes; (3) characters;(4) actors; (5) content; (6) TV network; (7) broadcast time; (8)advertising topics; (9) soundtrack; (10) scriptwriters. In Argentina, comments about the story, themes and characterswere predominant. There were criticism regarding the broadcastdynamic of the fiction by the Telefé channel. In Brazil and Chile,comments about the story, characters and actors were predominant.There was a great number of links shared on Facebook by Brazilianusers, which took to official pages of the fiction; mostly, to thegames, apps, polls and news sections. In Colombia, TV Caracolmonopolized the space destined to fan comments, publicizingmostly advertising topics. Fan conversations were about thecharacters and themes. Criticism concentrated themselves to thebroadcast time of the fiction El secretário, which suffered constantchanges. In Ecuador, the story, themes, and characters got moreattention by the incipient participative audience on YouTube.In Spain and in the United States, comments about the story,characters and actors were predominant. There were commentsduring conversations directed at the network, producers andtechnical crew, especially by the Spanish audience. In Mexicomost user comments were about the characters, themes andcontent of the fiction. Negative comments were aimed at theprogramming schedule, as well as the inclusion of the fiction onCanal 5, which is a channel exclusively dedicated to TV series.In Portugal and Uruguay, fans mainly talked about characters,content and actors. Sharing of episodes for download was notablythe goal of the conversation of Portuguese audiences, which wasmade on YouTube. In Uruguay, on the official site of Dance! Lafuerza del corazón, there were conversations about other subjects
  • 71. 74 | Obitel 2012during the last broadcast week beyond the common classificationsuggested by the countries. In Venezuela characters and contentdrove fan participation through a large number of comments onFacebook. The humor and the explosive ways fans developed theircritiques towards the end of the plot of the telenovela La viudajoven stood out. Many longed to start a movement in favor ofproducers making a second season for the plot. Comments were classified according to Jakobson’sproposal (2003) referring to language functions. This commentcategorization method was implemented for the first time byObitel countries in 2011. We find fit to remind everyone thatdeeper analyses of the content generated by users on transmediaplatforms should be sought in the national chapters. Jakobson considers six language functions and they are notexclusive among themselves: Emotive Function: centered in the issuer who manifests emotions, feelings, moods and others. Conative Function: centered in the receptor or addressee. The person who speaks intends that the listener act according to what was demanded by orders, commands questions etc. Referential Function: centered in the content or context over which it is spoken. It is found usually in informative and narrative texts. Metalinguistic Function: centered on the code, when the person speaks, the speech refers itself to the own language with which he speaks. Phatic Function: concentrated in the channel and holds all the resources that intend to maintain interaction. The channel is the means most used for contact. Poetic Function: concentrated on the message. It manifests itself when the linguistic construction aims to produce an especial effect at the addressee: joy, emotion, enthusiasm, anger, etc. In general, the content of discussions by fans in Obitelcountries privileged plot, characters, actors and actress, and evenscriptwriters and producers of fiction. Beyond many compliments,it was expected that the referential function would take the first
  • 72. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 75place on the fans discourse when addressing the chapter of the day,the broadcast schedule of the fiction and expectations regardingthe ending. The countries highlighted active and relevantparticipation among users, considering that this expressivity variesaccording to the title of the fiction and the type of Internet pagein which the observation occurred. There are many indicators thatextrapolate the language functions of Jakobson, such as Facebookand YouTube popularity, by the large number of “likes” andsharing registered, apart from the comments. The comparison of the classification of comments betweencountries resulted, above all, in the prevalence of the emotivefunction in content created by users. The comparison of theclassification of comments among countries resulted on theprevalence of the emotive function of the content generated byusers. It manifests itself through the means of the use of expressionsthat demonstrate affective involvement by those who write theircomments about plots, as was observed in Chile, for example. Inthe United States and Spain the emotive and poetic functionshave predominated. The emergence of the poetic function revealsa certain degree of appropriation of contents in new perspectivesof production of meaning about the fiction. In Argentina,Ecuador, Portugal and Uruguay there was the predominanceof emotive and conative functions, and there was also a lot ofpublicity of promotional content related to the fiction by theproducers. Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela presentedthe prevalence of emotive and referential functions. There still isthe record of other forms of peculiar transmedia appropriationscreated by fans, such as the dance competition promoted duringthe broadcast of the telenovela Tempano in Chile. Based on thesuccess of the soundtrack in the country, the fans created videoswith specific choreographies that were posted on YouTube andresulted in a national competition.
  • 73. 76 | Obitel 2012 We are merely beginning to understand how to detect andwhat to make of practices of a new reception of television fiction.Without a doubt, there are demonstrations of emergency of newhabits that are characteristic of a participatory audience thatgenerates content (remix and publication) based on televisionproductions. It is thus necessary to keep following the constructionof meaning by part of the audience that takes in its hands thetask of creating transmedia spaces for manifestation, debate andregistry of their experience of enjoyment of television fiction.6. The topic of the year: Transnationalization of television fictionin Ibero-American countries6 The transnational concept has been gaining force withinthe different approaches to the media cultural studies becauseit reflects better the complex and hybrid system of population,capital, culture and consumption flows, as well as those ofcorporate entities and technological advances resulting from theacceleration of the globalization processes in the last decades.The transnational element defies an assumed binary oppositionbetween the national and the international, showing the porosityof national borders, and the hybrid quality of the differentsymbolic and material formations on which the construction ofcultural identities is supported (Pine nut kernel, 2012). For this Yearbook we, as representatives of the Obitel countries,decided to take transnationalization in the fiction industry as “theTopic of the Year” with the objective of mapping the characteristicsof transnational flows among the countries that participate in thisproject towards the outside. In particular, one of our aims was todetermine the way in which contents are shaped or transformedinto fiction as a result of these dynamics, to finish with a reflection6 The writing of this section of the comparative chapter had Juan Piñón’s collaboration, USOBITEL coordinator, as well as Darwin Franco’s from Mexico’s OBITEL team.
  • 74. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 77both on the tendencies of the exchanges in the production anddistribution of fiction, and on the way in which they mediate andgenerate new narratives that affect in turn a different culturalproposition and aesthetics. It is convenient to clarify that the theoretical perspectiveassumed in this Yearbook to understand the topic of thetransnationalization is that by Jean Chalaby (2005), who describesthe new order of the transnational mass media as resulting from areassignment of the media spaces, practices, flows and products.Chalaby also recognizes the emergence of a new order withnew media institutions at regional level, and the increase of thepopulation flow that has increased the number and visibility oftransnational audiences. This author proposes three stages of world media develop-ment: internationalization, globalization and transnationalization.The internationalization period is characterized by the expansionof communications and the media corporations; that of globaliza-tion by the integration and creation of a global village; and thecurrent period of transnationalization is characterized by its cos-mopolitization; that is to say, a new transnational order is createdthat is affecting the fabric of international communication by re-structuring “the relation among the notions of what is local, na-tional, regional and global through the new and complex networkof media corporations, products and audiences” (p. 31). In the context of the communication systems, or of themedia industries, the transnational element makes it possibleto recognize a new configuration in which emergent playershave interrupted the idea of a global media totality based on thehegemony of the program flows from the United States. Theemergence of a media panorama that is more “interdependentand asymmetric” (Straubhaar, 1991) results from the emergenceof media institutions with a regional impact that have madeit possible to question the prevailing idea of a center-periphery
  • 75. 78 | Obitel 2012unidirectional relation system, postulated by the perspective ofcultural imperialism (Schiller, 1991). Particularly, the emergence of a robust television industrywithin the Ibero-American space is the direct result of theaudiences’ decision making whose preferences, guided for whatis culturally close to them (Straubbhar and The Pastina, 2004),makes it possible to recognize the effect of the regional element inthe national or the local ones. The regional element in this case isclearly delineated by the common trajectories, that is the historical,cultural, linguistic and religious trajectories of the Ibero-Americancountries that characterize what John Sinclar calls a “geo-culturallinguistic market” (Sinclair, 2004). Nevertheless, it is important to admit also that withinthe context of a more complex and interdependent panorama(Hesmondalgh, 2006); the media institutions with a global scopeestablish production agreements or have majority or limitedfinancial participation in local, national or regional productioncompanies. That is how independent production companiessuch as Colombia’s Vista Producciones can reach a productionagreement with the US television network ABC to produce ACorazón Partido; all under both companies’ corporate propertyumbrella of that act under the name of Disney (See the chapteron Colombia) An important piece in this tension between the local andthe global elements within the industry is the role played by thedistribution companies, who on a global scale distribute (sell) notonly fiction programs but also the ideas and television formats.Case in point, the decisive role played the Morris William Agencyin the sale of the format Yo soy Betty, la fea within the US televisionindustry. Or the drive Telemundo has when it comes to sellingtheir own production under the umbrella of its parent companyNBC-Universal, which has put at the disposal of the Hispanicmedia corporation the whole distribution infrastructure and
  • 76. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 79promotion access of this media corporation on a global scale.Now Telemundo has become one of the biggest programmingdistributors in the region. With this general panorama on the theoretical notions thatsupport the comparison among the different transnationalizationprocesses -within the OBITEL scope- we shall go on to theindividual and comparative analysis of the eleven countriesparticipating in this project.Convergences and differences in the transnationalizationprocesses in the OBITEL countries Studying the transnationalization phenomenon in fictiontelevision, as it has been explained, implies seeing it from threeperspectives: the industry, the contents and the audiences. Theformer perspective exhibits an important degree of developmentin the Ibero-American region where Obitel operates, althoughwith very notable variants, since purely exporting countries suchas Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Spain and the UnitedStates coexist with countries like Portugal, Chile, Uruguay,Venezuela and Ecuador that are practically just trying to meet theneeds of their domestic market. These differences, undoubtedly, contribute elements thatexplain how the transnationalization processes are developing notonly within the OBITEL scope but also outside it, what powerrelations are imposed by the strong industries and what type ofstrategies are adopted by the emergent industries to strengthen theirmarkets. All the above within a context where the convergence andtransmedia processes have reshaped the generated buy/sale flows,partly, due to the way in which the audiences have expanded anddiversified their media consumptions. As explained in each of the chapters in this Yearbook,transnationalization of the fiction industry, especially that of thesoap opera, has propitiated multiple connections and negotiations
  • 77. 80 | Obitel 2012among the sector’s companies. For example, it is ever morecommon for the Obitel countries to resort: 1) to the adaptationof successful scripts from other countries, in particular the roleplayed by Argentina and Colombia as producers of stories for theSpanish-speaking countries and increasingly so by Brazil and alsoas regards Portugal; 2) to the constitution of multinational castsas a commercial hook; 3) to the establishment of co-productionmodels to produce or adapt fictional shows; and 4) to financingand creating production centers in countries other than their ownjust like Rede Globo did when it inaugurated in the year 2011 acontrol center in Lisbon. In order to understand the transnationalization processes inthe Obitel countries, it is necessary to understand each country’sindividual process; that is why we will begin by describing thosethat exhibit a partial development in their fiction industry. We shall start with Chile, a country whose fiction is ad-dressed essentially to its internal market not only in terms of pro-duction but also in what concerns human resources, since practi-cally all of those who participate in the Chilean fiction industry(producers, writers, artists, etc.) belong to this country. The samephenomenon happens also in Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuelawhere a transnationalization process as such does not exist, be-cause since their industries target only the domestic market, theprocess occurs in only one direction: “from the outside inwards”. Case in point, Venezuela, which was formerly characterizedby the export of fiction, and today it has had to yield that role toother countries such as Brazil, Argentina or Colombia. In this sense, what characterizes Chile, Ecuador, Uruguayand Venezuela is their role as recipients and importers of televisionproducts; that is to say, many of their production networks makedistribution alliances, since their industries do not allow them tofill their program slots on their own. This way, the big industriesfind in them a market for their products’ distribution, just the way
  • 78. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 81the Mexican company Televisa does in particular with Ecuadorand Venezuela, and the Brazilian Rede Globo with Uruguay. Another characteristic that is worth noticing in these countriesis that there are no distributors for exportation as such and if thereare any, they are part of the transnationalization schemes operatedby stronger industries, as it is the case of the above-mentionedcompanies Televisa, Rede Globo and more recently Telemundo. Their tendency to address the domestic market, nevertheless,has made it possible for them to keep the fiction business alive,since what characterizes the series and soap operas in these coun-tries is their sense of cultural proximity; that is, they depict concreterealities, with representations of identities typical of the peoplewhere the narrative develops, as Ecuador reports in its chapter. This, for example, gives them a certain degree of strengthbecause the tendency in the Ibero-American fiction market is moreinclined to the homogenization of the histories and the contents,as a device to guarantee its easy sale and commercialization inother countries. Portugal is a special case within Obitel, because in spite ofhaving a 30-year-plus experience in the production and exportationof series and soap operas it has not managed to establish itself as anexporting industry, since its business model has not changed and itcontinues to have an approach addressed to the domestic market. One of its limitations, as reported in the chapter Portugal, isthe language barrier, since Portuguese as opposed to others suchas Spanish or English has a more limited market, which - certainly- is almost completely monopolized by Rede Globo’s distributionnetworks. Therefore, the Portuguese industry has sought to expandits networks to other markets such as Africa or Eastern Europe;nevertheless, these flows are asymmetric and discontinuous. These characteristics are perfectly applicable to the OBITELambit, since countries such as Brazil and Mexico have been ableto recreate transnationalization schemes that at least in the Ibero-
  • 79. 82 | Obitel 2012American scope have managed to face the global domain that theUnited States has on the fiction market. Brazil, for example, started its transnationalization processin the early 1960’s when it sold to Uruguay the soap opera OBem-amado. Since this momentous event, Rede Globo, the mainTV company in Brazil, has been an important television fictionexporter for over four decades, a distinction it has earned becauseof its high technical and narrative quality. This aspect makes allthe difference; for example, with the Mexican model, which ismuch more classic and conservative and in the last few years it hastended to save resources in the production of its fiction. Nevertheless, the current transnationalization process in Brazilhas occurred as a result of a historical trajectory that was supportedby the strengthening of the Brazilian domestic market and by theprotective laws that demand that at least 70% of the televisionproduction must be national. This situation did not change withthe privatization of the television sector in the year 2002, for ifthere is something that characterizes the Brazilian industry, fromthe commercial point of view, is the perfect mixture between thethematic and narrative innovation and the consolidation of itscultural dimension, because they do not abandon their nationalroots; quite the contrary, they emphasize and qualify them so thatthey can be adapted to national and international tastes withoutsacrificing quality in the process. Mexico, on the other hand, has lately sacrificed boththe quality of its fictions and the sense of proximity that it hashistorically had with its audiences for the sake of competing forthe foreign markets. This urgency for the foreign has its roots in their proximitywith the United States, since in addition to sharing a border, theelement that promotes the transnationalization of Mexican fictionis the increasing immigration and relocation of Mexicans and LatinAmericans in the United States, since they, in contrast to other
  • 80. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 83immigrant groups differ, among other things, for maintainingtheir loyalty for the consumption of cultural products produced intheir mother tongue. The growth of the Hispanic population, both in numberand in purchasing power, as explained in the Chapter about theUnited States, has not gone unnoticed by the media businessmenor by the producers on either side of the border, or by the USadvertising agencies. The United States, in this case, offers a very interesting casestudy, with regard to the complex and asymmetric relation causedby the people, capital, technology, media and idea flows in theIbero-American region; that is to say, the fiction industry that isdeveloping in US territory acts as a socio-cultural-media junctionthat articulates in a very particular manner the sense of Latinitythat converges in this region. Historically the entry of the United States in the fictionindustry addressed to a Latin public started in the sixties whenMexico’s Televisa set up in that country the companies SpanishInternational Communication Corporation and Spanish InternationalNetwork Sales, with which the commercialization flow of soapoperas between both countries started, Mexico being the importerand the United States the receptor country of said products. This situation changed when said companies stopped beingstrong and the first Latin television companies were set up inthe United States, the most outstanding were Univision andTelemundo. Since 1987 the relation between Televisa and Univisionhas been variable with records that range from harmoniccollaboration (in 1992 Televisa controlled 25% of Univision) tothe open declaration of hostilities that has ended up in court. Inspite of the variances, the two companies signed an agreement bywhich the Mexican company promised to provide Univision withexclusive contents for the Hispanic market. In return, Univision
  • 81. 84 | Obitel 2012pays royalties to Televisa according to the rating points that theMexican programs reach on the US market. The agreement willbe valid until 2025. This is a clear example of how the transnational processesoperate between a country with a strong industry and one with anemergent industry, since the relation of co-dependency betweenMexico and the United States is a very profitable activity forTelevisa, since only in 2011 it earned the extraordinary sum of224,9 million dollars (Televisa, 2011). However, this formula of commercial success has been quicklyunderstood by the Latin networks in the United States, and theyhave begun to produce several fictions on their own tying insuccess to those originated from the Latin American markets, as ithappened with La Reina del Sur, which displaced in rating even theUS channels’ programs. This decision is due partly to the fact that today the Latinpopulation in the United States amounts to over 50 millionpeople, which represents an attractive market for an industry thathas managed to characterize the best of a transnational model. Another country that has begun to create importanttransnationalization strategies is Spain, who from the year 2000has been sketching a model that until 2011 has translated into a46,7 % increase in fiction sales abroad, its exportation plan is sosuccessful that this item accounts for approximately 25% of theproducers’ income. Most of the Spain’s sales concentrate on Latin America;however, in an attempt to promote exports, the largest Spanishfiction producer, Globomedia, joined forces with Newen Networkin 2011, Europe’s major exportation network of television formats.This step is intended to make Spanish fiction a consumptionreferent in this continent, which - no doubt - will be a strongcompetition for other industries, such as the Mexican and theBrazilian ones that have been exporting their products in thisregion for a while, especially to Eastern Europe.
  • 82. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 85 The success in Spain’s transnationalization plans arealso based on exploration, since they have tried to start severalproduction schemes such as: the external scheme, co-productionor collaboration in projects in exchange for broadcasting. So far,the model that has generated the most dividends is that of co-production, telenovelas such as La Reina del Sur or Amar en TiemposViolentos are reliable evidence. The case of the latter telenovela (Amar en …) is noteworthysince the co-production included not another television companybut Telefónica, who holds the rights on foreign sales and the paidchannels, and in return it grants three million Euros a year to thetelevision company (La1). This money is vital for said channel to keep on reinvestingon fiction production and it reflects a model that has been littleexplored in the rest of the Obitel countries, where the dominionof Televisa and Rede Globo (along with the lack of interest on thepart of private capital to invest in fiction) further strengthens theties of dependence between the countries with little productioncapacity and those that not only dominate the exportation flowsbut, in turn, determine the possible commercial connectionsthat television companies in particular may establish with othermarket agents. This, for example, becomes fully visible if the index oftransnational media property is compared in each of the Obitel7countries, where although there is a clear tendency to nationalcapital concentration in each of the fiction industries, it isincreasingly common for all the countries to exhibit co-productionor co-financing schemes for series and soap operas. The clearest tendency is observed in those countries withemergent industries (Chile, Venezuela, Uruguay, Ecuador andPortugal), which begin to explore co-production schemes as a7 For more information see Table 15 in each of this Yearbook’s chapters.
  • 83. 86 | Obitel 2012strategy for strengthening their markets and industries. However,the same phenomenon has gained relevance in the so-calledproducing countries (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, theUnited States and Spain) which have tried to find different waysof coproducing and selling their products not only among thembut to other countries outside the Obitel scope. Within this panorama, what happens in Argentina andColombia is noteworthy, in recent years, they have beencharacterized for being a creative source for the Ibero-Americanfiction market, since their telenovelas and series are replicated(adapted) in most of the Obitel countries, except in Brazil that hasa strong, airtight industry. In the case of Argentina, its transnational nature cannotbe measured by the presence of foreign capital in their fictionproduction; quite the contrary, it is determined by the sale offormats, scripts and production stock that it produces yearly.One of the pillars of this success is that two signals with themost weight and visibility (Telefé and El Trece) have their owncommercialization spaces, which gives them more profitabilityonce intermediaries are eliminated. Colombia for its part supports its vertiginous transnatio-nalization process in the conjunction of commercializationschemes of their own and collaboration agreements, very similarto the case of Spain, with international companies. This has madeit possible for them to sell their fiction all over Latin America,and at the same time make co-productions with one of the largestnames in entertainment, Walt Disney, with which they made thetelenovela The Baby-sitter. Another of its strong points is that many Colombiantelenovelas have turned into veritable franchises, which generatelarge profits on royalties annually. Some of these telenovelas-franchises are Betty, La Fea; Café con Aroma de Mujer; En los Taconesde Eva or La Hija del Mariachi.
  • 84. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 87 The case of Chile stands out because it managed to take off asan industry in 2011 and unlike what had happened for years it wasable to line up a Top Ten with local products. Just as it happenedwith Brazil, although with the big differences that were alreadyexplained at the fiction industry level, once again this countryshowed the strength of its market and its transnational power toother countries, principally to Uruguay which had nine Brazilianproductions in its Top Ten. Other countries as the United States also showed a largedependence on what is produced in Mexico, what has changed isits recent appearance as contents co-producer. Mexico, Colombia, Argentina and Spain continue to havesolid industries and only a percentage under 20% of their TopTen are foreign products, as in the case of the United States, thosethat do appear are co-productions as in the case of La Reina del Surthat brought together Mexico, Colombia and the United States. The following Table shows the commercialization andtransnationalization power of countries such as Mexico,Colombia, and Argentina, which participate with at least oneproduction in the Top Ten in almost all the Obitel countries,except for Spain and Portugal which have established more tieswith other countries aside the Obitel. The above can be further explained by the following Tablethat shows the flows only among the Obitel countries.88 For more details about the flows among the Obitel countries and other nations see Table17 in each of the chapters in this Yearbook.
  • 85. 88 | Obitel 2012 Television Flows and cultural and linguistic proximity – premiere titles Countries wherefrom Countries whereto fiction is exported fiction is imported Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Uruguay, United States Mexico, Colombia and and Chile, rasil que conforman esteArgentina Brazil Anuario.. Tabla 17 en cada uno de los ra oducciincluso como en el caso de Estados Unidos, en lo que ll Mexico, Argentina, Colombia,Brazil Portugal and Mexico Venezuela, Ecuador, Uruguay and Chile Mexico, Colombia andChile - Argentina Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela,Colombia Ecuador, Uruguay, United States and Chile Mexico, Brazil, ColombiaEcuador - and Argentina Mexico, Colombia andSpain Mexico, Colombia and United States United StatesUS Mexico, Ecuador and Venezuela Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia andMexico Ecuador, Uruguay, United States and United States ChilePortugal Brazil Brazil Brazil, Mexico andUruguay - Argentina Mexico, Brazil, ColombiaVenezuela - and Argentina What has remained clear in this transnational presentationis that the flows among countries are established according to theclose relation among nations with adjacent borders, which - initself - is a source of intense cultural and commercial exchangeas in the case of the United States and Mexico, Colombia andVenezuela or Uruguay and Brazil.
  • 86. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 89 However, linguistic and cultural properties also frameparticular relations and dynamics among the countries in theworld as in the case of Brazil and Portugal. Finally, the presenceof traditional television exported materials in the area continuesto play an important role despite immigration or geographicalboundaries, as it is the case of the presence of the United States,Mexico and Brazil. In the case of the United States, we do notonly refer to Miami, but also to Hollywood and the presence ofDisney, Nickelodeon, MTV, HBO in the production of fiction inSpanish for open signals and for cable.ReferencesBAYM, N. K. (2000) Tune in, log on: soaps, fandom, and online community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CHALABY, J. (2005). From internationalization to transnatio- nalization. Global Mediaand Communication 1(1), pp. 28-33.HESMONDALGH, D. (2006). Media Production. Maidenhead and New York: OpenUniversity Press.JAKOBSON, R. (2003). Linguística e comunicação. São Paulo: Cultrix.JENKINS, H. (2008). Cultura da Convergência. São Paulo: Editora Aleph.Jenkins, H. et al. (2006) Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture:Media Education for the 21st Century. Chicago: The MacArthur Foundation. Available in: www.digitallearning.macfound.orgLOPES, M. I. V. & MUNGIOLI. M.C.P. (2011) Ficção televisiva transmidiática: temáticas sociais em redes sociais e comunidades de fãs. In: LOPES, M. I. V. (org.) Ficção televisiva trasmidiática no Brasil: plataformas, convergência, comunidades
  • 87. 90 | Obitel 2012 virtuais. Porto Alegre: Sulina.MARTIN-BARBERO, J. (2004) Ofício de cartógrafo: travessias latino-americanas da comunicação e da cultura. São Paulo: Loyola.LOPES, M. I. V. et al. (2009). Transmediação, plataformas múltiplas, colaboratividade e criatividade na ficção televisiva brasileira. In: Lopes, M.I.V. (org.). Ficção Televisiva no Brasil: Temas e Perspectivas. São Paulo: Ed. Globo.SCHILLER, H. (1991). Culture, Inc.: La apropiación corporativa de la expresión pública. México: UdeG.Sinclair, J. (2004). Geo-linguistic region as global space. The case of Latin America. In:R. Allen and A. Hill (Eds.). The television studies reader. pp. 130- 138, London andNew York: Routledge.STRAUBHAAR, J.(1991) ‘Beyond Media Imperialism: Asymmetrical Interdependence and CulturalProximity’, in Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 8: 39–59VASSALLO DE LOPES, M. I. y OROZCO, G. (2010). Transmedia Storytelling across Iberoamerican Countries. IAMCR, Braga, Portugal, 2010.
  • 88. Part TwoFiction in Obitel Countries
  • 89. 1 Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows Authors: Gustavo Aprea and Mónica Kirchheimer Research team Obitel Argentina: Coordination Gustavo Aprea (UNGS – IUNA) Mónica Kirchheimer (UBA – IUNA) Team Florencia Bacarin, MaríaBelzunces, María Victoria Bourdieu, María Fernanda Cappa, Victoria de Michele, Marina Dragonetti, Silvia Grinfas, Noelia Morales, Laura Oszust, Agustina Pérez Rial and Ezequiel Rivero1. Audiovisual context in Argentina1.1 Broadcast TV As from year 1990, there are five broadcast televisionnetworks in Argentina, all of which operate in the City of BuenosAires. Four of them are managed privately and one of them isState-owned. The expansion of Digital Television (which beganoperating during 2010) continues in 2011.11 By the end of year 2011, Argentina had 14 TDT networks offering nationwide coverage.So far, none of the mentioned networks produces fiction, although some of them transmitprograms of broadcast TV (the TDT version of Televisión Pública) or films produced for theirexhibition in cinemas (network of the National Institute of Cinema and Audiovisual Arts(Instituto Nacional de Cine y Artes Audiovisuales or INCAA)).
  • 90. 94 | Obitel 2012 CHART 1 Broadcast televisions with nationwide coverage PRIVATE CHANNELS (4) PUBLIC CHANNELS (1) América 2 Televisión Pública Canal 9 Telefé Out of the five broadcast television networks, three of themcover the whole country through affiliates (Televisión Pública, ElTrece, Telefé) and the other two (América 2 and Canal 9) have anarrower scope through broadcast television, even though theymay be watched through cable TV throughout the nationalterritory. La Televisión Pública is the network featuring the widestterritorial coverage (99.5% of the country), but its audience level,at least in the great metropolitan areas, is far away from that ofthe main private networks. The other two networks with widenational coverage are the leaders in audience levels: El Trece andTelefé. These two networks reach every province through the mainlocal commercial networks. La Televisión Pública is part of Radio y Televisión ArgentinaSociedad del Estado, which is managed by Argentina’s ExecutiveBranch. This organization, whose President is Tristán Bauer,manages the state-owned communication media, which are:National Radio (Radio Nacional), Argentine RadiobroadcastingAbroad (Radiodifusión Argentina al Exterior) and the DigitalTelevision (TDT) networks Encuentro, Paka Paka, Ta Te Ti, INCAATV, TV Pública Digital and Tecnópolis. The Executive Director ofthe broadcast television network (Canal 7) is Martín Bonavetti.América 2 forms part of the América Medios group, which is theproperty of businessman Daniel Vila and of Uno group, which -inturn- owns several domestic graphic and audiovisual media and isassociated with politician Francisco De Narváez. This network’sprogramming manager is Mario Cella. Canal 9 is an integral partof the Albavisión international group, owned by Mexican Ángel
  • 91. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 95González, who inaugurated the TDT network Suri TV, devoted tothe broadcast of programs from South American countries. Thenetwork’s General Director is Hernán Birencwajg. In turn, Teleféis owned by Telefónica de Argentina, a subsidiary of the Spanishcompany bearing equal corporate name. In Argentina, the groupcarries out activities related to landline and mobile telephone aswell as Internet services, and it is associated with several ownersof domestic television networks. On top of the TV network, Teleféowns a production company devoted to the creation of fictionprograms (Telefé Contenidos) and a distributor of formats andprograms (Telefé Internacional). As from February, 2011, Telefé’sprogramming and production manager is Tomás Yankelevich. ElTrece is exploited by Clarín holding, a group that owns newspapers,broadcast TV networks and cable TV networks throughoutthe country, a digital TV company, Internet service providersand websites, and that co-owns a news agency, the only factorymanufacturing newsprint paper and also a significant number ofcompanies which are not related to mass communication media.Artear is the company in charge of El Trece and owns 50% of Pol-ka, the company specialized in fiction contents producing or co-producing all of this type of programs offered through the Claríngroup’s network. Adrián Suar has been El Trece’s ProgrammingManager since 2001 and Pol-ka’s Artistic Director ever since thecompany was founded in 1994. During 2011, the five network’s general positioning ismaintained, though some new features appear in terms of thetype of fiction broadcast and the place granted to it. El Trece andTelefé, the two networks featuring greater audience, continue tooffer a programming schedule of general interest, in which fictiondisputes spaces with entertainment programs, which continueto be those of greater audience in the Argentinean television.22 Except for two matches played by the Argentine Soccer Team, the program with continu-ity featuring the highest rating is Showmatch, by El Trece, with an annual average rating of27.4% and a peak rating of 38.9%.
  • 92. 96 | Obitel 2012The two private networks with the lowest rating tend to agreater degree of specialization. América 2 keeps on focusing itsstrategy on information and entertainment, although over 2011the premieres of local fictions that had disappeared from thenetwork’s programming schedule the previous year turned out toreappear. In turn, Canal 9 still devotes an outstanding space tofiction but, for the first time since Albavisión is in charge of thenetwork, part of this type of programs that are premiered by thenetwork is of national origin. Finally, La Televisión Pública privilegesa programming schedule that combines a prominent space fornews and sports with spaces devoted to services and educationalpurposes. Within this context, television fiction fills a smallerspot within this network’s programming schedule. At prime time,national products are transmitted, whereas in the afternoon andduring weekends, Spanish fiction is broadcast. Year 2011’s main feature is the appearance of a new playerwithin the television fiction production system: the ArgentineState, through the National Institute of Cinema and AudiovisualArts (Instituto Nacional de Cine y Artes Audiovisuales or INCAA, inSpanish).3 By implementing some of the guidelines established bythe Audiovisual Services Law (Ley de Servicios Audiovisuales) passedin 2009, for the first time the INCAA takes part in the financing ofTV fiction by means of two procedures: the project called “Fictionfor all” (Ficciones para todos, in Spanish) and the ArgentineanAudiovisual Bank of Universal Contents (Banco Audiovisual deContenidos Universales Argentino or BACUA, in Spanish). Throughthe federal contest Ficciones para todos, the INCAA facilitated theproduction of 10 fiction series and ensured their transmission3 Ever since 1994, the INCAA is in charge of fostering and financing the national cin-ematographic activity. So far, its relationship with the TV had been reduced to boosting theparticipation of television companies as cinematographic production companies -El Treceand Telefé regularly produce films- and to monitoring that producers receive the pertainingreimbursement after the TV transmission of their movies.
  • 93. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 97through broadcast TV networks.4 By means of this mechanism,the range of companies devoted to television fiction was widened.Some of the production companies that have won the contest hada regular presence on TV, but most of the cases relate to smallproduction companies devoted to fiction (LC Acción, IllusionStudios and ONTV), yet others return (Promofilm) or take partin this type of programs for the first time (Eyeworks Cuatro Cabezas,TyC, MC producciones, GP Media and Cooperativa Tostaki). Theprograms produced through the BACUA and premiered by LaTelevisión Pública have joined the winners of Ficciones para todos.Such programs are: Tiempo de pensar (with the participation of a+AGroup, belonging to Andrea del Boca) and El paraíso (INCAAand BACUA). The rise of this new type of productions redefines the roleof those fictions of national origin from broadcast TV networks.El Trece reduces its proposals to four programs, all of themderived from its captive production company Pol-ka: Herederos deuna venganza, Los únicos, Malparida and El puntero. All the above-mentioned fictions are in the prime time and are of great impact.Telefé co-produces three fiction programs: Cuando me sonreís, Elhombre de tu vida and El elegido. In the first of such fictions, Teleféassociates with one of its usual partenaires, RGB Entertainment;in the second of the referred-to fictions, the network joins 100bares, which is the property of the cinematographic director andproducer Juan José Campanella; and in the third of the mentionedfictions, Telefé teams El Árbol, the company led by the telenovela’smain character Pablo Echarri. Jointly with Un año para recordar, by4 Through Ficción para todos, during the second half of 2011, the following programs werepremiered: Vindica (Promofilm / América 2), La primera vez (Illusion Studios / América 2),El pacto (Cooperativa Tostaki / América 2), Proyecto Aluvión, Todo lo que usted quiso saber sobre elperonismo y no se animó a preguntar (MC Producciones / Canal 9), Maltratadas (T y C / América2), TV X la inclusión (ONTV Contenidos / Canal 9), Los sónicos (GP Media / Canal 9)and Decisiones de vida (LC Acción / Canal 9). Telefé postponed the premiere of El donante(Eyeworks Cuatro Cabezas) for 2012 and Adictos, co-produced by LC Acción and Canal 10 ofMar del Plata, did not reach a national audience.
  • 94. 98 | Obitel 2012Underground contenidos -a usual presence in Telefé over the last years-the co-productions cover the prime time, whereas the telenovela foryoungsters Supertorpe closes the national production batch5. In the networks with the lowest audience level and, owing tothe INCAA’s promotion policy, national fiction reappears duringprime time and production companies are diversified. América2 and Canal 9 only transmit projects derived from Ficciones paratodos. In the first case, those are almost the only fictions of IberoAmerican origin6 that are being premiered, whereas in the lattercase, the Mexican programs that were typical of the network’s offerover the last years have found a place in the afternoon schedule andboost the network’s audience in that time slot. Finally, the primetime of Televisión Pública is filled with programs from independentproduction companies (Contra las sogas, by ONTV), projectsgenerated and sustained by a figure (Sr. y Sra. Camas, about theprotagonist Florencia Peña and Tiempo para pensar, produced byAndrea del Boca), and, towards the end of the year, this networkopens a space to the BACUA projects. Taking into consideration this new situation, the localproduction overview is partially modified. El Trece continues tobet on its own projects, which exert a strong influence in the localaudience but boast lower possibilities of being sold abroad. Teleféco-produces or maintains a marked control over its fictions, whichare designed in terms of their possibility of being sold abroad.7The new independent production companies, except for El Árboland a+A Group, design their projects with a view to the localaudience and sustain their cost-effectiveness thanks to the funds5 It could also be considered close to Telefé from a certain standpoint, given the fact that it isco-produced by RGB Entertainment, Disney Channel and Utopía, the company owned byTomás Yankelevich, who is that network’s Programming and Production Manager.6 The only exception is represented by Todas a mí -in América 2-, a comedy that lasted onlyeight chapters transmitted once a week and which, during this short period, changed itstransmission schedule twice.7 The whole package of national production premiered during 2012 has been exported.
  • 95. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 99received from the INCAA. This way, the trend towards the lossof independence of production companies from TV networksis somewhat altered. With the low -but consistent- drop of theaudience levels of broadcast television and the reduction in thepossibilities of sale abroad, a scenario in which production tendedto focus time and again in less actors seemed to emerge. Dueto the rise of new production companies linked to figures withremarkable professional careers in the medium (El Árbol and a+AGroup), as well as the increase in the number of participantsthrough the projects linked to the INCAA, it is possible to generateexpectations as far as fiction diversification is concerned.Television fiction despite broadcast television Neither cable TV networks based in Argentina, norinternational networks taking part in the local offer, premieredfictions of their own in 2011. Some of the networks such as Volveror Magazine aired reruns, only of national origin in the first caseand from several Ibero-American countries in the second case.In turn, Digital Television has no networks producing their ownfiction. Only two networks (El Trece and La Televisión Pública) havea second TDT network in high definition (HD). In these spaces,El Trece airs the network’s reruns, while La Televisión Pública onlytransmitted sports events during 2011. TV networks have produced only one fiction to be exhibitedthrough the Internet: El rastro. Telefé has made this miniseriescomprised of eight chapters, which are between five and sevenminutes long and which, through a fantastic adventure, introducethe Renault Duster’s new model.
  • 96. 100 | Obitel 2012General performance: genres, rating levels and advertising CHART 2 – Genres offered by the TV Genre Tiempo de pan- Rating % talla (%) Fiction 17.01 24.99 Comedy 1.0 6.3 Films 6.8 3.8 Miniseries 0.0 1.0 Series 3.9 5.1 Telenovela 5.3 8.8 Information 35.28 12.42 Cultural 1.3 1.0 Documentary 0.3 1.6 Event 2.9 1.0 News 16.8 4.9 Journalistic 14.0 3.9 Entertainment 41.04 32.59 Entertainment 9.9 6.4 Humorous 0.9 18.0 For children 7.8 1.8 Musical 1.3 3.0 Variety 21.1 3.3 Sports 5.39 5.06 Sports 5.4 5.1 Services 1.28 5.05 Feminine 0.1 1.8 Religious 1.0 0.8 Solidary 0.1 2.5 Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina
  • 97. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 101 CHART 3 – General performance Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina Year 2011 features a clear growth in entertainment programsout of the entire programming schedule. While in 2010 such growthimplied a figure somewhat over 35%, in 2011 it reaches 41%. Thisjump is due to fiction programming hours (especially from IberoAmerican origin). The mentioned growth in entertainment isboosted through a drop in the rating average of fiction programs,which goes downward from 33% to 25%.
  • 98. CHART 4 – Performance per channel América TV Pública Canal 9 Telefe El TreceGenre % progre % rating % progre % rating % progr % rating % progr % rating % progr % ratingComedy 0.00 0 1.65 0.9 0.00 0 3.63 8.8 0.15 15.8 102 | Obitel 2012Cultural 0.00 0 6.19 1.0 0.07 1.2 0.00 0 0.00 0Sports 4.52 3.2 14.27 5.4 3.83 3.4 1.21 17.6 2.43 4.5Documentary 0.03 8.2 1.47 1.4 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0Entertainment 12.34 2.4 0.21 1.5 0.89 1.8 14.75 10.2 22.30 6.9Event 7.70 0.3 1.98 1.3 0.18 3.1 0.19 7.4 3.72 2.1Feminine 0.21 1.1 0.00 0 0.50 2.1 0.00 0 0.00 0Films 0.85 2.5 14.14 0.6 2.60 2.6 13.65 7.6 4.34 5.8Humorous 0.48 2.0 0.00 0 0.36 3.4 0.00 0 3.70 21.6For children 6.10 0.4 4.46 0.7 14.89 1.6 1.85 2.8 10.25 3.2Miniseries 0.00 0 0.03 0.4 0.06 1.4 0.00 0 0.00 0Musical 3.40 3.1 2.31 1.6 0.14 2.2 0.01 5.2 0.39 11.9News 10.85 3.2 18.05 1.2 19.51 4.4 15.64 6.6 19.72 8.6Journalistic 26.83 4.5 8.22 1.9 29.28 3.4 0.80 13.2 1.76 7.9Religious 1.12 0.3 1.26 0.5 3.00 1.1 0.00 0 0.00 0Series 0.62 2.9 1.73 1.2 3.26 2.3 11.15 7.6 4.47 4.1Solidary 0.00 0 0.02 2.5 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0Telenovela 0.00 0 1.83 0.9 12.82 5.4 7.19 8.8 4.90 20.6Variety 24.94 1.5 22.17 1.3 8.61 3.3 29.93 6.5 21.87 3.9Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina
  • 99. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 103 Each of the broadcast television networks seems to try notto fully compete with the others. The ones that most rival eachother in terms of the type of programs they incorporate to theirprogramming schedule are Telefé and El Trece. The rest of thenetworks seek to offer programs which provide the network with acertain style. This way, América’s programs are mainly devoted to thenews genre, whereas La Televisión Pública is oriented towards wide-ranging events such as sports and variety programs, combined witha cultural bet focused on cinematographic cycles. In the case of LaTelevisión Pública it is worth mentioning that the rating is high onlyin sports programs. Canal 9, in turn, maintains its preference fortelenovelas in its programming schedule and, in the morning slot,it incorporates programs for children that summarize productionsof official TDT networks. The programming schedule of Telefé andEl Trece is aimed at balancing the whole set of genres. For suchreason, every genre has a lower percentage of time on screen, butunlike the rest of the networks, their programs achieve a greaterimpact. One of the differences that is worth mentioning, as faras the entertainment space is concerned, is that while Telefé betson programs featuring games and family entertainment, El Trecedeepens its bet on reality shows. CHART 5 – Annual average rating channel 2011 2010 El Trece 10.5 10.1 Telefé 9.5 9.9 Canal 9 4.8 5.1 América 2 4.3 4.7 Television Pública 2.7 2.8 Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope
  • 100. 104 | Obitel 2012 CHART 6 – Annual average rating broadcast television 2008 32.4 2009 32.3 2010 31.4 2011 30.8 Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina In year 2011 the general drop in turn-on time of broadcasttelevision continues. This reduction evenly affects private networksand -to a lesser degree- La Televisión Pública, which features almostno reduction in relation to 2010. One may think that the state-owned network found a kind of offer that convenes an audiencethat, though small, remains consistent. Despite the drop in turn-on time levels, the investment intelevision advertising suffers no fall. Speaking in absolute values,the amount of such investment grew 17.60%, which supposes apercentage somewhat higher than the most pessimistic assessmentsas to the year’s inflationary growth. Within this context, a relativeincrease in investment can also be observed, though it supposes alower impact than the growth noticed in 2010.82. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-Americanpremiere fiction TABLE 1. Premiere fictions in 2011 per channel and country Argentina América Tv El Pacto Serie Todas a mí Serie Víndica Serie Historias de la primera vez Unitary Maltratadas Unitary8 The investment on advertising for year 2010 was ARS 18,982,000,000 and the one per-taining to year 2011 amounts to 22,216,000,000.
  • 101. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 105ArgentinaCanal 9 Los sónicos Comedy Decisiones de vida Unitary Televisión x la inclusión Unitary Proyecto aluvión SerieEl Trece Herederos de una venganza Telenovela Malparida Telenovela Los únicos Comedy El Puntero SerieTelefé Cuando me sonreís Comedy El hombre de tu vida Comedy Supertorpe Comedy El elegido Telenovela Un año para recordar TelenovelaTv Pública Sr. y Sra. Camas Comedy El paraíso Serie Tiempo para pensar Serie Contra las cuerdas TelenovelaBrazilCanal 9 Acuarela de amor TelenovelaTelefé India. Una historia Telenovela Passione TelenovelaColombiaCanal 9 Bella calamidades Telenovela Doña Bella Telenovela El capo Telenovela Eva Luna Telenovela Los herederos del monte TelenovelaTelefé A corazón abierto TelenovelaUnited StatesCanal 9 Perro amor Telenovela El fantasma de Elena TelenovelaTelefé Isa TKM Comedy
  • 102. 106 | Obitel 2012 Spain Tv Pública Los hombres de Paco Comedy Amar en tiempos revueltos Serie México Canal 9 Cada quien su santo Telenovela Cuando me enamoro Telenovela La fuerza del destino Telenovela La que no podía amar Telenovela Mañana es para siempre Telenovela Soy tu dueña Telenovela Teresa Telenovela Triunfo del amor Telenovela Otrhers Argentine - Mexsican coproduction Telefé Sueña conmigo TelenovelaSource: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope ArgentinaAnalysis of the offer TABLE 2. Premiere ficition of Ibero – American origin in 2011 Chapters / Fiction Titles % % Hours % EpisodesNATIONAL 22 48.9 1180 44.3 1094:00 43.4IBERO-AMERICAN 23 51.1 1481 55.7 1426.40 56.6Latin American (Obitel scope) 17 37.8 1024 38.5 994:45 39.5Latin American (not Obitel scope) 0 0 0 0 0:00:00 0USA (Hispanic production) 3 6.7 217 8.2 196:15 7.8Iberian 2 4.4 162 6.1 173:40 6.9Others (Ibero-American co-productions) 1 2.2 78 2.9 61:40 2.4Total 45 100 2661 100 2520:40 100Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina
  • 103. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 107 TABLE 3. Premiere fiction broadcast per each country Chapters/ Country Títles % % Hours % EpisodesARGENTINA 22 48.9 1180 44.3 1094:00 43.4Brazil 3 6.7 210 7.9 127:50 5.1Chile 0 0 0 0 00:00 0Colombia 6 13.3 363 13.6 320:40 12.7Ecuador 0 0 0 0 00:00 0Spain 2 4.4 162 6.1 173:40 6.9USA (spanish production) 3 5.7 217 8.2 196:15 7.8México 8 17.8 451 16.9 546:10 21.7Portugal 0 0 0 0 00:00 0Uruguay 0 0 0 0 00:00 0Venezuela 0 0 0 0 00:00 0Others (Latin/Ibero-American 1 2.2 78 2.9 61:40 2.4productions and co-productions)Total 45 100 2661 100 2520:15 100Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina Despite the fact that a defined space in the networks’programming schedule has been settled for fiction producedespecially for television, the trend to a drop in supply remains. Thejump is lower than in 2010, since the aggregate of titles premieredin 2009 was 54 whereas in 2010 it fell to 48. Year 2011’s totaloffer amounts to 45 titles, three titles fewer than the previous year,but with a marked increase in national fiction: the figure of 15fiction programs in year 2010 changes to 22 productions and oneco-production in year 2011. Although this supply does not reachthe one existing in Argentinean television in 2009, it shows theinfluence of the new Audiovisual Services Law, which sets fortha minimum of hours devoted to national production. The spacefeaturing the highest impact of the mentioned law is Canal 9, whichgoes from having an import-only policy to a policy that combines
  • 104. 108 | Obitel 2012importation with the exhibition of productions financed by theINCAA. This strategy is possible insofar as, in compliance withthe new law, the state agency carries out contests which allow newindependent production companies to produce their fictions. The countries that are present in Argentinean television areparticularly Brazil (in 2010 Argentina transmitted 8 Brazilian titleswhile in 2011 only 3) and, to a lesser extent, Mexico (10 were theMexican titles exhibited by Argentinean TV in 2010, whereas 8Mexican titles are on screen in 2011). It is important to point out that the growth in the amountof nationally-produced titles premiered did not imply a relevantincrease in the amount of time on screen. Although the amount oftitles grows by 7, the impact in terms of hours is only about 60 overa total of almost 1100. Thus, what is observed is a compression ofthe premiere fiction time broadcast in 2011. The impact of the drop in fiction programming is evidencedin two places. On the one hand, it is dramatically noticed in theIbero-American offer, which decreases practically to one half (fromnearly 2050 broadcast hours to 1426 hours). On the other hand, itis observed in the amount of national reruns, which is only of 6.
  • 105. TABLE 4. Chapters / episodes and hours per time slots Nationals Ibero-Americans Total Time slots C/E % H % C/E % H % C/E % H % Morning (6:00- am 0 0 00:00 0 246 16.6% 193:10 13.5% 246 9.3% 193:10 7.7% 12:00 pm)* Afternoon (12:00 pm - 91 7.7% 58:30 5.3% 1057 71.4% 1114:10 78.1% 1148 43.1% 1172:40 46.5% 9:00 am) Prime Time (9:00 pm- 1089 92.3% 1035:50 94.7% 178 12.0% 119:00 8.4% 1267 47.6% 1154:35 45.8% 00:00 pm) Night (00:00 pm - 0 0.0% 00:00:00 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00:00 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00:00 0.0% 6:00 am) Total 1180 100 1094:20 100 1481 100 1426:20 100.0% 2661 100.0% 2520:25 100.0%Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 109
  • 106. 110 | Obitel 2012 The morning and night slots are kept for information, and astable offer of programs for children -which are accompanied bycartoons-, is incorporated early in the morning. The Ibero-American fiction offer shows a strong stabilizationin the afternoon slot, whereas national premiere fiction is broughttogether at and competes in the prime time.
  • 107. TABLE 5. Formats of the National and Ibero American fictions NATIONALS IBERO AMERICANS Formats Chap/ Chap/ Títles % % Hours % Titles % % Hours % Ep Ep Telenovela 5 22.7% 517 43.8% 489:05 44.7% 19 82.6% 1296 87.5% 1231:20 86.3% Series 7 31.8% 104 8.8% 96:30 8.8% 1 4.3% 142 9.6% 143:10 10.0% Miniseries 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00 0.0% Telefilm 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00 0.0% Comedy 6 27.3% 505 42.8% 458:20 41.9% 2 8.8% 38 2.6% 47:00 3.3% Unitary 4 18.2% 54 4.6% 50:05 4.6% 1 4.3% 5 0.3% 4:55 0.3% Docudrama 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00 0.0% Others (soap 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 00:00 0.0% opera, etc.) TOTAL 22 100.0% 1180 100.0% 1094:00 100.0% 23 100.0% 1481 100.0% 1426:25 100.0%Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 111
  • 108. 112 | Obitel 2012 TABLE 6. Formats of the national fiction per time slots Prime Formats Morning % Afternoon % % Night % Total % TimeTelenovela 0 0 0 0.0% 517 47.4% 0 0 517 43.8%Series 0 0 8 8.8% 96 8.8% 0 0 104 8.8%Miniseries 0 0 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0 0 0.0%Telefilm 0 0 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0 0 0.0%Comedy 0 0 83 91.2% 422 38.8% 0 0 505 42.8%Unitary 0 0 0 0.0% 54 5.0% 0 0 54 4.6%Docudrama 0 0 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0 0 0.0%Others(soap opera, 0 0 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0 0 0.0%etc.) TOTAL 0 0 91 100.0% 1.089 100.0% 0 0 1.180 100.0%Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina TABLE 7. Length of Chapters/Episodes (no trade intervals) Length Chapters/Episodes % Short ( 30 ) 0 0.0% Medium ( 30- 60 ) 115 9.7% Long ( 60+ ) 1065 90.3% Total 1180 100.0% Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina TABLE 8. Fiction time period Age Titles % Present 20 91 Vintage 0 0 Historical 1 4.5 Others 1 4.5 Total 22 100 Source: OBITEL Argentina
  • 109. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 113 National fiction continues betting on the traditional telenovelaand comedy genres as the prevailing ones, featuring long durationand daily periodicity. Nevertheless, with the aid of the State, newseries and serial programs begin to be produced which proposeinterchanges of fewer hours on screen, more relaxed periodicities(weekly, for instance) and a higher independence of stories andcharacters. The foregoing makes it possible to incorporate non-usual audiences from serial daily fiction, thereby winning spacein the prime time. The sliding of the prime time to 09:00 p.m.-the moment in which fiction competes with reality shows- is thusinstitutionalized. As far as fiction time is concerned, the programs narrated inthe present are maintained, though in some cases there is a lookback to the past to question the present. That is the case of ProyectoAluvión, where mythologies about the first Peronist governmentare reintroduced, and of Los Sónicos, a series that returns in flash-backs to the ‘60s to compare the past and present of a music band.
  • 110. TABLE 9. The 10 most watched titles: Origin. Format. Share Country of Public or Name of the autor or screenwriter Title origin of idea or Production Channel Private Format Rating Share of original idea script TV Juan José Campanella – Marcela 114 | Obitel 2012Company Channel Public or Private Telefé Private Comedy 21.4 32.7 Guerty Name of the author Lily An Martin – Pablo Junovich –TV Format or screenwriter of Rating Share Telenovela 20.9 33.8 Cecilia Guerty original idea Marcos Carnevalle – Pablo3º. Los únicos Argentina Pol–ka El Trece Private Comedy 20.8 30.3 Junovich – Mariano Vera4º. Herederos de una Argentina Pol–ka El Trece Private Telenovela Leandro Calderone 20.8 32.1venganza5º. El puntero Argentina Pol–ka El Trece Private Telenovela Mario Segade 19.7 34.0 El Arbol - Telefé Adriana Lorenzon – Gustavo6º. El elegido Argentina Telefé Private Telenovela 13.2 22.6 contenidos Belatti Underground7º. Un año para recordar Argentina Telefé Private Telenovela Sebastian Ortega – Jorge Maestro 12.4 18.6 contenidos Marta Betoldi – Ricardo Rodriguez RGB Enterteinment8º. Cuando me sonreis Argentina Telefé Private Comedy – Laura Farhi – Leandro Azamor – 11.1 16.3 Telefé contenidos Jesica Valls – Bernarda Pajes9º. Mañana es para Mauricio Navas. Guillermo México Televisa Canal 9 Private Telenovela 7.7 16.8siempre Restrepo10º. La fuerza del destino México Televisa Canal 9 Private Telenovela Marta Zarattini 7.4 16.4 Total of Productions: 10 Original national scripts: 8 Foreign scripts: 2 100% 80 % 20%Source: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina
  • 111. TABLE 10. The 10 most watched titles Number Date of last Production Date of last Length chapter Title Format Genre of chapters emission (in Time slot year emission (In 2011) / episode (in 2011) 2011) Romantic1º. El hombre de tu vida Comedy 2011 18 17/07/2011 09/10/2011 60 Prime Time comedy2º. Malparida Telenovela Melodrama 2010-2011 22 20/04/2010 08/02/2011 60´ Prime Time Thriller/Science3º. Los unicos Comedy 2011- 2012 192 07/02/2011 Continúa 60 Prime Time Fiction4º. Herederos de una Telenovela Telenovela 2011-2012 195 17/01/2011 13/02/2012 60 Prime Timevenganza5º. El puntero Telenovela Thriller 2011 39 15/05/2011 28/12/2012 60 Prime Time6º. El elegido Telenovela Telenovela 2010-2011 156 17/01/2011 31/10/2012 60 Prime Time7º. Un año para recordar Telenovela Tele Comedy 2011 93 14/02/2011 02/08/2011 60 Prime Time8º. Cuando me sonreis Comedy Tele Comedy 2011 80 03/08/2011 30/12/2012 60 Prime Time9º. Mañana es para siempre Telenovela Telenovela 2008-2009 35 14/11/2011 16/03/2012 60 Afternoon10º. La fuerza del destino Telenovela Telenovela 2011 61 22/08/2011 11/11/2011 60 AfternoonSource: OBITEL Argentina – Ibope Argentina Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 115
  • 112. 116 | Obitel 2012 Unlike previous years, a private network (Canal 9) enters thetop ten and incorporates two Ibero-American programs among themost-watched fictions of the year. Both titles are of Mexican originand appear breaking the trend whereby the afternoon fictionscould not catch the eye of important audiences. This way, not onlyMañana es para siempre, but also La fuerza del destino are broadcastin the 03:00 p.m. time slot. This incorporation is a novelty amongthe most-watched fictions, even though the referred-to titles arewithin the last positions. Just like in previous years, we find the traditional presenceof El Trece and Telefé among the 10 most-watched titles. Thetwo cited networks share the first positions: El Trece, by meansof the production company Pol-ka, manages to position the fourproductions it has premiered, whereas its competitor positionsfour of its five premieres among the most-watched ones. Supertorpe,a title that fell out of the favorite fictions of the audience, is ajuvenile telenovela that aims at taking the position assigned by CasiÁngeles, but it does not make it. Over its broadcast, this title suffersan abrupt change in schedule, since towards the end of the yearand due to the school break it is placed earlier in the programmingschedule, thereby competing with news programs. It is necessary to point out that none of the fictions generatedby independent production companies receiving State supportis incorporated among the programs with the highest level ofaudience. These fictions have focused on themes illustratingsocial life problems (gender-based violence, discrimination,human rights, the missing, etc.) over prevailing fiction themes. Itis not that these subjects are not included in the most-watchedprograms, but they are privileged by the new programs in mannersthat are not far from the manners in which these same problemsare worked out by non-fiction. Therefore, the audience prefers tofocus its fiction delight around subjects that are far from the issuesrelated to the political and news agenda.
  • 113. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 117 TABLE 11. Themes of the 10 most watched titles Titles Prevailing themes Social themes1º. El hombre de Missed dates, false romances, Middle-age loneliness,tu vida every woman’s ideal man. unemployment, parenting problems.2º. Malparida Vengeance and excessive Gender-based problems, ambition, murder, crossed corporate corruption, loves. infidelity.3º. Los únicos Confrontation between Pursue of justice. good and evil, crossed loves, superpowers.4º. Herederos de Betrayals, hierarchy struggles, Secret societies, betrayal,una venganza deceptions, mystery and concentration of power, personal confrontations. corruption.5º. El puntero Vengeance, power struggle Political corruption, marginalization, political spoils system, neighborhood- people culture.6º. El elegido Confrontation between good Secret societies, and evil, lack of affection, marginalization of Aboriginal triumph of love. peoples, human rights, justice, gender identity, addictions, psychological disorders.7º. Un año para Time travels, destiny as Infidelity, friendship value,recordar unshakable force, forbidden deals, working environment. loves.8º. Cuando me Love at first sight, deception Obsessive-compulsivesonreis as a way of life. disorders, parenting troubles.9º. Mañana es Vengeance, murder, pursue Social class distinctions.para siempre of justice, the power of love, intrigues and lies.10º. La fuerza del Power, unrequited loves, Unwanted pregnancy,destino search of identity. violence, illegal migration, frivolity, upward social mobility.Source: OBITEL Argentina.
  • 114. 118 | Obitel 20123. Highlights of the year Over 2011, the different networks diversified their strategiesto sustain their offer of fiction programs. On the one hand, thenetworks which struggle for reaching the highest rating levels renewtheir bets within the context of fiction on the experience gainedover the last years. On the other hand, those networks which haveless audience resort to new proposals. In this context, El Trece has been significantly reducing thenumber of productions and, instead, it is focusing on the successfulstyle of its production company, Pol–ka. El Trece maintains itsdaily programming schedule with a comedy (Los Únicos) and atelenovela (Malparida is about to come to an end and Herederos deuna venganza will be aired during most part of the year). Theseprograms replicate the typical features which define a successfulstyle in the local market: characters of manners, situations basedon recognizable formulae, narrative sequel and the strengtheningof plausible facts which are very much related to the conventionsof the genres convened. Its weekly broadcast telenovela, El Puntero,introduces more innovative aspects: it addresses a political issue,the story takes place in marginal sectors of the Greater BuenosAires area; the main character is an antihero and it is built onthe basis of a kind of realism that aims at going beyond the limitsof Pol–ka’s typical style9. Irrespective of the fact that it is the firstfiction show to include the matter of the confrontation betweenClarín multimedia group and the official governing party duringan electoral year, the program generates a quite broad publicdebate about the way in which politics and the needs of popularsectors are accounted for. In turn, Telefé maintains a more diversified offer fromwhich it obtains different aesthetic outcomes and audience9 El Puntero shows continuity with fiction programs which were very disruptive, both fromthe standpoint of the theme and of its aesthetics, by the end of the first decade of thiscentury: Okupas, Tumberos and Sol negro.
  • 115. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 119levels. Telefé’s main problems arise in its everyday programmingschedule. The three prime-time programs do not fully meet theexpectations generated in competition with El Trece. Irrespectiveof the innovative idea that it breaks the narrative timeline andthat it develops a story in two different time periods, Un año pararecordar does not make it to definitely settle within a clear genericproposal. At the beginning of the story, it was quite close to acomedy, but as the story evolved, the authors looked for differentways out (detective novel, fantasy, drama) which failed to actuallytake a final shape. Cuando me sonreís was introduced as a familyromantic comedy which reiterates a successful model already triedby Pol–ka (Sos mi vida), but it is too innocent for the time slot it ison air (10:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m.). Within Telefé’s programmingschedule, the most successful telenovela is El Elegido. It combines aromantic plot, with conspiracy situations following the “Da VinciCode” model and a proposal which provides for the defense ofnatural life. Notwithstanding that, the main attraction of the storylies with its gallery of ambitious villains and with the fact that itis always on the edge of craziness. Within Telefé’s programmingschedule, juvenile telenovelas (Sueña conmigo and Supertorpe) weredramatically displaced from a time slot in the afternoon to anearlier time slot, thereby significantly reducing their audiencelevels, irrespective of the innovations derived from the humorbuilt on the basis of parody in Supertorpe. In spite of all theseproblems in 2011, for the first time in many years, Telefé made itto broadcast the most broadly watched fiction show of the year:El hombre de tu vida (The man of your life). This thirteen-episodestory generates great expectations because it means GuillermoFrancella’s return to a TV program. Francella is one of the mostpopular actors in Argentina and, in addition to that, El Hombrede Tu Vida has been created by Juan José Campanella, who hasgained huge recognition and popularity after having been awardedwith an Oscar prize. The story consists in the adventures of an
  • 116. 120 | Obitel 2012ordinary man who must make up romances with lonely women fora living in several episodes combining humor with romanticism.A fit script and a reduced number of episodes make it possible forthe show to maintain very high audience levels. Many different trends may be highlighted among state-produced programs; none of such trends reach significantaudience levels. Programs like Maltratadas, Televisión por la inclusión,Decisiones de vida and Tiempo para pensar refer to different mattersin the social agenda, such as gender-based violence, different waysof discrimination or addiction problems. These types of questionshave already been addressed in other opportunities by TV fictionprograms. In these cases, the narrative is led by a “didactic”proposal, in which there is a higher concern for defending socially-desirable values than for developing the stories proper. Thesefiction programs have very good intentions, but they fail to causesignificant impact, both by means of polemics and as a proposal ofempathic adhesion. Part of the seduction necessary for any productfigured within the context of entertainment is lost this way. Resorting to the social context is not restricted to “politicallycorrect” TV productions. A production such as El pacto makesreference to political debate. In accordance with the government’sversion, it refers to the spurious origin of the company Papel Prensa(Newsprint), whose main shareholders are the main governmentopposing media: Clarín and La Nación. Some comments bythe press consider this program a response to El Puntero. Whatis undoubted is that, for the first time in many years, differentpolemic matters of Argentina’s political arena with confrontingperspectives share the same space on air. There are some exceptions to these proposals related to theagenda of the media. Los Sónicos tells the story of the membersof a music band in the 1960s at two different moments (themoment when the group was on the rise and its present situation)by rebuilding certain original archetypes of Argentine rock-pop.
  • 117. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 121Proyecto Aluvión consists of episodes which tell mythical storiesabout Peronism, characterized by an ambiguous and parodicaesthetics designed by plastic artist Daniel Santoro, who is one ofthe producers of the show. Sr. y Sra. Camas is about the everydaylife of a married couple who works as marriage counsellorswith a brilliant pop-art aesthetics which resorts to cartoon-likeoverreaction and parody in characters, scenarios and situations,though it is limited by and to its own formal game. In these threeproductions pop-art universes, rather than stories with naturalistintentions, are built and an alternative is presented which makes itto differentiate from the successful typical style and from a searchfor realism through the reaffirmation of the media informationagenda. In general terms, TV fiction in Argentina seems to beundergoing a transition in 2011. Even though the formulae alreadytried are still successful, they are reducing their participation inthe programming grid. In contrast, over the last few years therehas been a growing number and type of projects intending to trynew options somehow detaching from the prevailing style. Someof those projects manage to make a significant success, as it is thecase with El hombre de tu vida, while others fail in their attempt tomake a success or they have little repercussion. Notwithstandingthat, there is no doubt that many proposals were open in 2011 tosustain the space for fiction productions within the context of theArgentine television.4. Transmedia reception4.1 General Overview of Transmedia Storytelling In spite of the fact that several possibilities of converting thefiction programs premiered in Argentina to other formats ondifferent devices –especially Web devices- were detected years ago,these efforts have mainly been made by the programs’ followers.
  • 118. 122 | Obitel 2012Thus, sites such as YouTube present different web novels andtributes prepared by spectators. In 2011, the premiered fictionsin Argentina have not varied much the possibility of getting incontact from the official sites supported by production companiesand networks, which focus on using the net as a reminder ofthe show. In this sense, the way in which both networks andproduction companies extend their contact takes what happenson the show back to the spotlight. Subject to a few exceptions,the transmediality proposals introduced are satisfied to create aspace for the visualization and receipt of comments by spectators.There are only a few fictions which actually go beyond theseinvitations, among which El hombre de tu vida and El Puntero areworth highlighting. These sites include games and tests, and spacesfor comments by users which provide for an interaction betweenspectators and the program and among spectators themselves. Inthe case of El Puntero, there are also different Facebook spaces:the novel’s space and the characters’ spaces, where phrases andcomments beyond the story are posted. The realistic nature ofthis story makes it possible for the vicarious presence of one of itscharacters to be construed in a political context by users. Thus,in response to the triggering questions made by the fiction ineach post there, analyses and opinions about the socio-politicalsituation may be found (for instance: “Mirian Alvarez: the best!(corrupt politicians are on fire!) those who govern us always showhow bluffers they are, don’t they? go el puntero! lombardo is reallymad because he was not even thanked, where are your manners?LOL, he was really mad, how great!”). In addition to that, in thefiction’s official sites, Lombardo’s character ranges from fictionto non-fiction, thus opening his own space in Facebook. In thisspace, Lombardo expresses himself with the typical manners thatdefine him, and he expresses his opinion about what happensin the story. His followers’ comments refer to the performer’squalities, the story’s feats, and the similarities between what
  • 119. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 123is going on in the story and what is going on in real social life.Another character (La Pochi, Lombardo’s girlfriend) also has herofficial site. The difference with the former site is the actress’s ownpresence in Facebook. She posts behind-the-scenes pictures of theshow, of her advertising campaigns, etc. The site has got very fewcomments in general.
  • 120. TABLE 1 - The Top Ten viewed from its transmedia proposal: types of interaction and prevailing practices The Top Ten viewed from its transmedia proposal Interaction Type of levels (Active,  Title Broadcaster Transmedia Proposal transmedia Type of Prevailing Practices 124 | Obitel 2012 Passive, interaction Creative)1 El hombre Telefé Official Web Site http:// Transmedia Creative (It Comment, Interpretation, de tu vida elhombredetuvida.telefe.com/ viewing includes two Parody, Recommendation, Facebook : http://www.facebook.com/ spectatorship proposals “Play Imitation, Criticism, elhombredetuvida.TELEFE.OFICIAL and design the Collection, Storage, Sharing, Twitter http://twitter.com/#!/ man of your Debate elhombretelefe dreams” and “Do you picture yourself living with a hippie? Do the test and find out”)2 Malparida El Trece Official Web Site http://www.eltrecetv. Network Active. Comment, Interpretation, com.ar/programa/malparida/ viewing Recommendation, Criticism, Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ spectatorship Collection, Storage, Sharing, pages/MALPARIDA-P%C3%A1gina- Debate Oficial/10582507944029
  • 121. Interaction Type of levels (Active,  Title Broadcaster Transmedia Proposal transmedia Type of Prevailing Practices Passive, interaction Creative)3 Los Únicos El Trece Official Web Site: http://www.eltrecetv. Network Active. Comment, Interpretation, com.ar/programa/los-unicos-2012 viewing Recommendation, Criticism, Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ spectatorship Collection, Storage, Sharing, media/set/?set=a.159305480752501. Debate 41953.143150632367986&type=1#!/ LosUnicos.oficial Twitter: http://twitter.com/#!/los_ unicos4 Herederos El Trece Official Web Site: http://www.eltrecetv. Network Active Comment, Interpretation, com.ar/programa/herederos-de-una- viewing Recommendation, Criticism, venganza spectatorship Collection, Storage, Sharing, Facebook: http://www.facebook. Debate com/pages/Herederos-de-una- venganza-P%C3%A1gina- oficial/173068469395805 http://www.facebook.com/ herederosdeunavenganza.tv?sk Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/ herederos_tv5 El puntero El Trece Official Web Site: http://www.eltrecetv. Network Active Comment, Interpretation, com.ar/programa/el-puntero viewing Recommendation, Criticism, http://tn.com.ar/tags/el-puntero spectatorship Collection, Storage, Sharing, Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ Debate elpuntero2011 http://www.facebook.com/ pages/LOMBARDO-el- Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 125 puntero/219047311446240
  • 122. Interaction Type of levels (Active,  Title Broadcaster Transmedia Proposal transmedia Type of Prevailing Practices Passive, interaction Creative)6 El elegido Telefé Official Web Site: http://elelegido. Transmedia Active Celebration, comment telefe.com/ viewing 126 | Obitel 2012 Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ spectatorship pages/El-elegido/124299084305010 http://www.facebook.com/ veronicasanmartinbilbao Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/ Elelegidoblog7 Un año Telefé Official Web Site: http:// Network Active Comment para unanopararecordar.telefe.com/ viewing recordar Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ spectatorship unaniopararecordar?sk=app_38010159 22#UAPR Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/ uapr20118 Cuando me Telefé Official Web Site: http://cuandomesonreis. Network viewing Active. Comment, Interpretation, sonreis com/ spectatorship Recommendation, Criticism, Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ Collection, Storage, Sharing, CuandoMeSonreisOficial Debate Twitter http://twitter.com/#!/ CuandoMeSonreis
  • 123. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 127 It is worth stating that all the fictional shows made inArgentina which were premiered in 2011 propose transmediaspaces. These spaces appear as canonic: a website related to thebroadcasting network. Cuando me sonreís is an exception to thisrule, with very low participation levels, which may lead us tothink that the network’s umbrella guarantees spectators a place tointeract. The other spaces offered from the production proper aresocial networks: Facebook and Twitter. In these spaces, there arehigher chances of playing with the device, since the productionsends “notices” calling the audience to tune the show and makesdirect questions about the spectators’ opinions on the episodes.4.2 Thorough Analysis of “El hombre de tu vida’s” trasmediation TABLE 2 - Number of visits and comments per day or emission (social networks) Chapters/Day Visitors / Users Comment Feedback Chapter 9. It does not indicate 1284 Facebook y 18/09/2011 Twitter feed Chapter 10. It does not indicate 1907 Facebook y 20/09/2011 Twitter feed Chapter 11. It does not indicate 1964 Facebook y 26/09/2011 Twitter feed Chapter 12. It does not indicate 1518 Facebook y 03/10/2011 Twitter feed Chapter 13. It does not indicate 1570 Facebook y 12/10/2012 Twitter feedData compiled from the show’s official web site:http://elhombredetuvida.telefe.com/ This transmedia viewing spectatorship10 proposal shows levelsof creative interactivity, and not only does it support the air in10 The official website of the show does not provide, in its menu, for the possibility ofwatching the full episodes on line, but only the “best moments”. This fact distinguishes thisproposal designed by TELEFÉ from other proposals related to its fictional programs, suchas for example, the case of “El Elegido” platform http://elelegido.telefe.com/resumenes/.
  • 124. 128 | Obitel 20122011 of the most widely watched show of Argentina’s television,but it also keeps all its official spaces open after the show endedbroadcasting. To a large extent, interaction and immediacy aremore evident in the other contact spaces proposed, but in suchspaces spectators only talk to members of the production team,they do not talk to each other, as it is the case with the officialWebsite. In relation to the presence in Twitter, for example,each of the comments posted redirects you to Facebook’s officialWebsite to post comments. This way, Twitter works more as aspace for the official voices to be heard than as a real space forexchange by users. The Web page has a main interface with a menu split into8 items (Home, Synopsis, Characters, The Female Customers,Technical File, Videos, Exclusive, Chapters) to which FB andTW icons are added (thus completing the official transmediaproposal11 of the show). These offers constitute an interestingsurfing alternative on the grounds that, unlike other officially-produced sites, not only does it cause interaction about chaptersto rank first, but games and tests are also preponderant. The page offers two spaces derived from the show. On the onehand, there is a test to find out what would the man of your life belike. This section is clearly addressed to women who, by answering18 questions, find out which would be their “ideal type” of man.There are no records on line as to how many Internet surfershave actually answered the questions. On the other hand, thereis a game called “design the man of your dreams”, a game whichmay be downloaded to play on your cell phone by a little money.The game consists in having fun by dressing a male silhouette,based on pre-set features and clothes. While the first proposal11 By this word composition, we draw a distinction between the proposal designed by thenetwork and the proposals which arise out of spectators, users or any third parties notrelated to the “official” production / circulation of the show, such as, for example: http://www.novelasdetv.com/2011/07/capitulos-de-el-hombre-de-tu-vida.html (where the full epi-sodes may be watched).
  • 125. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 129is related to practices which are generally present in most of thetests included in magazines for women, the second appears to bechildish and “rudimentary” and, therefore, it is hardly attractivefor the audience who follow the show. Finally, it is worth stating that the site design has ahighlighted central space which makes the promise that you willbe able to “watch” the full chapters. The promise made is brokenimmediately when you find a summary of the chapters, instead ofthe entire episodes. This situation is evidenced in the commentsposted by spectators who state that they accessed the site with theexpectation to watch the show’s full episodes and in the use ofthe site as a kind of “book of complaints”. As an example of thissituation, we may reproduce Patricia’s comment, posted on August16, 2011 at 7:16 p.m.: “Could you please tell me why you do notupload the full episode of El hombre de tu vida? That would be greatfor most of us who are sometimes not able to watch the show, justas they do, for instance, with El Elegido? Thank you. (En: http: //elhombredetuvida.telefe.com/2011/11/20/resumen-los-mejores-momentos-del-cap 5/#comentarios)” In addition to that, when comparing the proposal with othernetworks’ proposals, the users highlight that the transmediaviewing spectatorship practice is the result of a series of moreor less stable parameters, which are not unknown to them, andwhich operate as “vested rights of the viewing spectatorship”,such as for instance, the possibility of watching the series on line.Thus, on August 18, at 6:17 p.m., Ana posted “I wanted to see itfrom Spain, I accessed Telefe’s site but they require me to pay!!!Come on!!! El Trece does not charge any fee for watching its shows!!Watch out!!! And we watch all their shows!!! Come on, Telefe,please do us all a favor!! Please, it is an awesome TV series!! (At:http://elhombredetuvida.telefe.com/2011/11/20/resumen-los-mejores-momentos-del-cap-5/#comentarios)
  • 126. 130 | Obitel 2012 Table 3. Types of Comments Posted No. of Com- Com- Types of Types of Com- Ch. ments ments Prevailing ments among Additional Remarks Day among per Comments Users Users ChapterFrom 8.243 The prevail- Yes - Emotional Out of the total number ofSeptem- ing com- - Conative comments posted there isber11 ments consist - Metalinguistics a high percentage of spam;to Oc- mainly in: they are mainly written intober 9, - Story Negation plays English and pertain to dif-2011 - Themes a key role in ferent types of advertising, - Characters any exchanges or they just make “noise”. - Performers (pursuant to its This situation leads us to - Contents different mo- infer, together with some - Criticisms to dalities: polemic, rude interventions toward the network’s descriptive and other people’s comments, transmedia metalinguistic) that there is a lack of dynamics filters on the relevant site.Note: since comments are not differentiated as to their quality, it was decidedto account for the type of interaction in the chart pertaining to the five chaptersanalyzed together. There is high interaction among the comments posted, eitherbecause users respond to other user’s needs or, in particular,because one user answers another user’s question in respect ofwhere to watch the full chapters –which is one of the reiteratedcomplaints by users about the network evidenced in the users’posts. In addition to this “non-rendered service”, many of thecomments are structured on the basis of a reference function,analyzing the whole set of chapters and/or the chapter in question.Furthermore, most comments are focused on the number ofchapters and on the day and time of broadcasting. The show wasbroadcast on Sundays at 10:00 p.m., something which rendered itdifficult for some spectators to follow the story. Again, users whoask to find not only a summary, but the entire chapter available.This generates much adhesion by users posting comments on theofficial Website. There is still another line of comments whichvery positively assess the work carried out by performers, especiallyby the main character, Guillermo Francella, on whom most partof each chapter is based.
  • 127. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 131 In spite of the fact that it is not included in the detailedanalysis of the show’s space in Facebook, maybe because users alsouse such platform to interact in respect of other topics, there arehigher numbers of poetic messages, as shown below, for example: “Watch out ................ he or she is trying to seduce you If he or she takes your hand ............... it means he or she issuffering for love If he or she keeps staring at you ................. it means he or shecannot live without you ... If he or she asks you for a... kiss ............ it means he or she isan educated person If he or she holds your hand .............. it means he or she lovesyou very much If he or she looks right into your eyes ........... it means he orshe loves you more than you can imagine If he or she caresses your hair .............. it means he or she iscrazy about you If he or she runs into you .............. it means he or she islooking for something to talk about If he or she holds your hand tight ............. it means he orshe’s got a crash on you If he or she says goodbye slowly ............. it means he or shecannot let you go If he or she wants to meet you ................. it means he or sheis looking for your love If he or she looks at you out of the corner of his or her eye................. it means he or she cannot let you go If he or she cries a tear ............ it means he or she is really sad” In Facebook, as it is the case with Twitter, there are also othercontests promoted which are somehow related to El hombre de tuvida, like the contest “The Trip of your Life” (“El viaje de tu vida”).In other spaces which do not provide for a direct interactionamong Internet surfers, they do provide for a direct contact with
  • 128. 132 | Obitel 2012the show’s characters, the director Juan José Campanella and/or the production. They appear on line at previously-agreedmoments, thus generating comments or exclusive material for theWeb. Even though this material is on the official Website, it is notclearly promoted. It may be stated that transmedia proposals have reached a“minimum” in the official offer: a fully institutional space, theWeb page, and the –also official- presence in the most popularsocial networks. From this minimum standard, which operates asthe memory of fictional shows, several proposals may be found:from self-reference proposals, as it is the case with El hombre de tuvida, which proposes to comment the general theme of fictionalshows, to the most hetero-reference proposals, as it is the case withEl Puntero, which incorporates the marginal lives on which theirmain characters are inspired, political passions or the lives of theirperformers in different ways, which are all matters exceeding thefictional space of a TV show.5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction Table 2. Transnationalization in premieres The Top 10 Shows’ Casts and Locations Production Country of Locations or Companies* Cast Origin writer |Storytelling and co-pro- 5 Main Characters / author Located in: ductions ARGENTINAEl hombre de Argentina 00 Bares and Guillermo Francella Buenos Aires tu vida Juan José Telefé – AR Argentina Campanella Mercedes Morán - AR and Marcela Luis Brandoni - AR Guerty Tupac Larriera - AR Malena Pichot – AR Malparida Argentina Pol ka Gonzalo Heredia - AR Buenos Aires Lily Ann Juana Viale - AR Argentina Martin, Pablo Carina Zampini - AR Junovich Selva Aleman - AR and Cecilia Raúl Taibo – AR Guerty
  • 129. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 133 The Top 10 Shows’ Casts and Locations Production Country of Locations or Companies* Cast Origin writer |Storytelling and co-pro- 5 Main Characters / author Located in: ductions ARGENTINA Los únicos Argentina Pol ka Mariano Martínez – AR Buenos Aires Adrián Suar Nicolás Cabré - AR Argentina Griselda Siciliani - AR Arnaldo André - Paraguay Eugenia Tobal - AR Herederos Argentina Pol ka Luciano Castro – AR Buenos Aires de una Adrián Suar Romina Gaetani - AR Argentina venganza Marcela Kloosterboer The story is - AR sometimes Federico Amador - AR located in Benjamín Vicuña – winegrowing Chile provinces of the country like Mendoza or San Juan even though the scenes have not actually been recorded there. El puntero Argentina Pol ka Julio Chávez – AR Buenos Aires Mario Segade Gabriela Toscano - AR Argentina and Adrián Luis Luque - AR Suar Rodrigo De La Serna - AR Carlos Moreno – AR El elegido Argentina El Arbol Pablo Echarri – AR Buenos Aires, Adriana Telefé Paola Krum - AR San Juan Lorenzón Contenidos Lito Cruz - AR Entre Ríos and Gustavo Leticia Bredice - AR Tierra del Belatti Jorge Suárez – AR Fuego Argentina Madrid SpainUn año para Argentina Underground Carla Peterson –AR Buenos Aires, recordar Sebastián Contenidos Gastón Pauls - AR Argentina Ortega Rafael Ferro - AR Patricio Vega Eleonora Wexler - AR and Silvina Gonzalo Valenzuela – Fredjkes Chile
  • 130. 134 | Obitel 2012 The Top 10 Shows’ Casts and Locations Production Country of Locations or Companies* Cast Origin writer |Storytelling and co-pro- 5 Main Characters / author Located in: ductions ARGENTINA Cuando me Argentina RGB Enter- Facundo Arana – AR Buenos Aires, sonreís Marta Betoldi teinment Julieta Díaz - AR Argentina Ricardo Telefé Benjamín Rojas - AR Rodríguez Contenidos Lali Espósito - AR Mario Pasik – AR OBITEL Mexico Mañana es Mexico- Televisa Fernando Colunga – City ofpara siempre Colombia Mexico MX Mexico Producer: Silvia Navarro - MX Nicandro Lucero - MX Díaz González Rogelio Guerra - MX Original Erika Buenfil – MX Story: Mauricio Navas -Guillermo RestrepoLa fuerza del Mexico - Italy Televisa David Cepeda – MX Sonora - MX destino María Mexico Sandra Echeverría - MX Zarratini Gabriel Soto - MX Laisha Wilkins - MX Juan Ferrara – MX TOTAL Summary 8 Argentina 1 Telefé/ 100 10 Mexican Performers 8 Argentina 2 Mexico Bares- Argen- 2 Chilean Performers 2 Mexico tina 1 Paraguayan Performer 4 Pol ka- Ar- 37 Argentine Performers gentina 1 Under- ground- Ar- gentina 1 RGB/ Telefé Contenidos- Argentina 1 El Arbol / Telefé Contenidos- Argentina 2 Televisa – MexicoSource: OBITEL Argentina
  • 131. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 135 As far as the participation of foreign actors is concerned, itcan be observed that in those cases in which they are incorporated,these are actors who have been living in Argentina for many years.Therefore, it cannot be asserted that we are in the presence offiction transnationalization. In any case, this aspect is relatedto the adaptation of imported formats (such as Married withChildren -Casados con hijos- or The Nanny -La niñera- which arereruns permanently aired on screen) or to the sale of formats andideas to other networks. The other space in which we find the presence of thetransnational aspect is related to the introduction of foreignlocations, which takes place in very few cases. In year 2011 only Elelegido was recorded in Spain or in locations that are far from thetraditional production places located in Buenos Aires. Generallyspeaking, fictions take place in non-marked spaces, favoring interiorsor exteriors that only act as reference (the city, the open ground,“the outskirts”, etc.). Table 3. Audiences and transnational connections TV flows and cultural and linguistic proximity – premiere titles Countries wherefrom Countries whereto fiction is fiction is imported exportedNational 8productionObitel 2 Mexico France, Italy, Colombia, Chile, Turkey, India, Uruguay, Philippines, Paraguay, Spain, United States, Israel, Australia,Argentina Bolivia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Dominican Republic, Venezuela Total 10 23Source: OBITEL Argentina
  • 132. 136 | Obitel 2012 Telefé (through its network and distributor Telefé Internacional),as well as El Trece (particularly through its associated productioncompanies Artear and Pol-ka), are set up as networks concerned inplacing their products abroad. This way, every national productionpremiered in 2011 was sold. This sale goes from canned TVprograms to the idea for being adapted in other parts of the world.In the case of the most successful fiction of year 2011, El hombrede tu vida, it will be adapted in France, Italy, Chile, Turkey andColombia. The realization of this possibility emerged withinthe framework of the Mipcom international fair of audiovisualcontents that will take place in Cannes, and which was developedin 2011. Malparida, for instance, was aired in Uruguay, Philippines,Paraguay and Spain through Cosmopolitan TV, and it was alsosold to Venezuela for being adapted (and broadcast with the titleLa Traicionera, under the charge of RCN) and Mexico (with thetitle Para volver a amar, scheduled for 2012 or 2013)12. With respectto Herederos de una venganza, it found a space in the UnitedStates, Uruguay and Paraguay, whereas El elegido was acceptedin the United States, Uruguay and Israel. Just like many of theTelefé products, Un año para recordar was transmitted throughits international network, which has coverage in Australia, Bolivia,Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Spain, UnitedStates, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand,Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela.12 An amateur production adds up to these programs, which was premiered in the month ofMarch of year 2012. It is a new version called Malparida, la otra historia, which was developedas a web series. http://www.madeintvproducciones.blogspot.com.ar/
  • 133. Argentina: fiction drops while national production grows | 137ReferencesAPREA, G. y KIRCHHEIMER M. (2010). “Argentina. El temor a la crisis y la retracción a lo seguro” in OROZCO GÓMEZ, G. y VASSALLO DE LOPES, M. I. (Coords.) Convergencias y transmediación de la ficción televisiva / OBITEL 2010. Rio de Janeiro: Globo Comunicação.APREA, G. y KIRCHHEIMER M. (2011). “Argentina. La ficción pierde espacio y un estilo domina” in OROZCO GÓMEZ, G. y VASSALLO DE LOPES, M. I. (Coords.) Calidad de la ficción televisiva y participación transmediática de las audiencias/ OBITEL 2011. Rio de Janeiro: Globo Comunicação.http://www.elhombredetuvida.telefe.com/ Accessed March 15, 2012.OROZCO GÓMEZ, G. y VASSALLO DE LOPES, M. I “Síntesis comparativa de los paíse de OBITEL en el 2010 in OROZCO GÓMEZ, G. y VASSALLO DE LOPES, M. I. (Coords.) Calidad de la ficción televisiva y participación transmediática de las audiencias/ OBITEL 2011. Rio de Janeiro: Globo Comunicação.http://www.pol-ka.com/international/es/ Accessed March 15, 2012.http://www.telefeinternacional.com.ar/venta-de-contenidos/ espanol/ Accessed March 15, 2012.http://www.undergroundprod.com.ar/productos/Accessed March 16, 2012.http://www.rgbentertainment.com/ Accessed March 16, 2012.
  • 134. 2 Brazil: The “new middle class” and social networks enhance television fiction Authors: Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes and Maria Cristina Palma Mungioli Research Team: Clarice Greco Alves, Claudia Freire, Issaaf Karhawi, Helen N. Suzuki, Ligia Maria Prezia Lemos, Lorena Brettas, Neide Arruda and Silvia Torreglossa1. Audiovisual context in BrazilIntroduction During 2011, the subject of the “new middle class” soundedlike a strong metaphor for what is most distinctive in the currentcontext of Brazilian society. It updates what Martín-Barbero (2001,p.308) pointed out on melodrama as a way to recover popularmemory and to indicate the “presence ways of the people in themass”. According to the author, what is at stake in melodramais “the drama of the recognition”, a metaphor which we can usefor some signs of