Transnationalization of Television Fiction inIbero-American CountriesThe present OBITEL Yearbook is the sixth of a series ...
Ibero-American Observatory   on television fiction       Obitel 2012
Ibero-American Observatory                  on television fiction                        Obitel 2012Transnationalization o...
© Globo Comunicação e Participações S.A., 2012.Capa:Letícia LampertProjeto gráfico:Niura Fernanda SouzaEditoração:Vânia Mö...
This work is a result of a partnership between GloboUniversidade and Ibero-American Television Fiction Observatory(Obitel)...
OBITEL National Research Teams                    General Coordinators      Guillermo Orozco Gómez (Universidad de Guadala...
Verónica Silva, Ignacio             ESPAÑA  Polidura, Independent             Charo Lacalle (Universitat  Researchers;    ...
Portuguesa), National              VENEZUELA  Coordinators;                      Morella Alvarado MiquilenaFernanda Castil...
Table of contentsAuthors’ Note .......................................................................... 15Methodological...
2.	 BRAZIL: The “new middle class” and social networks         enhance television fiction ...................................
1. Audiovisual context in Ecuador ...................................... 285     2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibe...
Team: Fernanda Castilho        1. Audiovisual context in Portugal ...................................... 475        2. Ana...
Authors´ Note     THE PRESENT YEARBOOK is the sixth consecutive one. It ispublished simultaneously in three languages: in ...
16 | Obitel 2012and Barlovento Comunicaciones (Spain), Nielsen (United States),AGB Nielsen Media Research (Venezuela) and ...
Methodological Note      The IBERO-AMERICAN FICTION TELEVISION OBSER-VATORY, referred to as OBITEL, since its inception in...
18 | Obitel 2012consume through the Internet or through mobile devices such ascell phones, laptops, IPods, etc.1.	 The met...
Methodological Note | 19      The main sources of audience-measuring data were providedby the entities in charge of undert...
20 | Obitel 2012    the production of television fiction: the story, tendencies and    more relevant events;2.	 Analysis o...
Part OneFiction in the Ibero-American Space in 2011
Comparative synthesis of the               Obitel countries in 2011                Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes     ...
24 | Obitel 2012     Obitel                                                                 Broadcaster                   ...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 25countries by promoting the merger of different media companiesor...
26 | Obitel 2012first Chilean channel to expand its operations from the TV totelecommunications.      In regards to the cr...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 27a referendum in which 44.9% of the electorate voted for alegisla...
28 | Obitel 2012the migrating community2 (of which the Latin community is thelargest), the six major Hispanic networks Uni...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 29      Nevertheless, this is something that shall be taken intoco...
30 | Obitel 2012economic crisis, which would undoubtedly affect the productionof Spanish fiction, although this did not ha...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 31     What happens in Brazil is the exact opposite; there theproc...
32 | Obitel 2012in fiction hours due to the inclusion of Ecuador and the return ofColombia to the Obitel scope. From 2010 ...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 33      The first data to stand out in table 3 is the increase int...
34 | Obitel 2012            Table 4. Offer of national and Ibero-American fiction                             titles – 200...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 35seven more national titles than in the year of 2010, an increase...
36 | Obitel 2012      In 2011, Mexico was the country that most produced tele-novelas with a total of 15 titles. Brazil co...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 37   Table 6. National and Ibero-American fiction offer of chapter...
38 | Obitel 2012Ecuador, Chile, EUA and Argentina. Uruguay was the countrythat most aired imported Ibero-American chapters...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 39and Uruguay. Short length (less than 30 minutes) is associatedto...
40 | Obitel 2012                   Table 9. Time Period of Fiction Source: OBITEL Brazil     Stories with plots that take ...
Table 11. The ten most watched titles: origin, format, audience rating and share                                          ...
Country of                              Aud. Share                                 Production         Private or          ...
Country of                              Aud. Share                                Production        Private or            ...
Country of                             Aud. Share                                 Production        Private or            ...
Country of                            Aud. Share                                 Production     Private or                ...
Country of                           Aud. Share                                Production         Private or              ...
Country of                              Aud. Share                                    Production        Private or        ...
Country of                            Aud. Share                                    Production         Private or         ...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 49      Table 11 presents the ten most watched titles in each ofth...
Table 12. Formats and Time Slot of the Top Ten    Country                                   Formats                       ...
Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 51      Among the 10 most watched titles in each country, we canno...
52 | Obitel 2012     The number of Hispanics in the United States has gainedgreat importance, in the year 2011 they amount...
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
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Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries
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The presente Obitel Yearbook is the sixth of a series started in the year 2007, and it reflects the maturity of a methodological model that combines quantitative study with the contextual analysis of television fiction, its transmediation into other screens and the sociocultural dynamics that are circumscribed to each of the different member countries.

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Obitel 2012 - Transnationnalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries

  1. 1. Transnationalization of Television Fiction inIbero-American CountriesThe present OBITEL Yearbook is the sixth of a series Transnationalization ofstarted in the year 2007, and it reflects the maturity ofa methodological model that combines quantitative Television Fiction instudy with the contextual analysis of television fiction,its transmediation into other screens and the Ibero-American Countriessociocultural dynamics that are circumscribed to eachof the different member countries.OBITEL is made up of eleven national research groups general Guillermo Orozco Gómez coordinatorsthat throughout a year systematically monitor fiction Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes Transnationalization of Television Fiction inshows that are broadcast through open televisionchannels in their respective countries. The results of national Morella Alvarado, Gustavo Aprea, Fernando Aranguren,this monitoring are presented through the singularities coordinators Alexandra Ayala, Catarina Duff Burnay, Borys Bustamante, Ibero-American Countriesand tendencies of fiction in each country. In addition, Isabel Ferin Cunha, Valerio Fuenzalida, Francisco Hernández,every OBITEL yearbook has a comparative chapter that César Herrera, Pablo Julio Pohlhammer, Mónica Kirchheimer,provides a general panorama of the member countries. Charo Lacalle, Juan Piñón, Guillermo Orozco Gómez, RosarioFiction, as industry and format, is one of the most Sánchez Vilela and Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopesrepresentative cultural and media products oftelevision in Ibero-America. Its cultural, symbolictradition is a place of agreement and disagreementthat is now the setting not only of the main characters’loves and intimate secrets in the telenovelas and series,but also that of public life, politics, the citizenship,since ever more fiction anchors its narrative on themultiple problems that affect us as a region and at thesame time separate us as countries.The Obitel countries decided to make the theme of“transnationalization in the fiction television” the topicof the year for this 2012 Yearbook, with the objectiveof mapping the characteristics of the transnationalflows among and outside the countries participating inthis project. OBITEL 2012 reflected on the threespheres where the transnational element makes animpact or is reflected: the industry, the contents andthe flows and audiences.
  2. 2. Ibero-American Observatory on television fiction Obitel 2012
  3. 3. Ibero-American Observatory on television fiction Obitel 2012Transnationalization of Television Fiction in Ibero-American Countries Guillermo Orozco Gómez and Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes General Coordinators Morella Alvarado, Gustavo Aprea, Fernando Aranguren, AlexandraAyala, Catarina Duff Burnay, Borys Bustamante, Isabel Ferin Cunha,Valerio Fuenzalida, Francisco Hernández, César Herrera, Pablo JulioPohlhammer, Mónica Kirchheimer, Charo Lacalle, Juan Piñón, Guill-ermo Orozco Gómez, Rosario Sánchez Vilela and Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes National Coordinators
  4. 4. © Globo Comunicação e Participações S.A., 2012.Capa:Letícia LampertProjeto gráfico:Niura Fernanda SouzaEditoração:Vânia MöllerRevisão:Felícia Xavier VolkweisTradutores:Thais Deamici de Souza e Danaé Müller FranceschiRevisão gráfica:Miriam GressEditor:Luis Gomes Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) Bibliotecária Responsável: Denise Mari de Andrade Souza – CRB 10/960T772 Transnationalization of television fiction in ibero-american coutries: 2012 Obitel yearbook / organized by Guillermo Orozco Gómez and Maria Immacolata Vassallo. -- Porto Alegre: Sulina, 2012. 618 p.; il. ISBN: 978-85-205-0665-3 1. Television – Programs. 2. Fiction – Television. 3. Programs Television – Ibero-American. 4. Media. I. Lopes, Maria Immacolata Vassallo de. II. Gómez, Guillermo Orozco. CDU: 654.19 659.3 CDD: 301.161 91.445Direitos desta edição adquiridos por Globo Comunicação e Participações S.A.Editora Meridional Ltda.Av. Osvaldo Aranha, 440 cj. 101 – Bom FimCep: 90035-190 – Porto Alegre/RSFone: (0xx51) 3311.4082Fax: (0xx51) 2364.4194www.editorasulina.com.bre-mail: sulina@editorasulina.com.brAgosto/2012
  5. 5. This work is a result of a partnership between GloboUniversidade and Ibero-American Television Fiction Observatory(Obitel). Such partnership, started in 2008, aims to present anddiscuss the analyses on production, audience and socioculturalresponse of the television fiction in Latin America and in theIberian Peninsula. Publications produced: • Obitel Yearbook 2008: Global markets, local stories • Obitel Yearbook 2009: Television fiction in Ibero- America: narratives, formats and advertising • Obitel Yearbook 2010: Convergences and Transmediation of the Television Fiction • Obitel Yearbook 2011: Quality in television fiction and audience’ transmedia interactions About Globo Universidade: Globo Universidade, created in 1999, has as a mission thesharing of experiences in order to add knowledge. To accomplishit, a permanent partnership with the academia is established.Through debates, seminars, publications and research support,Globo Universidade contributes to the scientific productionand dissemination, as well as the formation of personnel. Since2008, Globo Universidade has been present in Rede Globo’sprogramming: every Saturday, at 7h, the program featuresinformation about the main universities in Brasil and in the world.In 2011, this program became part of Globo Cidadania, which alsocounts on the participation of the programs Globo Ciência, GloboEducação and Globo Ecologia e Ação.
  6. 6. OBITEL National Research Teams General Coordinators Guillermo Orozco Gómez (Universidad de Guadalajara) Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes (Universidade de São Paulo)ARGENTINA Maria Cristina Palma MungioliGustavo Aprea (Universidad (Universidade de São Paulo), Nacional de General Sarmiento Adjunt research; e Instituto Universitario Claudia Freire, Clarice Greco Nacional del Arte) y Mónica Alves, Helen Emy Nochi Kirchheimer (Universidad Suzuki, Issaaf Santos de Buenos Aires e Instituto Karhawi, Ligia Maria Prezia Universitario Nacional del Arte), Lemos, Neide Maria de National Coordinators; Arruda, Silvia TerezinhaMaría Victoria Bourdieu Torreglossa de Jesus, (Universidad Nacional de (Universidade de São Paulo) General Sarmiento); Research Associates;Florencia Bacarin, María Lorena Milanesi Brettas, Belzunces, María Fernanda Gustavo Silva Barranco, Cappa, Victoria De Michele, Angelina Moreira de Souza, Marina Dragonetti, Silvia Isabela Cicalise Silberschmidt, Grinfas, Noelia Morales, Centro de Estudos de Telenovela Laura Oszust, Agustina – CETVN – da Escola de Pérez Rial, Ezequiel Rivero Comunicações e Artes da (Universidad de Buenos Aires), Universidade de São Paulo), Collaborators. Research Assistants.BRASIL CHILEMaria Immacolata Vassallo de Valerio Fuenzalida y Pablo Lopes Julio Pohlhammer (Pontificia (Universidade de São Paulo), Universidad Católica de Chile), National Coordinator; National Coordinators;
  7. 7. Verónica Silva, Ignacio ESPAÑA Polidura, Independent Charo Lacalle (Universitat Researchers; Autònoma de Barcelona),Alejandro Caloguerea (Camara National Coordinator; de Exhibiciones Multisalas de Mariluz Sánchez, Lucía Trabajo Chile A.G.); (Universitat AutònomaConstanza Mujica, Alejandro de Barcelona), Research Bruna (Pontificia Universidad Associate; Católica de Chile), Research Berta Trullàs (Universitat Assistants. Autònoma de Barcelona), Research Assistant.COLOMBIABorys Bustamante Bohórquez ESTADOS UNIDOS y Fernando Aranguren Díaz Juan Piñón (New York (Universidad Distrital University), National Francisco José de Caldas), Coordinator; Tanya Cornejo, Linnete National Coordinators; Manrique, Wendy Yuen TingHugo Sánchez, Alejandra (New York University), Research Rusinque, Diana Mendoza Assistant. (Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas), MÉXICO Research Assistants. Guillermo Orozco Gómez y Francisco Hernández LomeliECUADOR (Universidad de Guadalajara),Alexandra Ayala Marín y César National Coordinators; Herrera (Centro Internacional Darwin Franco Migues, Adrien de Estudios Superiores de Charlois Allende (Universidad Comunicación para América de Guadalajara), Research Latina - CIESPAL), National Associates. Coordinators;Pamela Cruz, Cecilia Vergara, José Rivera (Centro PORTUGAL Internacional de Estúdios Isabel Ferin Cunha Superiores de Comunicación para (Universidade de Coimbra) y América Latina - CIESPAL), Catarina Duff Burnay Research Associates. (Universidade Católica
  8. 8. Portuguesa), National VENEZUELA Coordinators; Morella Alvarado MiquilenaFernanda Castilho (Universidade (Universidad Central de de Coimbra), Research Associate. Venezuela), National Coordinator;URUGUAY Luisa Torrealba Mesa Rosario Sánchez Vilela (Uni- (Universidad Central de versidad Católica del Uruguay), Venezuela), Fernando National Coordinator; Vizcarra SchummPaula Santos Vizcaíno, Lucia (Universidad Allegro, Eugenia Armúa, Autónoma de Baja California), Guillermo Sabella Research Associates; (Universidad Católica del Massimo Dotta Botto (productor Uruguay), Research Assistants. of Film and TV).
  9. 9. Table of contentsAuthors’ Note .......................................................................... 15Methodological Note ........................................................ 17Part OneFiction in the Ibero-American Space in 2011Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 ................... 23Guillermo Orozco Gómez and Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes 1. The audiovisual contexts in the Obitel countries .................. 24 2. Comparison of fiction in Ibero-American countries in 2011 31 3. The Top Ten television fiction of the year ............................... 40 4. Highlights of the year in Obitel countries ......................... 51 5. Transmedia reception in the Obitel countries ....................... 58 6. The topic of the year: Transnationalization of television fiction in Ibero-American countries ......................................................... 76PART TWOFiction in Obitel Countries 1. ARGENTINA: Fiction drops while national production grows .................................................................... 93 Authors: Gustavo Aprea and Mónica Kirchheimer Team: Florencia Bacarin, María Belzunces, María Victoria Bourdieu, María Fernanda Cappa, Victoria de Michele, Marina Dragonetti, Silvia Grinfas, Noelia Morales, Laura Oszust, Agustina Pérez Rial and Ezequiel Rivero 1. Audiovisual context in Argentina ................................... 93 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 104 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 118 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 121 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ........ 132
  10. 10. 2. BRAZIL: The “new middle class” and social networks enhance television fiction ..................................................... 139 Authors: Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes and Maria Cristina Palma Mungioli Team: Clarice Greco Alves, Claudia Freire, Issaaf Karhawi, Helen N. Suzuki, Ligia Maria Prezia Lemos, Lorena Brettas, Neide Arruda and Silvia Torreglossa 1. Audiovisual context in Brazil .............................................. 139 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 154 3. Highlights of the year ........................................................... 172 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 177 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ...... 186 3. CHILE: Changes in the industrial landscape ...................... 201 Authors: Valerio Fuenzalida and Pablo Julio Pohlhammer Team: Verónica Silva, Ignacio Polidura, Constanza Mujica, Alejandro Caloguerea and Alejandro Bruna 1. Audiovisual context in Chile ............................................ 201 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 209 3. Transmedia reception ........................................................ 221 4. Highlitghts of the year ..................................................... 231 5 Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ........ 235 4. COLOMBIA: From the unanimism discourse to the opening, innovation and international expansion ............. 243 Authors:Boris Bustamante and Fernando Aranguren Team: Hugo Sánchez, Diana Mendoza and Alejandra Rusinque 1. Audiovisual context in Colombia ........................................ 243 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 252 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 265 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 268 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ....... 275 5. ECUADOR: Between national sitcoms and imported telenovelas ..................................................... 285 Authors: Alexandra Ayala and César Herrera Team: Pamela J. Cruz, Cecilia Vergara and José Rivera
  11. 11. 1. Audiovisual context in Ecuador ...................................... 285 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ..................................................................................... 295 3. Highlights of the year ......................................................... 309 4. Transmedia reception ......................................................... 314 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ....... 3206. SPAIN: 2011. New strategies, new markets ........................... 331 Author: Charo Lacalle Team: Mariluz Sánchez, Lucía Trabajo and Berta Trullàs 1. Audiovisual context in Spain ........................................... 331 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ..................................................................................... 342 3. Highlights of the year ......................................................... 362 4. Transmedia reception ......................................................... 365 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ....... 3747. UNITED STATES: Demographic shifts in Latino popula- tion and the strategies of the Hispanic television industry 383 Author: Juan Piñón Team: Linnete Manrique and Tanya Cornejo 1. Context in the United States ............................................ 383 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 391 3. Highlights of the year ......................................................... 403 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 404 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ....... 4138. MÉXICO: “Fiction à la carte”: programs to rhythm of politics 429 Authors: Guillermo Orozco, Francisco Hernández and Darwin Franco Team: Adrien Charlois 1. Audiovisual context in Mexico ........................................... 429 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 438 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 450 4. Transmedia reception ........................................................... 455 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction .......... 4649. PORTUGAL: Old strategies for new times .......................... 475 Authors: Isabel Ferin Cunha and Catarina Duff Burnay
  12. 12. Team: Fernanda Castilho 1. Audiovisual context in Portugal ...................................... 475 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ....................................................................................... 479 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 493 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 495 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ........ 503 10. URUGUAY: Ways of learning .............................................. 515 Author: Rosario Sánchez Vilela Team: Paula Santos, Lucia Allegro, Eugenia Armúa and Guillermo Sabella 1. Audiovisual context in Uruguay ......................................... 515 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 526 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 539 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 541 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ......... 546 11. VENEZUELA: One organization and multiple markets for fiction .................................................................. 557 Authors: Morella Alvarado Miquilena and Luisa Elena Torrealba Mesa Team: Massimo Dotta, Carolina jover Pineda (Traductora) and Fernando Vizcarra Schumm (UABC) 1. Audiovisual context in Venezuela ...................................... 557 2. Analysis of the year: National and Ibero-American premiere fiction ...................................................................................... 568 3. Highlights of the year .......................................................... 581 4. Transmedia reception .......................................................... 584 5. Topic of the year: transnationalization of TV fiction ........ 590Appendix: Top Ten TV Fiction in Obitel Countries ........................ 605
  13. 13. Authors´ Note THE PRESENT YEARBOOK is the sixth consecutive one. It ispublished simultaneously in three languages: in print in Portugueseand Spanish and in digital format in English. Its predecessorsare the 2007 Obitel Yearbook published in Spanish by EditorialGedisa, Spain; the 2008 Obitel Yearbook published in Portugueseand English by Globo Universidade with the label Editora Globo,Brazil; the 2009 Obitel Yearbook published in Spanish by theEuropean Observatory for Children’s Television (OETI), Spain,and in Portuguese and English by Globo Universidade, Brazil; the2010 Obitel Yearbook published in Portuguese and Spanish, by thesame publishing label; and finally the 2011 Yearbook published byGlobo Universidade in Portuguese and Spanish, and in English ine-book format. In July, 2008, Uruguay joined Obitel as a new member. Lateron, with the incorporation of Ecuador in 2010, Obitel becamestronger as an international institution focused on the comparativeresearch of television fiction in eleven Ibero-American countries,which now make up the national chapters of this 6th Yearbook.The increase in the Obitel membership and its consolidation asan intercontinental project demonstrate its growing leadership inthe analysis of the region’s television fiction. As general and national coordinators of this Yearbook, we wouldlike to express once again our gratitude to Globo Universidadefor its continuous support and determined participation in thispublication. Likewise, we thank again the following IBOPEinstitutes for their collaboration: IBOPE (Brazil), Time-IBOPE(Chile), IBOPE (Colombia, Uruguay), IBOPE-AGB (Mexico),Media Monitor-Marktest Audimetria (Portugal), Kantar Media
  14. 14. 16 | Obitel 2012and Barlovento Comunicaciones (Spain), Nielsen (United States),AGB Nielsen Media Research (Venezuela) and all the universitiesand member centers in the countries participating in this Yearbook.
  15. 15. Methodological Note The IBERO-AMERICAN FICTION TELEVISION OBSER-VATORY, referred to as OBITEL, since its inception in 2005,works as an intercontinental project for the Iberian Peninsulaand the Latin American region (Ibero-America), including LatinAmerican and Iberian countries and the United States Hispanicpopulation. In a moment it was considered important to speakabout an Ibero-American scope due to the increasing interest ofthe different national states in making a series of media creations,cultural and artistic exchange, production as well as distinctivecommercial policies converge, in the hopes that the area mightbecome a region of important geopolitical and cultural reference. The observation that has been carried out in Obitel intendsto distinguish at least five dimensions of this vast object of analysis:its production, exhibition, consumption, commercialization andthematic proposals. The phenomenon of “transmediation” hasbeen into these dimensions since the 2010 Yearbook. Even thoughthis phenomenon is just incipient, it bears a high potential forunderstanding production itself and the expectations withfiction, its distribution and consumption from the companies andtelevision channels. Transmediation was included in this yearbookas the “topic of the year”. In the present 2012 Yearbook which is the sixth consecutiveone, we continue with the same line of its predecessor, but nowwe are focused on transnationalization, without eliminating thetransmedia reception that has already been incorporated due tothe fact that it is considered an essential dimension for the analysis,a complement for the Obitel countries. With this analysis, weintend to explain the new forms in which the audiences relateand connect with television fiction that they now watch and
  16. 16. 18 | Obitel 2012consume through the Internet or through mobile devices such ascell phones, laptops, IPods, etc.1. The methodological activities used for this 2012 Yearbook have been mainly the following ones:2. The systematic follow-up of the fiction shows that are broad- cast by the open channels in the 11 countries that participate in the network;3. The generation of comparable quantitative data from these countries: schedules, premiere shows, number of chapters, indexes, audience profile, and central fiction themes;4. The identification of plural and bilateral flows of fiction genres and formats, which translates into the ten most viewed fiction titles, their central topics, rating and share;5. The analysis of the tendencies in narrative and the thematic contents in every country (data on consumption through other means such as the Internet and other program genres, investment in advertising, outstanding legal and political events of the year), as well as what every national research team considers “The most outstanding in the Year”, especially in terms of changes in production, their narratives and the thematic contents preferred;6. The analysis of transmedia reception and the interactions of the audiences with fiction in every country; the selection of the case to be analyzed was made taking as reference some of the ten most outstanding titles or else by selecting one that, due to its singularity, has had a unique behavior on the Internet or any other social network;7. The publication of the results of the systematic monitoring in the yearbook format, paying special attention to a topic in particular. The topic of the year for this Yearbook 2012 is Transnationalization in Television Fiction. Our observation was carried out by a network of research teamsfrom 11 countries and different universities from the Ibero-Ameri-can region: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Spain, theUnited States, Mexico, Portugal, Venezuela and Uruguay.
  17. 17. Methodological Note | 19 The main sources of audience-measuring data were providedby the entities in charge of undertaking said studies in thedifferent countries: IBOPE (Brazil), Time-IBOPE (Chile), IBOPE(Colombia, Uruguay), IBOPE-AGB (Mexico), Average Monitor-Marktest Audimetria (Portugal), Kantar Media and BarloventoComunicaciones (Spain), Nielsen (United States), AGB NielsenMedia Research (Venezuela). Work is also being done with the data generated by theresearch teams, from other sources such as press releases, Internetinformation, audio and video material, as well as those derivedfrom direct contacts with agencies and actors of the audiovisualmedia in each country. The statistical treatment of the data was carried out accordingto productive typologies (programs bars, time slots, duration of eachfiction product, chapters or episodes) and measuring typologies(audience ratings, and share), which makes it possible to makecomparative tables on the offer conditions and the productionprofiles of television fiction in each country, which include suchcategories as programs volumes, formats, producers, scriptwriters,creators and exhibition strategies. The general analysis of this Yearbook is divided into three parts. The first is an introductory chapter that contains acomparative synthesis of fiction in the Obitel countries. Thiscomparison is made from a quantitative and qualitative point ofview that makes it possible to observe the development of fictionin each country, highlighting their main productions, as well asthe topic of the year: “Quality in television fiction”. In the second part there are eleven chapters (one for eachcountry), with an internal structure where the Yearbook sectionsare usually fixed, though some are more specific than others. Thesections that make up each of the chapters are the following:1. The country’s audiovisual context: This section presents general information about the audiovisual sector regarding
  18. 18. 20 | Obitel 2012 the production of television fiction: the story, tendencies and more relevant events;2. Analysis of premiere fiction: It is presented through different tables that show specific data about national and Ibero- American shows that were released in each country. In this section, special emphasis is laid on highlighting the ten most viewed titles of the year.3. Transmedia Reception: In this section, the yearbook presents and exemplifies which offer the television companies give their audiences to access via the Internet, as well as a description of audiences’ behaviors when watching, consuming and interacting with their fictions through websites.4. The most outstanding productions of the year: the most important productions not only in terms of rating, but also in terms of the sociocultural impact or the innovation that they generate in the television industry or market;5. Finally, there is the Topic of the Year, which in this issue is: Trasnationalization of Television Fiction. This phenomenon, which is at the same a growing tendency, is received in three dimensions: 1. The transnational element “behind” the screen, where we present a media ownership index in each country; 2. The transnational element “on” the screen, by locating the origin of the stories for the premiere Top Ten, the casting and the production locations; 3. The transnational element “beyond” the screens, where we place the import and export flows of the fiction products in the OBITEL countries. The third part is an Appendix. Since the release of theprevious Yearbook, it was decided to modify some tables to offer thereader a more fluent reading of each chapter, so that the technicalspecifications of the 10 most viewed fiction titles in each country,with basic, necessary information about their production, are notan integral part of the chapters, but they are offered at the end ofthem as an “Appendix”.
  19. 19. Part OneFiction in the Ibero-American Space in 2011
  20. 20. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes and Guillermo Orozco Gómez This first part of the Obitel Yearbook presents a brief andcomparative panorama of the main data of the research conductedin 2011 about production and broadcast of first-run televisionfiction in Ibero-American countries in that year. Programs from 68 open broadcast channels, both private andpublic, were monitored in the 11 countries that constitute thegeocultural scope of Obitel. Table 1. Obitel countries and examined channels – 2011 Obitel Broadcaster Private Channels Public Channels Countries Total América 2, Canal 9, Argentina Televisión Pública 5 Telefé, El Trece Rede Globo, Record, SBT, Brazil TV Brasil 6 Band, Rede TV! UCV TV, Canal 13, Chile Chilevisión, Mega, Red, TVN 7 Telecanal Señal Colombia, Canal Colombia RCN, Caracol, Canal Uno 5 Institucional Teleamazonas, RTS, Ecuavisa, ECTV, Gama TV, TC Ecuador 7 Canal Uno Televisión Televisa, TV Azteca, Mexico Once TV, Conaculta 5 Cadena Tres Portugal SIC, TVI RTP1, RTP2 4 Antena3, Tele5, Cuatro, Spain La 1, La 2 61 LaSexta
  21. 21. 24 | Obitel 2012 Obitel Broadcaster Private Channels Public Channels Countries Total Azteca América, Telefutura, United Telemundo, Univision, Estrella -- 6 States TV, V-me Montecarlo TV, Saeta, Televisión Nacional Uruguay 4 Teledoce/La Tele (TNU) Canal I, Globovisión, La Tele, ANTV, C.A. Tele Sur, Venezuela Meridiano, Televen, TV Tves, VTV, COVETEL 13 Família, Vale TV, Venevisión Total 48 20 68Source: OBITEL Brazil In the universe of the 68 open channels with national coverageof the 11 Obitel countries, private networks totalize 48 (70.5%),more than twice the number of public ones (20, 29.5%). The onlycountry that has the same number of private and public networksis Portugal, and that number is similar to Colombia, Ecuador andMexico as well. In other countries, private networks are largelypredominant. The United States is the only country where thereis not a single public channel aimed at the Hispanic population.1. The audiovisual context in the OBITEL countries The topic of telecommunications, its policies and its diverseapplications is among the ones which, with its different nuances,continued setting the course and perspective for the production offiction in the OBITEL countries in the year 2011. These changes materialized both in the creation of laws thatintend to regulate the contents or the production guidelines inevery country and in the application of the different modelsof Terrestrial Digital Television (TDT) and they have broughtabout the restructuring of the audio-visual sectors in most of the1 Spain has 33 autonomous television channels that produced fiction in 2011, but theyare not analyzed in this comparative chapter, which is based only on national coveragenetworks. The most significant data about these regional or local channels can be found inthe respective national chapters.
  22. 22. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 25countries by promoting the merger of different media companiesor by promoting the setup of communication systems ran by boththe State and civil society. In this light, it is well known that in many of the Obitelcountries, as it had already been happening since 2010, thestruggle among the existing media companies was intensified.These companies, seeking to obtain privileged positions on thesubject of digital convergence, resorted to different strategies toincrease their positions into the telecommunication markets. Some governments, in view of this situation, responded byexerting a greater control in the tender processes for grantingauthorizations, and some went even a step further; such is thecase of Ecuador, that confiscated the signal of Gama TV; orArgentina, that took their legal battle against the Clarín Group tounpredictable consequences. Contrariwise, in other countries the governments chose tokeep a low profile and left the dispute of digital convergence inprivate hands; that is what happened in Mexico, where few legalactions have been taken to stop the war between two of the mostimportant media corporations in Latin America: Televisa andTelmex, both seeking to head the so-called quadruple play in thiscountry (digital and conventional television, mobile telephonyand the Internet). A similar situation is happening in Brazil,where Rede Globo undertook several actions to keep on headingthese integrated communications services. In Chile, the entry into the integrated communicationssystems is happening not by means of a concessions system,but rather by the merger of some companies from each of thesesectors. For example, Mega, the number one Chilean privatetelevision channel, was acquired by the Bethia group, whichhas also undertaken several strategies to enter the Chilean cellphone market. If this objective were achieved, Mega would be the
  23. 23. 26 | Obitel 2012first Chilean channel to expand its operations from the TV totelecommunications. In regards to the creation of regulative laws, the case ofEcuador stands out, where the general guidelines of the OrganicCommunication Law was passed and will come into force nextyear: it tries to democratize the Ecuadoran media system so that33% of the radio electrical spectrum is allotted to the public media;another 33% to private media and the last 34% to communitymedia. Just the opposite is supposed to happen in countries likeColombia and Mexico, where the stage set for the tender andcreation of a third national private television network, which isbeing blocked by the already existing TV networks. This happens inUruguay too, a country where the debate for the democratizationof the radio electrical spectrum is not even addressed by thegovernment or by the private groups that concentrate the openand cable television signals. Another country that will radically modify its media systemis Portugal, since the government announced that the Radioand Television system (RTP) will be privatized. Curiously, thisannouncement coincides with an increase in participation by thecompanies Newshold (Angola) and Rede Globo (Brazil) withinthe Portuguese media ecosystem. The Brazilian network went asfar as opening a new production center for Europe in Lisbon. These changes in Portugal are also accompanied bythe creation of a Regulatory Communication Entity and aCommission for Media Studies Analysis, by means of which thePortuguese government intends to control the tender processesresulting from the privatization of its media sector, as well as tomediate in hearings so as to regulate the advertising market. Something similar is being proposed in Ecuador, exceptthat in this South American country the emphasis is laid on thecontents; for example, in the year 2011, the government submitted
  24. 24. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 27a referendum in which 44.9% of the electorate voted for alegislation that would regulate the contents with violent, sexualand/or discriminatory messages on television, radio and print.This will result in the creation of the Council for CommunicationRegulation and Development that will aim at dividing thebroadcasting hours into sections (family, shared responsibility andadults) as well as classifying the contents by genres (informative,opinion, formative/educational/cultural, entertainment, sportsand advertising). Venezuela also lived through a new system of media regulationafter the Organic Telecommunications Law and the Law of SocialResponsibility on Radio, Television and Electronic Media cameinto force. They both made an impact on the country’s radioelectric media map since it favors public communication overprivate investment. Nevertheless, this has not prevented thepublic networks and its contents from constantly making directand indirect reference to the government project and the figure ofPresident Hugo Chávez. This situation also occurred in Mexico when the governmentannounced that its public channels (Once TV and Channel 22)would have national coverage. However, this process – just as ithas happened in Venezuela – has been accompanied by endlessinterruptions to promote some government programs throughthese signals. In Spain the public media were also affected due to thebudget cutback that the government imposed on the PublicTelevision System (Canal TVE). This measure caused Canal TVEto announce the possible privatization of some autonomousnetworks and the end of the stipulation forcing private networksto invest 6% of their incomes in the production of good qualityTV movies and miniseries. One of the countries that present a promising media scenario,which is at the same time contradictory, is the United States.Despite the strong political and legislative atmosphere against
  25. 25. 28 | Obitel 2012the migrating community2 (of which the Latin community is thelargest), the six major Hispanic networks Univision, Telemundo,Telefutura, Azteca America, Estrella TV and V-Me continuedexpanding throughout the US market, re-shaping thus one of themost important television markets in the world. This change is due to the fact that the Hispanic populationhas continued growing and, with it, its purchasing power. Thiscaused Channel V-Me to become the sixth largest Hispanictelevision national network, and Multinational Fox to launch“Mundo Fox”, a project that along with Colombian RCN, willoffer a strong entertainment option for the Latin population inthe United States. An example of the importance Hispanic television and whatthe fiction industry has achieved in the United States is the wayin which the telenovelas La Reina del Sur and Teresa managed todisplace, in terms of rating, ABC and CBS network programs –both networks dedicated to the English speaking majority. Thishas been quite a tremendous achievement and success for theLatin companies Telemundo and Univision. Brazil, for its part, has seen how its media space re-shapes as aresult of the expansion of its middle class. In sheer numbers, it hasresulted in the entry of 40 million Brazilians in the labor marketand, consequently, increasing the pool of potential consumers. Within this growth, fiction stands out as one of the mostrecognizable products within this middle class’ media practices,since as it is specified in the chapter on Brazil, what is at stake isnot only reception and rating but the “drama of recognition” thatsurrounds decision-making when it comes to making televisionprograms more popular and profitable for a new middle class thatseeks to be portrayed in at least the three major screens: television,phone and computer.2 During the year 2011, several US states issued bills to modify the 14th Amendment of theUS Constitution; the objective is to prevent the children of illegal immigrants born on USsoil from obtaining US citizenship automatically.
  26. 26. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 29 Nevertheless, this is something that shall be taken intoconsideration by the telecommunications policies that came intoforce this year or those that were debated in Brazil: the Service ofConditional Access (SEAC) -the new pay TV law- and the reviewof the Brazilian Telecommunications Code. The SEAC, for example, determines the opening of thepaid TV market and establishes obligatory quotas to promotenational production, which undoubtedly might benefit thefiction industry, since it would accommodate many independentproducers. This, however, must go hand in hand with the reformsthat were proposed to the Brazilian Telecommunications Codeduring 2011; among them, the modification in the way in whichradio and television concessions are audited. The OBITEL countries, as one may notice, exhibit differentand even contradictory audio-visual contexts, some favorcommunication as a right (even though behind this there is agovernment communication), in others the resolutions of oneof the most relevant sectors for national development, that is,telecommunications, have simply been left in private hands.TDT, a hope for the industry and the sector There is hope that the digital convergence, materialized forsome with the entry of Terrestrial Digital Television (TDT) willsubstantially modify the countries’ media panorama by favoringthe democratization of the signals. The fact is perhaps that thisopening or convergence in some cases, like Mexico with highconcentration of media ownership, would favor concentrationstill more. As regards TDT, the most advanced Obitel country is Spain,where this system started this year generating a fragmentation ofits television ecosystem, which was modified both by the merger ofsome companies (Antena3 absorbed LaSexta) and by the restrictivemeasures that the new government adopted because of the
  27. 27. 30 | Obitel 2012economic crisis, which would undoubtedly affect the productionof Spanish fiction, although this did not happen in 2011, sincebecause of the exacerbated competitiveness among the Spanishnetworks, production of premiere fiction programs of their ownincreased in the new TDT channels and in the paid channels. Contrariwise, production was affected in other countries thatalso started their TDT models, such as Portugal and Argentina,since the fragmentation of their television signals did not translateinto an automatic rise in fiction production. Quite the contrary,it increased in open television perhaps as a way of opening up tothe competition that involves the transmission of foreign fictionin the digital signals. In this light, it is remarkable that in Argentina this growthin fiction production should owe to the government’s directparticipation, which through the National Institute of Movies andAudiovisual Arts (INCAA) put into practice the guidelines theLaw of Audiovisual Services, approved in 2009, and for the firsttime it participated in financing 10 fiction series. The implementation of TDT is still not a reality that may begeneralized in all the OBITEL countries, since in some of themthere is still debate as to what system will be adopted to carry outthis process (Colombia), in others technical tests are still beingdone to determine the characteristics of the receptors (Ecuadorand Venezuela), still others are trapped in the creation of anintegral legislation that would first pave the way for the analogicalblackout so as to later determine the TDT scopes (as it happens inUruguay and Mexico). The Mexican case has been very special and polemical, sincedespite the presidential decree announcing that the “analogicalblackout” would be implemented earlier, it was not possible tocarry out because the President did not take into considerationthat this decision corresponded solely to the sector’s regulatoryorgans, that is why the judicial authorities turned down thepresidential decree.
  28. 28. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 31 What happens in Brazil is the exact opposite; there theprocess of the digitization of its television signals has beenaccompanied by the National BroadBand Plan, which aims atexpanding broadband Internet coverage in 68% of the householdsin three years, increasing speed to 1 Mbps and reducing the costfor Brazilian users.2. Comparison of fiction in Ibero-American countries in 2011 The comparative exposition of television fiction among the11 Obitel countries will be based on the quantitative productionindicators established in the common methodology protocol, themain ones being: the annual total of fiction hours, total of titles,formats, time slot, number of chapters and episodes, circulationdata (import, export) and co-productions. Table 2. Offer of national and Ibero-American fiction hours – 2009 to 2011GLOBAL 2011 2010 2009 OFFER OF National Ibero National Ibero National Ibero TOTALHOURS 10,780 20,220 9,510 20,702 9,690 13,769 TOTAL 31,000 30,212 23,459 84,671Source: OBITEL Brazil From 2009 to 2011 the global offer of first run fiction in theObitel countries summed up 84,671 hours. The largest growthoccurred between 2009 and 2010, with an increase of almost 30%
  29. 29. 32 | Obitel 2012in fiction hours due to the inclusion of Ecuador and the return ofColombia to the Obitel scope. From 2010 to 2011 there is a slightincrease in the global offer of fiction, with 788 hours (2.6%).Throughout these three years, the offer of hours of Ibero-Americanproductions has always been larger than national productions,reaching almost twice the number of national production (65%against 35%). Table 3 – Offer of national and Ibero-American fiction hours by country – 2009 to 20113 National Fiction Total 10,127 9,509 9,690 Total 3,357 4,355 2,032 2,736 494 2,768 2,591 4,910 3,702 143 2,238 29,326 Source: OBITEL Brazil Ibero-American Fiction Source: OBITEL Brazil3 In all charts the number zero [0] in a country’s column indicates the lack of production,while the minus symbol [-] indicates that the country did not belong to the Obitel networkin that year.
  30. 30. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 33 The first data to stand out in table 3 is the increase inthe number of national fiction hours in the Obitel countries,reversing the declining scenario of 2010. Mexico led the nationalfiction production in 2011, with almost twice the amount of hoursfrom the previous year. Brazil occupies the second place and hasalso reversed the drop from 2010. Argentina follows (booming),Colombia (decreasing) and Spain (booming). Portugal is in sixthplace with a marked decline when compared to 2010. All eleven Obitel countries imported Ibero-American fictionprograms in 2011 and five of them increased their broadcast hourscompared to 2010. In the triennium, Venezuela, the United Statesand Uruguay led broadcasting hours of Ibero-American fiction. In 2011 the United States figures as the largest importer ofIbero-American fiction, followed by Uruguay, Ecuador and Chile.This leadership is justified by the demand of fiction from the sixtelevision networks dedicated to Hispanic audiences, in whichmore than 80% of all fiction is imported from the Obitel scopecountries. Spain and Brazil were the countries that least airedhours of imported fiction. But, proportionally, Brazil is the countrythat produces the most hours and least imports Ibero-Americanhours (20.4%). Brazil is followed by Mexico (22.2%) and Spain(28.7%). We must remember that this equation between first-runproduction and foreign production imports is the main indicator ofthe production capacity of a country in television fiction.
  31. 31. 34 | Obitel 2012 Table 4. Offer of national and Ibero-American fiction titles – 2009 to 2011 National Fiction - Titles Total 252 256 223 Total 61 131 78 56 9 145 35 64 87 8 37 711 Source: OBITEL Brazil Ibero- American fiction - Titles Total 302 289 175 Total 86 13 126 35 82 17 122 20 40 104 121 766 Source: OBITEL Brazil Observing table 4, it can be noticed that the Obitel countriesproduced 711 national titles in the triennium. The largest numberof national titles was produced by Brazil and Spain, with 41productions, followed by Portugal, Chile, Mexico, Argentina andColombia. Despite leading in national hours with almost twicethat of the previous year, Mexico presented an increase of only twotitles, revealing that the growth in hours is due to the broadcast oflong seriality formats, such as the telenovela. Argentina broadcast
  32. 32. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 35seven more national titles than in the year of 2010, an increasedue to the influence of the new Audiovisual Services Law in forcein the country. Nevertheless, this growth has not presented asignificant increase in the number of hours, but is an indication ofa larger presence of series and unitaries. However, it is suitable toremark that, despite the slight increase in national hours in 2011,Argentina’s national hours remain 10 percent inferior to thenumber recorded in 2009. On the other hand, Brazil and Spain,even having a reduction of 8 and 7 titles respectively, increased thenumber of national hours produced. In the triennium, Mexicoand Brazil were the largest producers of fiction in their owncountries, both in number of hours as and in titles aired. Table 5. National fiction formats in number of titles – 2009 to 2011 Source: OBITEL Brazil In the triennium, Brazil and Mexico uncontestably lead inthe production of Telenovela with a total of 42 each. They reaffirmthus their condition of countries with a great production capacity inthe Obitel scope, since one of the best indicators of that productivecapability is the permanent production of long serial narrative, ofwhich the telenovela is the prime example. In a second level appearsChile and Colombia and in the third, Argentina, Portugal and theUnited States.
  33. 33. 36 | Obitel 2012 In 2011, Mexico was the country that most produced tele-novelas with a total of 15 titles. Brazil comes just behind, with14 and Chile in third with 13 productions. Colombia presents avertiginous fall in half of number in telenovelas, from 20 to 10 pro-ductions, which seems related to the current investment in series. Moving to other formats, since 2007, before the presenttriennium, Spain maintains itself as the largest producer of seriesamong Obitel countries. In the same three year span, it leads theproduction with twice as many as runner-up Brazil, with Portugalcoming in third. It is also important to notice that, in the triennium, thesame ranking can be observed in the production of miniseries:Spain, Brazil and Portugal. We then have made clear that in thisperiod three countries are in the leadership of production of shortseriality fiction: Spain, Brazil and Portugal. The clear hegemony that Spain displays in the productionof series and miniseries characterizes that, unlike Latin Americancountries, it invests and specializes strongly in the short serialityformat. However, by taking into consideration the criterion of thebest ranked in the set of different formats, Brazil is the countrythat best presents the best rankings equally in the production oftelenovelas, series and miniseries. Its fiction therefore operates inits diversity of formats, which implies the mastery of different andspecific processes of production. It’s also revealing that Portugal,with a recent national fiction production, is also following thismodel, since it appears as the second country with the mostdiversity, in a balanced manner, in its production between thethree most important formats: telenovela, series and miniseries. Other formats like unitaries, telefilms and docudramas stillpresent weak production among Obitel countries.
  34. 34. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 37 Table 6. National and Ibero-American fiction offer of chapters/ episodes – 2009-2011 National Fiction – Chapters/episodesSource: OBITEL Brazil Ibero-American Fiction - Chapters/episodesSource: OBITEL Brazil The total number of national chapters/episodes aired in 2011was roughly 13,000, presenting stable during the last two years.Mexico aired the largest chapter/episodes count in 2011, andBrazil appeared in second place, with Colombia in third. Suchdata are due to the increase in the number of telenovelas aired inthe aforementioned countries. In 2011, imported Ibero-American productions came abovenational fiction in countries such as Uruguay, Venezuela,
  35. 35. 38 | Obitel 2012Ecuador, Chile, EUA and Argentina. Uruguay was the countrythat most aired imported Ibero-American chapters/episodes,which occupied 98% of fiction programming in the country, whileits production increased by only 11 chapters/episodes. Looking at the triennium data, over 100 thousand chapters/episodes, by adding national and imported Ibero-American, werebroadcast in Obitel countries, 40% of which were national and60% imported Ibero-American. The countries which, during theperiod, least aired imported Ibero-American chapters/episodeswere Brazil, Spain and Mexico and the ones that most aired themwere Uruguai, Venezuela and Ecuador. Table 7. Length of Chapters/Episodes (without commercials) – 2009 to 2011Source: OBITEL Brazil The length of chapters or episodes may show a tendencyof production directly connected to the formats and styles ofnarrative. Medium (30 to 60minutes) and long (above 60 minutes)length are usually associated to telenovela chapters, which is thesort of plot that can run for long periods. The predominant lengthin Obitel countries is the medium length and that is especiallyclear in countries such as Venezuela, United States, Mexico andBrazil, while long length is cultivated in Ecuador, Argentina
  36. 36. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 39and Uruguay. Short length (less than 30 minutes) is associatedto sitcom episodes and fiction sketches that stand out in Chile,Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil. Table 8. Co-productions – 2009 to 2011CO-PRO- Co- Argen- Bra- Chi- Ecua- Mexi- Portu- Uru- Vene- DUC- lom- Spain USA TOTAL tina zil le dor co gal guay zuela TIONS bia 2011 1 0 0 3 6 0 3 0 0 1 2 16 2010 1 3 0 - - 2 1 1 1 3 0 12 2009 3 0 2 - - 6 0 1 0 4 2 18 TOTAL 5 3 2 3 6 8 4 2 1 8 4 42 2009-11Source: OBITEL Brazil The association between countries to produce fiction isdirectly proportional to the degree of internationalization of theirtelevision, in particular the fiction genre. As it will be observedin the Theme of the Year, this association can be due to thecapital invested, to the plot, cast, sets, etc. A recent occurrence,co-productions are still few in broadcast television in the Obitelcountries, but the tendency is for their growth in the short term,perhaps at a good pace. In 2011, the Obitel countries developed 16 co-productionsand that number represents a relative recuperation of such anendeavor after a decrease from 18 to 12 productions in 2010. In the three-year period, the countries that increased theirco-productions were Colombia, Ecuador and the United States,while Argentina, Chile, Spain and Mexico had a reduction.Brazil, after investing in three co-productions in 2010, did notparticipate in any during 2011. The same happened to Portugal.In a general observation of the triennium, the country with thehighest number of co-productions was Ecuador (6), followed byColombia (3) and the United States (3).
  37. 37. 40 | Obitel 2012 Table 9. Time Period of Fiction Source: OBITEL Brazil Stories with plots that take place in the present are still thefavorite, representing 85% of fiction aired in 2011, putting inevidence the tendency of approaching current subjects in televisionnarratives. We can notice a small increase in Vintage productionscompared to 2010, while fiction set in a Historical period did notdemonstrate large alterations. Spain appears as an exception among Obitel countriessince it diminished plots that take place in the present andconsiderably increased vintage fiction, which accounted for morethan half of all fiction with that timeframe broadcast in all Obitelcountries in 2011.3. The Top Ten television fiction of the year
  38. 38. Table 11. The ten most watched titles: origin, format, audience rating and share Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script1 Passione 44.0 67.1 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil2 Fina estampa 40.1 64.0 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil3 Insensato coração 37.1 59.3 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil A corazón Abierto (2nd Vista Producciones4 35.7 49.7 Series RCN Private USA Colombia season.) /RCN5 Ti-ti-ti 32.4 57.4 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil6 Morde & assopra 32.2 54.1 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil7 El Joe la leyenda. 31.7 43.1 Telenovela RCN RCN Private Colombia Colombia Teleset for RCN8 Tres milagros. 29.9 44.5 Telenovela RCN Private Colombia Colombia Televisión Los 80: más que una9 29.8 43.2 Series Canal 13 Wood Producciones Private Chile Chile moda10 Cordel encantado 29.6 52.4 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil11 Tapas e beijos 28.9 48.8 Series Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil El man es German 1a y12 28.8 42.2 Series RCN RCN Private Colombia Colombia 2nd season13 A grande família 28.8 50.1 Series Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil14 Aquele beijo 28.1 51.3 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 41
  39. 39. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script15 El secretario 25.7 36.4 Telenovela Caracol Caracol Televisión Private Colombia Colombia Spain/ R.T.I./Telemundo/ 42 | Obitel 201216 La reina del sur 25.3 36.4 Telenovela Caracol Private Colombia/ Colombia Antena 3 Mexico17 Araguaia 25.2 48.3 Telenovela Rede Globo Rede Globo Private Brazil Brazil18 Correo de inocentes 24.1 40.2 Series RCN CMO Producciones Private Colombia Colombia19 La bruja 22.2 31.2 Series Caracol Caracol Televisión Private Colombia Colombia20 El hombre de tu vida 21.4 32.7 Other Telefé 100 bares / Telefé Private Argentina Argentina Confidencial Segunda Caracol TV21 21.3 28.7 Miniseries Caracol Private Colombia Colombia temporada Internacional. Univisión/22 Eva Luna 20.9 30.4 Telenovela Univisión Private Venezuela United States Venevisión23 Malparida 20.9 33.8 Telenovela El Trece Pol–ka Private Argentina Argentina24 Los únicos 20.8 30.3 Other El Trece Pol–ka Private Argentina Argentina Herederos de una25 20.8 32.1 Telenovela El Trece Pol–ka Private Argentina Argentina venganza26 Los Canarios 20.7 33.0 Unitary Caracol Caracol Televisión Private Colombia Colombia27 Una familia con suerte 29.4 Telenovela Televisa Private Argentina Mexico 20.6 Canal 228 Triunfo del amor 20.6 30.8 Telenovela Univision Televisa Private Venezuela United States29 Fuerza del destino 20.2 30.4 Telenovela Univision Televisa Private Mexico United States
  40. 40. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script30 El punter 19.7 34.0 Telenovela El Trece Pol–ka Private Argentina Argentina31 El laberinto de Alicia 19.6 26.2 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile32 Dos hogares 19.4 25.8 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private Mexico Mexico Vista Produc. for33 Amor sincere 18.5 24.9 Telenovela TC Expropriated* Colombia Ecuador RCN34 La que no podía amar 18.4 27.1 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private Mexico Mexico35 Teresa 18.2 28.4 Telenovela Univisión Televisa Private Mexico United States36 La fuerza del destino 18.2 27.8 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private México Mexico37 Aquí mando yo 18.0 32.1 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile38 La Doña 17.2 24.8 Telenovela CHV Own Channel Private Chile Chile39 40 y tantos 17.2 27.0 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile40 Una familia con suerte 16.0 25.0 Telenovela Univisión Televisa Private Argentina United States TVI / Plural41 Espírito Indomável 15.4 40.8 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment42 Rosario Tijeras 15.3 22.8 Telenovela Teleamaz. Teleset para RCN Private Colombia Ecuador Telemundo/Antena43 La reina del sur 15.2 23.7 Telenovela Canal 9 Private Spain Mexico 344 Vivir la vida 15.2 27.2 Telenovela Canal 12 Rede Globo Private Brazil Uruguay Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 4345 Su nombre es Joaquín 15.0 21.7 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile
  41. 41. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script46 Los únicos 14.9 25.2 Series Canal 12 Pol-ka Private Argentina Uruguay47 El encanto del águila 14.8 Series Canal 2 Televisa Private Mexico Mexico 44 | Obitel 2012 19.648 El equipo 14.6 19.8 Series Canal 5 Televisa Private Mexico México49 Amorcito corazón 14.6 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private Venezuela Mexico 24.1 Herederos de una50 Telenovela Private Uruguay venganza 14.3 30.2 Canal 12 Pol-ka Argentina51 Cesante: todo por la pega 14.2 20.7 Telefilm CHV Own Channel Private Chile Chile52 Peleles 14.1 19.7 Telenovela Canal 13 Own Channel Private Chile Chile53 Adicciones 14.1 25.9 Unitary Canal 12 Contenidos TV Private Uruguay Uruguay54 Infiltradas 14.0 20.2 Telenovela CHV Own Channel Private Chile Chile55 La reina del sur 13.8 20.8 Telenovela Telemundo Telemundo/RTI Private Spain United States56 Témpano 13.8 21.4 Telenovela TVN Own Channel Public Chile Chile57 Llena de amor 13.5 22.0 Telenovela Univisión Televisa Private Venezuela United States58 Cuna de Gatos Telenovela Private Uruguay 13.5 30.3 Canal 12 Rede Globo Brazil59 La Pareja Feliz I 13.4 22.2 Series Teleamaz. Teleamazonas Private Ecuador Ecuador El Arbol / Telefé60 El elegido 13.2 22.6 Telenovela Private Argentina Argentina Telefé contenidos
  42. 42. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script61 Águila Roja 13.0 29.1 Series La 1 Globomedia Public Spain Spain62 Los héroes del norte 12.9 19.6 Series Canal 5 Televisa Private Mexico Mexico63 Malparida 12.8 26.8 Telenovela Canal 12 Pol-ka Private Argentina Uruguay64 Ni contigo ni sin ti 12.8 21.0 Telenovela Canal 2 Televisa Private Brazil Mexico Venevision65 Sacrificio de mujer 12.7 27.4 Telenovela TC Expropriated* Venezuela Ecuador Productions66 Cuna de gato 12.4 17.8 Telenovela Ecuavisa Rede Globo Private Brazil Ecuador Underground67 Un año para recorder 12.4 18.6 Telenovela Telefé Private Argentina Argentina contenidos68 Mi Recinto 12.3 18.4 Series TC TC Televisión Expropriated* Ecuador Ecuador69 Mar de Amor 12.3 31.8 Telenovela Canal 12 Televisa Private Mexico Uruguay70 La rosa de Guadalupe 12.1 20.0 Unitary Univisión Televisa Private Mexico United States71 Mujeres asesinas 12.0 19.0 Series Univisión Televisa Private Argentina United States72 Cuando me enamoro 12.0 21.0 Telenovela Univisión Televisa Private Mexico United States73 Passione 12.0 25.6 Telenovela Canal 12 Rede Globo Private Brazil Uruguay RTI, Antena 3, Spain/74 La reina del Sur 12.0 19.6 Telenovela Canal 4 Private Uruguay Telemundo Colombia Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 45
  43. 43. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script Sony Entertainmen75 La Ninera  11.9 22.6 Series Canal 10 Private United States Uruguay Televisión / Telefé 46 | Obitel 2012 TVI / Plural76 Remédio Santo 11.8 32.2 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment77 La Pareja Feliz III 11.6 19.6 Series Teleamaz. Teleamazonas Private Ecuador Ecuador78 El Fantasma del GH 11.6 22.6 Telenovela TC Teleset for RCN Expropriated* Colombia Ecuador Spain/ Telemundo/Antena79 La Reina del Sur 11.2 18.7 Telenovela Ecuavisa Private Colombia/ Ecuador 3 (Es) United States RGB Enterteinme/80 Cuando me sonreis 11.1 16.3 Other Telefé Private Argentina Argentina Telefé contenidos81 La Rosa de Guadalupe II 11.0 15.6 Telenovela Gama TV Televisa Expropriated* Mexico Ecuador TVI / Plural82 Anjo Meu 10.8 33.2 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment TVI / Plural83 Mar de Paixão 10.7 34.1 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment SIC/SP Televisão /84 Laços de Sangue 10.4 30.0 Telenovela SIC Private Portugal/Brazil Portugal Rede Globo85 Cuéntame cómo pasó 9.9 22.5 Series La 1 Grupo Ganga Public Spain Spain TVI / Plural86 O Dom 8.8 33.9 Miniseries TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment
  44. 44. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script Morangos com Açúcar TVI / Plural87 8.3 27.9 Series TVI Private Portugal Portugal VIII: Agarra o teu futuro Entertainment88 Rosa Fogo 8.2 23.1 Telenovela SIC SIC/ SP Televisão Private Portugal Portugal89 El barco 8.1 18.9 Series A3 Globomedia Private Spain Spain90 La República 8.0 17.1 Series La 1 Diagonal TV Public Spain Spain91 Gran reserve 7.9 18.4 Series La 1 Bambú Producciones Public Spain Spain A3, Bambú92 Marco 7.8 17.1 Miniserie A3 Private Spain Spain Producciones93 Aída 7.8 17.2 Series Tele5 Globomedia Private Spain Spain94 El ángel de Budapest 7.8 18.7 Telefilm La 1 TVE y DLO Public Spain/Hungry Spain95 Mañana es para siempre 7.7 16.8 Telenovela Canal 9 Televisa Private Mexico Argentina96 Gran hotel 7.6 18.5 Series A3 Bambú Producciones Private Spain Spain97 La fuerza del destino 7.4 16.4 Telenovela Canal 9 Televisa Private Mexico Argentina98 La viuda joven 7.2 29.5 Telenovela Venevisión Venevisión Private Venezuela Venezuela99 Los misterios de Laura 7.1 16.6 Series La 1 Ida y Vuelta P.F. Public Spain Spain100 Conta-me como foi 6.9 17.1 Series RTP1 RTP/SP Televisão Public Spain Portugal TVI / Plural101 Sedução 6.7 29.3 Telenovela TVI Private Portugal Portugal Entertainment Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 47
  45. 45. Country of Aud. Share Production Private or Broadcasting Title Format Channel origin of the % % Company Public TV Country script102 La mujer perfecta 6.5 26.7 Telenovela Venevisión Venevisión Private Venezuela Venezuela103 Pasión Vallenata 5.9 24.5 Miniseries Venevisión Caracol TV Private Colombia Venezuela 48 | Obitel 2012104 La Leyenda Continua 5.8 23.2 Miniseries Venevisión Caracol TV Private Colombia Venezuela105 Chepe Fortuna 5.7 23.6 Telenovela Televen RCN Televisión Private Colombia Venezuela Venevisión Intern/ Venezuela/106 Eva Luna 5.7 27.6 Telenovela Venevisión Private Venezuela Univisión United States Colombiana107 Oye Bonita 5.6 33.1 Telenovela Venevisión Private Colombia Venezuela Televisión108 Tierra de Cantores 5.6 23.2 Miniseries Venevisión Caracol TV Private Colombia Venezuela109 Natalia del Mar 5.5 33.6 Telenovela Venevisión Venevisión Private Venezuela Venezuela110 La Fuerza del Destino 5.5 32.8 Telenovela Venevisión Televisa Private Mexico Venezuela*These are channels managed by the State since their expropriation.Source: OBITEL Brazil
  46. 46. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 49 Table 11 presents the ten most watched titles in each ofthe Obitel countries totalizing 110 fiction programs classified byaudience ratings. Among the ten first places there are six Brazilianfiction programs, three Colombian and a Chilean one. Eightof them are telenovelas and two are series: one Colombian andthe other Chilean. It should be highlighted that in first place isthe Brazilian telenovela Passione, followed by Fina Estampa andInsensato Coração, all made by Rede Globo. In fourth place is theColombian series A corazón abierto, a development of the telenovelaof the same name, which took first among the Top Ten in 2010. Italso stands out for having an imported plot, a fact that had neverbeen seen in the most watched list. In 2011, another imported plotonly figured in the 22nd position, Eva Luna, original of Venezuelaand broadcast in the United States. Focusing on the circulation of scripts among higher ratingtitles, 37 are imported scripts (34%), while 73 (64%) originatefrom the country that produced them, showing the preference fornational stories, as it has been highlighted by the Obitel analysissince the beginning of the research. Among the 110 productions that appeared in the Top Ten,16 of them are co-productions, a smaller number than the 26observed in 2010. In 2011, among the overall Obitel Top Ten,there are two Colombian co-productions: A corazón abierto (2ndseason, Vista Produciones and RCN) in fourth place, and Tresmilagros (Teleset and RCN). With regards to the type of network, it is observed thelarge prevalence of private channels. From the 110 titles, around10 percent were broadcast on public channels.
  47. 47. Table 12. Formats and Time Slot of the Top Ten Country Formats Time Slot Telenovela Series Miniseries TV movie Unitary Docudrama Others Morning Afternoon Prime time Night 50 | Obitel 2012Argentina 7 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 8 0Brazil 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 0Chile 8 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0Colombia 4 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0Ecuador 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 0Spain 0 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0United States 8 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 10 0Mexico 6 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 5 3Portugal 7 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 0Uruguay 7 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 5 3Venezuela 7 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 1 TOTAL 69 26 6 3 2 0 4 0 14 89 7Source: OBITEL Brazil
  48. 48. Comparative synthesis of the Obitel countries in 2011 | 51 Among the 10 most watched titles in each country, we cannotice the absolute leadership of the telenovela format, whichcorresponds to 69 productions. Regarding the 10 productions mostwatched in Brazil, Chile and Mexico, 80% are in the telenovelaformat, and in all Obitel countries this format is never under60 percent of the most watched fiction of the year. Colombia isthe single country with a balanced production – 40 percent oftelenovelas and 40 percent of series. The series format occupies the second position in number ofproductions within the Top Ten titles, with a total of 26 fictions. Regarding the time slot, prime time is when 81% of the mostwatched fictions are broadcast in 2011, followed by the afternoonslot, with 13%, and the night slot with 7%. On the other hand,the morning slot is not used at all for the broadcast of any of theTop Ten programs, even as an alternative rerun period.4. Highlights of the year in the OBITEL countries In a year of multiple configurations in the media ecosystems,one characterized by changes in the consumption and receptionrules by Ibero-American television audiences, fiction – as anindustry and format – has tried to find ways to diversify its narrativeand thematic offer so as to reach out all the possible audiences. One of the strategies that is visible in all the Obitel countriesis the search for interactivity in the fiction products, for -as it isshown in the transmedia reception of this comparative chapter-most of the productions are moving their narratives to otherscreens, mainly the computer and the cell phone, both in theirsymbiosis with the Internet. Of course these transmedia changes have also been accom-panied by a narrative restructuring of fiction; for example, Brazilhas once again gained the leading position by providing a sense ofself-reference to its fictions, promoting the expansion of the rela-tions between reality and the possible worlds that exist in fiction.
  49. 49. 52 | Obitel 2012 The number of Hispanics in the United States has gainedgreat importance, in the year 2011 they amounted to 50 million.Paradoxically, while the immigration from the south is restricted,the attention increases to what has already become the new bigconsumers’ market in general and of viewers in particular, whowatch especially fiction products.Humor and drama as narrative hooks What is also changing is the way in which the narrative offeris constructed as well as the transmission of television fiction. Inview of the fragmentation of the signals, due to the digitalizationof the television signals, countries such as Spain, Portugal andArgentina have witnessed the birth of new television schemeswhere the production and broadcast of fiction is made keeping inmind consumption needs of specific audiences; for example, theseries production is focused mainly on a children-teenager publicalthough this format is also being used to catch the attention ofmale audiences. These detailed actions in all the Obitel countries make itevident that great effort is made to maintain high rating and,ultimately, the industry’s profitability, which, as it can be observedin many of the countries is in a sort of pause that is evident in aproductions decrease of fiction titles, not necessarily with regardto the number of hours that fiction has traditionally occupied inthe programs slots. To recover the grounds lost, the year 2011 was characterizedby a thematic search and innovation and by a constant narrative inthe Ibero-American fiction industry. This fact brought about thediversification of fiction formats both in series and telenovelas,some of the most recurrent in the Obitel countries were: comedy,suspense and the return of fiction with political content, whichcoexisted with the already classic and profitable melodramas. The genre that managed to maintain the highest ratingsamong the audience was comedy, no doubt that it not only was

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