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  • 3. DELEGATIONDelegation (or deputation) is the assignment of authorityand responsibility to another person (normally from amanager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities.However the person who delegated the work remainsaccountable for the outcome of the delegated work.Delegation empowers a subordinate to make decisions, i.e. itis a shift of decision making authority from oneorganizational level to a lower one.
  • 4. DELEGATIONAccording to F.C. Moore, "Delegation means assigningwork to the others and giving them authority to do so".According to Koontz and ODonnel "the cement that binds theorganisation together is called delegation."According to Brech “delegation means the passing on to othersof a share in the essential elements of management process”.
  • 5. PROCESS OF DELEGATIONA. Before delegating, the delegator has to decide exactly the duties which are to be delegated to the subordinate or a group of subordinates.B. The second stage of delegation process, the authority is granted by the delegator to his subordinate (delegate). Authority must be delegated strictly to perform the assigned duty.C. In this third stage of delegation process, the subordinate has to accept or reject the task assigned to him in the first stage along with the authority given in the second stage.D. The fourth stage in the delegation of authority is the creation of obligation on the part of the subordinate to perform duties assigned to him in a satisfactory manner by using the authority given.
  • 7. ADVANTAGES OF DELEGATIONThe essence of delegation process is empowering someone toact for the manager. The manager shares his burden of workwith his subordinates through delegation. Thus the manager isallowed to concentrate on other works.Delegation allows freedom and expands the wisdom ofsubordinates. It enhances the position and status of thesubordinates as they are given powers to exercise.Organisation grows and expands out of delegation. Delegationspeeds up decision making as power is shared at all levels.
  • 8. ADVANTAGES OF DELEGATIONIt motivates the subordinates to do better and perform well.When a manager is on leave the work is taken bysubordinates and provides continuity in functions.The behaviour pattern of every individual is improved bydelegation. Granting of freedom to act by the superior showsthe confidence of the superior over tile subordinates.
  • 9. DISADVANTAGES OF DELEGATIONLack of confidence in subordinates .Fear of competition.Conservative and cautious temperament of the manager.Lack of information : A subordinate may hesitate to accept anew assignment, when he knows that necessary information toperform the job is not likely to be made available to him.
  • 10. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE DELEGATION OF AUTHORITYKnowledge of Objectives: Before delegating authority, thesubordinates should be made to understand their duties andresponsibilities.Parity of Authority and Responsibility: This principle of delegationsuggests that when authority is delegated, it should be commensuratewith the responsibility of the subordinate.Unity of Command: This principle of delegation suggests thateveryone should have only one boss.The Scalar Principle: The scalar principle of delegation maintainsthat there should be clear and direct lines of authority in theOrganization, running from the top to the bottom.
  • 11. ASPECTS OF DELEGATIONAssigning duties by the executivesGranting of authorityCreation of obligation or accountability.
  • 12. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE DELEGATION OF AUTHORITYAbsoluteness of Responsibility: This principle of delegation suggests thatit is only the authority which is delegated and not the responsibility.Use of Exception Principle: This principle of delegation indicates thatwhen authority is delegated, it is expected that the subordinate willexercise his own judgment and take decisions within the purview of hisauthority.Completeness of Delegation: This principle of delegation suggests thatthere should be completeness in the process of delegationReward for Effective Delegation : This principle suggests that effectivedelegation and successful assumption of authority should be rewarded.
  • 13. THE 3 STEPS OF DELEGATION THE 3 STEPS OF DELEGATION ARE: Analysis of the task Make sure that there is a firm understanding of what needs to be done and why. Monitoring and checking results.
  • 14. Step 1 Analysis of the taskFirst and foremost decide if the task is appropriate for delegation.For instance make sure that it isn’t anything that you alone havebeen trained to do.What is also very necessary for you to bare in mind is that youmust choose the right person for the job, you can’t be biasedtowards this sort of thing otherwise it will undoubtedly be yourdownfall.But remember delegation is as much a reflection of you as it is onthe people you delegate to, as it shows your ability to judgepeople correctly and can often be a marking that you are capableof this on a larger scale.
  • 15. Step 2 Make sure that there is a firm understanding of what needs to be done and why.The person or people who give the job to should be fully aware ofany responsibilities and expectations that come with it.Make sure that they know what sort of a priority this task is andwhy they were chosen.From the beginning state what you expect and what needs to beachieved, the person or team you have assembled should beunder no pretences about what the results should be and whenthe deadline is.
  • 16. Step 3 Monitoring and checking resultsThis is a very important part of delegation, even though youyourself are not now working on the project at hand it is essentialthat you take an active interest in how things are going.If something does go wrong in the project make sure that youunderstand what went wrong and why it happened, so you willbe able to rectify the problem and hopefully stop it fromreoccurring.When your team or delegate has finished the job successfullymake sure to let them know that they have done a good job andthat their efforts are appreciated.
  • 17. AUTHORITYAuthority is the right to perform or command. It allows itsholder to act in certain designated ways and to directlyinfluence the actions of others through orders.Barnard defines authority as the character of communicationby which an order is accepted by an individual as governing theactions that individual takes within the system.
  • 18. Barnard maintains that authority will be accepted only under thefollowing conditions:The individual can understand the order being communicated.The individual believes the order is consistent with the purposeof the organization.The individual sees the order as compatible with his or herpersonal interests.The individual is mentally and physically able to comply with theorder.The fewer of these 4 conditions that are present, the lower theprobability that authority will be accepted and obedience beexacted.
  • 19. TYPES OF AUTHORITYLine AuthorityStaff AuthorityFunctional Authority
  • 21. LINE AUTHORITYThe most fundamental authority within an organization reflects existingsuperior-subordinate relationships. It consists of the right to makedecisions and to give order concerning the production, sales or financerelated behaviour of subordinatesIn which individuals in management positions have the formal powerto direct and control immediate subordinates.People directly responsible for these areas within the organization aredelegated line authority to assist them in performing their obligatoryactivities.
  • 22. STAFF AUTHORITY Staff authority consists of the right to advise or assist those whopossess line authority as well as other staff personnel.Granted to staff specialists in their areas of expertise. Narrowerthan line authority and includes the right to advise, recommend, andcounsel in the staff specialists area of expertise.Staff authority enables those responsible for improving theeffectiveness of line personnel to perform their required tasks.
  • 23. ROLE OF STAFF PERSONNELHarold Stieglitz has pinpointed 3 roles that staff personnel typicallyperform to assist line personnel:The Advisory or Counseling Role: In this role, staff personnel usetheir professional expertise to solve organizational problems. The staffpersonnel are, in effect, internal consultants whose relationship withline personnel is similar to that of a professional and a client.The Service Role: Staff personnel in this role provide services that canmore efficiently and effectively be provided by a single centralizedstaff group than by many individuals scattered throughout theorganization. This role can probably best be understood if staffpersonnel are viewed as suppliers and line personnel as customers.The Control Role: Staff personnel help establish a mechanism forevaluating the effectiveness of organizational plans.
  • 24. LINE AND STAFF RELATIONSLine and Staff personnel must work together closely to maintainthe efficiency and effectiveness of the organization.A plant manager has line authority over each immediatesubordinate, human resource manager, the production managerand the sales manager.However, the human resource manager has staff authority inrelation to the plant manager, meaning the human resourcemanager has staff authority in relation to the plant manager,meaning the human resource manager possesses the right toadvise the plant manager on human resource matters.Still final decisions concerning human resource matters are in thehands of the plant manager, the person holding the line authority.
  • 26. CONFLICT IN LINE AND STAFF RELATIONSHIPFrom the view point of line personnel, conflict is createdbecause staff personnel tend toAssume Line AuthorityDo not give Sound AdviceSteal Credit for SuccessFail to Keep line personnel informed of their activitiesDo not see the whole picture.
  • 27. CONFLICT IN LINE AND STAFF RELATIONSHIPFrom the view point of Staff Personnel, conflict is created becauseline personnel do not make proper use of staff personnel, resist newideas and refuse to give staff personnel enough authority to do theirjobs.Line personnel can do their part to minimize line staff conflict by singstaff personnel wherever possible, making proper use of the staffabilities, and keeping staff personnel appropriately informed.
  • 28. FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITYFunctional authority consists of the right to give orders within asegment of the organization in which this right is normallynonexistent.This authority is usually assigned to individuals to complement theline or staff authority they already possess.Functional Authority generally covers only specific task areas and isoperational only for designated amounts of time. It is given toindividuals who, in order to meet responsibilities in their own areas,must be able to exercise some control over organization members inother areas.
  • 29. ELEMENTS TO ACHIEVE ASUCCESSFUL PROJECTThere are three key elements that form the backbone forachieving any success in project management. They are:Authority: The legitimate power given to a person in anorganization to use resources to reach an objective and toexercise discipline.Accountability: Being answerable to ones superior in anorganization for the exercise of ones authority and theperformance of ones duties.Responsibility: The duties, assignments, and accountabilityfor results associated with a designated position in theorganization.
  • 30. AUTHORITY IN CONTRUCTIONIn construction, the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) is thegovernmental agency or sub-agency which regulates the constructionprocess.During the construction of a building, the municipal buildinginspector inspects the building periodically to ensure that theconstruction adheres to the approved plans and the local buildingcode.
  • 31. AUTHORITY IN CONTRUCTIONOnce Construction is complete and a final inspection has been passed,an occupancy permit may be issued.An operating building must remain in compliance with the fire code.The fire code is enforced by the local fire department.Changes made to a building that affect safety, including its use,expansion, structural integrity, and fire protection items, usuallyrequire approval of the AHJ for review concerning the building code.
  • 32. CONCLUSIONSuccessful delegation is important to successful project management.Delegation is a win when done appropriate how ever that does not meanthat you can delegate just any thing. It allows you to make the best use ofyour time and skills and help other people in the team grow and developto rich there full potential in organization. When delegating considerstrength and weakness of team members. Authority denotes right tomake decision and command the subordinate to conform these decision.Before delegating authority the subordinates should be made tounderstand their duties and responsibility.