Skills Skills in the Social Studies Curriculum Active Democratic Citizenship Managing Information and Ideas Critical and Creative thinking Communication Information Technology Problem Solving Human Relations and Literacy Inquiry and Research Geographical and Historical Thinking Instructional Strategy for Skill-based (Psychomotor) Outcomes
Instructional Strategy for Skill-based Outcomes Definitions, Theories and Principles Instructional Strategies for Developing Skills Considerations for planning your unit References
Definitions, Theories and Principles Learning outcomesare“ends-centric” focusing on what is to be learned (i.e. the outcome or the end results). Approaches to instruction are “means-centric” – how the learning is done (i.e. the method).
Definitions Skill is “the capacity to perform a given type of task or activity with a given degree of effectiveness, efficiency, speed…” (Romiszowski, 2009; Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.63).
Romiszowski’sSkill Categories Intellectual or cognitive Motor, sensory or psychomotor Personal or reactive Interactive or interpersonal Baseball (hockey, figure skating, chess,) was my salvation. Auto-pilot
The Reproductive-Productive Skill Continuum Productive skills – “activities…planning of a procedure…to the specific situation … the application of theory, general principles, and creativity…underlying knowledge is heuristic rather than algorithmic.” Reproductive skills – “activities that are repetitive and largely automatic….application of an appropriate procedure, or algorithm, for the task in hand.” Cognitive processing Developmental (Romiszowski, 2009; Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.202).
Characteristics of Skill and Knowledge Skill and knowledge are different qualities. Knowledge – “information of which a person…..is aware…….a ‘go-no go’” quantity (either you have it or don’t); the “eureka [moment]…..one-shot manner” of organizing an idea with existing knowledge into new knowledge. Skill – a quality“develops with experience and practice….seldom one-shot….repeated practice…..[for]….higher degrees of competencies.” (Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, pp.203-204).
Integration of Knowledge and Skill Competence or competency Cluster of skills, abilities, habits, character traits, and knowledge to perform a specific job well.
Tim Gallwey What is The Inner Game? “There is always an inner game being played in your mind no matter what outer game you are playing. How aware you are of this game can make the difference between success and failure.” -Tim Gallwey
Inner Game Awareness (Critical Variables) Awareness is (often) curative. Ah ha! Non Judgmental
Paradoxes To develop skill and confidence in the learner- try not to solve the problems of your students, instead facilitate their problem solving skills Teach less so that more is learned.
Try to put yourself in your students’ shoes Transposing (Empathy) “ What the student hears is (usually) more important than what the teacher says and there is usually a big difference between the two.”