Fostering Skills Outcomes

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This presentation is to marry Romiszoski's work with Tim Gallwey.

This presentation is to marry Romiszoski's work with Tim Gallwey.

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  • The word act may refer to physical, mental, personal or interpersonal activity


  • 1. Skills
    Skills in the Social Studies Curriculum
    Active Democratic Citizenship
    Managing Information and Ideas
    Critical and Creative thinking
    Information Technology
    Problem Solving
    Human Relations and Literacy
    Inquiry and Research
    Geographical and Historical Thinking
    Instructional Strategy for Skill-based (Psychomotor) Outcomes
  • 2. Instructional Strategy for Skill-based Outcomes
    Definitions, Theories and Principles
    Instructional Strategies for Developing Skills
    Considerations for planning your unit
  • 3. Definitions, Theories and Principles
    Learning outcomesare“ends-centric”
    focusing on what is to be learned (i.e. the outcome or the end results).
    Approaches to instruction are “means-centric” – how the learning is done (i.e. the method).
  • 4. What is a skill?
  • 5. Definitions
    Skill is “the capacity to perform a given type of task or activity with a given degree of effectiveness, efficiency, speed…”
    (Romiszowski, 2009; Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.63).
  • 6. Romiszowski’sSkill Categories
    Intellectual or cognitive
    Motor, sensory or psychomotor
    Personal or reactive
    Interactive or interpersonal
    Baseball (hockey, figure skating, chess,) was my salvation.
  • 7. The Reproductive-Productive Skill Continuum
    Productive skills – “activities…planning of a procedure…to the specific situation … the application of theory, general principles, and creativity…underlying knowledge is heuristic rather than algorithmic.”
    Reproductive skills – “activities that are repetitive and largely automatic….application of an appropriate procedure, or algorithm, for the task in hand.”
    Cognitive processing
    (Romiszowski, 2009; Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.202).
  • 8. What is Skill?
    What is Knowledge?
  • 9. Characteristics of Skill and Knowledge
    Skill and knowledge are different qualities.
    Knowledge – “information of which a person… aware…….a ‘go-no go’” quantity (either you have it or don’t); the “eureka [moment]… manner” of organizing an idea with existing knowledge into new knowledge.
    Skill – a quality“develops with experience and practice….seldom one-shot….repeated practice…..[for]….higher degrees of competencies.”
    (Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, pp.203-204).
  • 10. Integration of Knowledge and Skill
    Competence or competency
    Cluster of skills, abilities, habits, character traits,
    and knowledge
    to perform
    a specific job well.
  • 11. Knowledge Folds into Skill
    • A low-level task (e.g. preparing a spreadsheet report) involves skill that utilizes existing knowledge.
    • 12. As the task moves from low- to high-level (e.g. developing a diagnosis on House) additional knowledge is required to supplement existing skill.
    • 13. Skill and knowledge should be viewed as interdependent (not independent) qualities.
  • <---The Reproductive-Productive Skill Continuum--->
  • 14. The Skills Cycle
    A Four-Stage Performance Cycle (Romiszowski, 1981; Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.207)
  • 15. The Extended
    Skill Cycle
    (Romiszowski, 2009;
    Reigeluth &
    Carr-Chellman, 2009,
  • 16. Instructional Strategies
  • 17. Example
  • 18. Tim Gallwey
    What is The Inner Game?
    “There is always an inner game being played in your mind no matter what outer game you are playing. How aware you are of this game can make the difference between success and failure.” -Tim Gallwey
  • 19. Inner Game
    (Critical Variables)
    Awareness is (often) curative. Ah ha!
    Non Judgmental
  • 20. Inner Game
    Choice- Desired Future Outcome
  • 21. Inner Game
    T Trust
  • 22. It don’t mean a thing if it ain’t got that zing
    Motivation Theories
    Purpose, Autonomy,
  • 23. STOP (Reflection-in-Action)
    Step Back
    Organize yourself
    Proceed Rest
  • Paradoxes
    To develop skill and confidence in the learner- try not to solve the problems of your students, instead facilitate their problem solving skills
    Teach less so that more is learned.
  • 26. Try to put yourself in your students’ shoes
    Transposing (Empathy)

    What the student hears is (usually) more important than what the teacher says and there is usually a big difference between the two.”
  • 27. Relationship to Social Studies
    • Incorporate performances of understanding (authentic products)
    • 28. Work on routines and the automaticity of reproductive skills in service of productive skills;
    • 29. Talk assessment with students (jointly develop criteria)
    • 30. Portfolios to show skill growth
  • 31. Discussion
    • What are some of the critical variables that span the cognitive, psychomotor, personal and interpersonal domains in the skills threaded into the Social Studies curriculum.
  • 32. Summary
    • Learning outcomes (ends-centric) versus instructional approaches (means-centric);
    • 33. Skill classification – cognitive, psychomotor, personal (reactive) & interpersonal (interactive);
    • 34. Reproductive (algorithm) - productive (heuristic) skill continuum
    • 35. The Skill Cycle
    • 36. The Extended Skill Cycle
    • 37. Tim Gallwey, The Inner Game
  • 6. References
  • 38. 6. References