Tahapanawal yang merupakanorientasidantes interpersonal Anggota team mulaimengidentifikasidengansesamaanggota team dandengan team itusendiriStorming : badaiTahapkonflikatasantaratugasdanbekerjasamasebagai team.
“To connect to people at the deepest level, you need stories” -Rob Mckee- Source by : Markplus
Stories are like viruses. They are ubiquitous–we all ’get’ stories, no matter where we’re from They are contagious–tell a story to someone, and if it resonates it’ll spread; the most powerful stories demand to be retold, again and again. They stick–through the re-telling, they embed themselves In our own and our shared memory Source by : Markplus
Experience(good or bad), is always aninteresting story to tell Source by : Markplus
ButTrue Experience isalways aninteresting story Source by : Markplus
Stage of Team Development FORMING (TahapAwal) A stage of initial orientation and interpersonal Testing. People begin to identify with other members and with the team itself. 2. STORMING A stage of conflict over tasks and working as a team.
3. NORMING A stage of consolidation around task and operating agendas. Members of the team begin to coordinate as working unit and tend to operate with shared rules of conduct. 4. PERFORMING A stage of teamwork and focused task performance. The main challenges
5. ADJOURNING A stage of task completion and disengagement Common in temporary groups which operate in the form of committees, tasks forces and project teams
GROUPS vs TEAMS All TEAMS ARE GROUP, but Not All GROUPS ARE TEAMS. GROUP is characterized by individual self –interest. GROUP is simply collection of people working together. A TEAM is a unit of interdependent individuals with complimentary skills who are committed to a common purpose and set of performance goals and to common expectations, for which they hold themselves accountable
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTGES OF TEAMWORK ADVANTAGES of Teamwork : Achieve Synergy 2. Evaluate one to anothers thinking so can avoid major errors 3. Continous improvement and innovation 4. Work environment encourages people to becomne self motivated, empowered and satisfied with their jobs. 5. Satisfy more needs (needs of : affliation, security, self esteem, and self-fulfillment)
DISADVANTAGES of Teamwork : The members face Pressure to conform to group standards of performance Social Loafing : is the conscious or unconscious tendency by some team members to shirk responsibility by withholding effort toward group goals when they are not individually accountable for their work 3. Group Think When members of a cohesive group tend to agree on a decision not on the basis of its merit bu because they are willing to risk rejection for questioning a majority viewpoint or presenting a dissenting opinion. 4. Conflict Cohesive teams can caused conflict with other teams
CHARACTERISTIC OF EFFECTIVE TEAMS Teams effectiveness has three components : Task performance – the degree to which the teams output (product or service) meets the needs and expectations of those who use it. Group Process – the degree to which members interact or relate in ways that allow the team to work increasingly well together over time Individuals Satisfaction – the degree to which the group experience, on balance, is more satisfying than frustating to team members.
Team Norms Team Norms guide the team members behavior --- What behavior acceptable and un acceptable. Team Norms are acceptable standards of behavior that are shared by team members. Team Norms influence how team’s members Perceiveand interact with one another, approach decisions, and solve problems.
Team Leadership Having a team leader who can effectively influence the whole team can mean the difference between success and failure. Self-sacrificing leaders are these who go above and beyond what’s expected of them, they get involved in making things happen. Team Leaders have an important personal role to play in building effective teams.
Team Cohesiveness & Interdependence Team Cohesion is the extent to which team members band together and remain committed to achieving team goals. Team Cohesion is increased when :
Team members agree in a common purpose and direction
External parties give high praise and recognition for the team’s success
The organization encourages and motivates teams to compete with each other for rewards
Members find they have common ground and similar attitudes and values and enjoy being on the team
In Highly cohesive teams, the quality of interpesonalrelations and member self-identifications with the team is strong.
Team Composition Focused on the diversity in knowledge, background and experiences of team members. Effective teams must have the right mix of the complementary skills, knowledge and ability to perform the team’s job. Successful teams are both proactive in anticipating the need for conflict resolution and pluralistic in developing conflict resolution strategies that apply to all team members.
Another aspect of team composition is the size of theteam. Small teams are more generally nore effective than larger teams.
Team Structure Team structure referes to interrelations the determine the assignment of tasks, responsibilities and authority. The Horizontal : decentralizalized decision making
Organizational Support The Organization’s Role in Creating Effective Teams Top Management’s unconditional support Adequate information and other resources Flexible task structure Appropiate size and membership mix Clearly defined mission and goals Appropiate power sharing structure – shared leadership Competent team leadership Evaluation and soliciation of feedback on team effectiveness Adequate socilization of team members
Creativity Driven Top management’s role in encouraging creativity is significant. Creativity doesnt work in Hierarchical command-and-control environments. Top Managements has the responsibility to create the appropiate setting and support systems that foster and nourish creativity.
Top Management activities that can enhance creativity include providing teams with the following : Adequate and quality resources Appropiate recognition and rewards Flexibility and minimum amount of structure Supportive climate and culture
Team Leader activities that can help to enhance team creativity include : Matching members with the right assignments Giving team members greater autonomy to do the job Ensuring the availability of adequate time, money and other resources for the team Protecting against “creativity blockers”
TYPE OF TEAMS Functional Teams is a group f employees belonging to the same functional department, such as marketing, R&D, production, human resources, or information systems, who have a common objective.
2. Cross Functional Team is made up of members from different functional departments of an organization who are brought together to perform unique tasks to create new and non routine products or services.
3. Virtual Team is one whose members are geographically distributed, requiring them to work together through electronic means with minimal face to face interaction.
4. Self-Managed Team (SMT) are relatively autonomous teams whose members share or rotateleadership responsibilities and hold themselvesmutually responsible for a set of performance goals assigned by higher management.
Decision Making in Teams Leader-Centered Decision-Making Model The leader exercise his / her power to initiate, direct, drige, instruct, and control team members.
Leader Points for Success : - Focus on the tasks and ignore personal feelings and relationships
Seek opinions and try to get agreement.
Stay in control of the group discussion at all times and should politely
Discourages members from expressing their feelings, should strive maintain a rational, logical discussion
Should guard against threats to his or her authority in the group and should fight if necessary to maintain it.
2. Team-Centered Decision-Making Model The advantages are that it can improve decision quality. The disadvantages are that it can take longer than decisions made alone by a manager
Leader Points for Success : - Listen attentively and observe nonverbal cues to be aware of members need, feelings, interactions, and conflict.
The leader should be to serve a consultant, advisor, teacher and facilitator.
The leader should model appropiate leadership behavior and encourage members to learn to perform these behaviors themselves.
Establish a climate of approval for expression of feelings as well as ideas.
Should relinquish control to the team and allow it to make final choice in all appropiate kinds of decision
Leadership Skills for effective Teams Meetings Three Parts to conduct effective meetings Each meeting should cover the following : Identify Objectives Begin the meeting on time, reviewing progress to date, the group’s objectives, and the purpose/objective for the spesific meeting. If Minutes are recorded, they are ussualy approved at the beginning of the next meeting.
2. Cover Agenda items Be sure to cover agenda items in priority order. Try to keep the approximately times, but be flexible. If the dicussion is constructive and members need more time, give it to them; however, if the discussionn is more of destructive argument, move ahead.
3. Summarize and review assignment End the meeting on time. The leader should summarize what took place during the meeting. Were the meeting’s objectives achieved? Review all of the assignment given during the meeting. Get commitment to the tasks that each member should perform for the next or spesific future meetings. Someone should record all assignment.
The Difference between Conventional and Self-Managed Teams. Self-managed teams differ from traditional teams in a number of ways. In self-managed teams, roles interchange frequently as members learn to be followers as well as leaders. SMT members develop multiskilled capabilities that make them very flexible in performing various tasks within the team.
The Nature of self-managed teams is one of group empowerment and accountability rather than individual is a significant responsibility, especially since SMT members determine how they will organize themselves to get work done and are responsible not only for their own performance but for that other team members as well
How Team Member Characteristics Impact Self-Managed Team Effectiveness Strong belief in personal accountability An internal locus of control coupled with emotional stability Openness to new ideas/viewpoints Effective communication Good problem-solving skills Ability to engender trust Good conflict resolutions skills
Benefits of Self-Managed Teams Improve in quality, speed, process, and innovation Create stronger sense of commitment to the work effort among team members Have a more satisfied employees and lower turnover and absenteeism. Facilitate faster new product development Grater flexibility in dealing with personnel shortages due to ilness or turnover Keep operational costs down because of reductions in managerial ranks and increased efficiencies.
The Challenges of Implementing Effective Self-Managed Teams In among members of the nonmanagerial ranks, the transition to SMT-s has much potential for frustation and problems as it does for managers. The team members must learn new behaviors, the need to adapt to new working environment in which definition of of team work requiresa personal, cultural, and behavior conflicts.