Systems Thinking: Principles and Practice (T205)


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  • Reference: Practical Systems Thinking
  • Systems Thinking: Principles and Practice (T205)

    1. 1. ! T205     SYSTEMS  THINKING:   Principles  and  Prac;ce     Session  01   Osama  M.  Ashri  
    2. 2. Agenda   •  Discussing  logis;cal  and  administra;ve  issues   •  Introducing  the  essence  of  systems  thinking   •  Explaining  the  structure  of  the  course  materials  
    3. 3. What  does  the  word  system  mean  to  you?    
    4. 4. Systems  Thinking:  What  is  in  a  name?   A  system  is  an  interconnected  set  of  elements   that  is  coherently  organized  in  a  way  that   achieves  a  purpose   Reference:  Thinking  in  Systems,  Donella  meadows  
    5. 5. “Maybe pushing on that wall to the right will give some space.”
    6. 6. “Oops!”
    7. 7. An  influence  on  one  part  of  a  system  can  have  an   effect  on  another  part  of  the  same  system    
    8. 8. A  systems  must  be    organized  in  a  coherent  way  in  order   to  achieve  its  purpose      
    9. 9. From  the  V  Discipline…   "Systems   thinking   is   a   discipline   for   seeing   wholes.   It   is   a   framework   for   seeing   interrela7onships   rather   than   things,   for   seeing  paAerns  of  change  rather  than  staBc   'snapshots'...Today   systems   thinking   is   needed   more   than   ever   because   we   are   becoming  overwhelmed  by  complexity.”                   Peter  Senge  
    10. 10.    A  SYSTEM…is  anything  that  takes  its  integrity  and   form  from  the  ongoing  interac7ons  of  its  parts.  Companies,   naBons,  bodies,  television  sets…are  all  systems.  Systems  are   defined   by   the   fact   that   their   elements   have   a   common   purpose   and   behave   in   common   ways,   precisely   because   they  are  interrelated  toward  that  purpose.     Reference:  The  Dance  of  Change:  The  Challenges  of  Sustaining  Momentum  in  Learning  Organiza;ons  
    11. 11. Systems  thinking  is  a  discipline  for   seeing  the  parts  as  well  as  the  whole!  
    12. 12. Elements   Feedback  loop   Boundary     Simplifying  Systems   Boundary    
    13. 13.  The  Syntax  of  Systems  Thinking  &  Prac;ce   Reference:  Growing  Wings  on  the  Way:  Systems  Thinking  for  Messy  by  Rosalind  Armson    
    14. 14. “a  company’s  business  model  [is]  a  system  of  interconnected  and   interdependent  acBviBes  that  determines  the  way  the  company   “does  business”  with  its  customers,  partners  and  vendors.”   Business  Model  is  a  System  
    15. 15. University  >  Sum  of  its  Parts  
    16. 16. An  entrepreneurship  ecosystem  is  a  system  whose   elements  must  interact  in  a  coherent  way  with  the   purpose  of  creaBng  an  enabling  environment  where   entrepreneurs  can  thrive  and  prosper.     Entrepreneurial  Ecosystem   Ref:  Naviga;ng  Saudi  Arabia’s  Entrepreneurial  Ecosystems  by  Osama  M.  Ashri  
    17. 17. Can  you  think  of  other  systems?  
    18. 18. The  whole  >  the  sum  of  the  parts   Interconnected  whole   A  heap   A  system   The  unified  whole  is  different  from   the  sum  of  the  parts   Sum  of  the  parts   “Perfect  parts  don’t  make  perfect   wholes”  -­‐  Ackoff  
    19. 19. Reference:  Thinking  in  Systems,  Donella  meadows  
    20. 20. Systems  Thinking  Creates  Synergy   *  Ref:  www.thefreedic;     “Synergy   is   the   interacBon   of   two   or   more   forces   so   that   their   combined   effect   is   greater   than   the   sum   of   their  individual  effects.”*  
    21. 21. If  you  plant  two  plants  close   together,  the  roots  comingle   and   improve   the   quality   of   the   soil   so   that   both   plants   will  grow  beAer  than  if  they   were  separated.  
    22. 22. In   medicine,   synergy   means   the   interacBon   of   two   or   more   substances   to   produce   a   effect   greater  than  the  sum  of  their  individual  effects.  
    23. 23. By  flying  a  “V”  forma7on,  the  whole  flock   adds  71%  greater  flying  range  than  if   each  bird  flew  alone.  
    24. 24. The  whole  is  greater  than  the  sum  of  its  parts  
    25. 25. When  we  fixate  on  one  part  of  the  system,  we  miss  the  whole    
    26. 26. Reference:  A  Systems  Story  –  A  Short  Introduc;on  to  Key  Systems  Thinking  Concepts    
    27. 27. The  Complexity  of  Airplane  Design  by  Cherry  Ogata   Why  Systems  Thinking?  
    28. 28. A  Key  Ques;on   •  If   we   look   at   the   world   around   us,   and   given   the   moun;ng  complexity,  do  we  need  to  think  and  act   differently?   •  Indeed…We’re   facing   bigger   and   more   challenging   issues  at  all  levels.     Untangling  Complexity    
    29. 29. Systems  thinking  offers  a  new  mindset  
    30. 30. What  is  this  Systems  Thing  all  about?   •  The   essence   of   systems   thinking   and   prac;ce   is   in   "seeing"  the  world  in  a  par;cular  way  because,   •  how   we   "see"   things   affects   the   way   we   approach   situa;ons  or  undertake  specific  tasks,  and   •  How  we  "see"  is  influenced  heavily  by  the  culture  of   the   society   in   which   we   live   and   work   and   by   our   educa;on  and  training.   •  What  you  see  is  what  your  think!  
    31. 31. Seeing  the  World  Anew     •  Systems   thinking   entails   a   new   way   of   looking   at   the   world,  and  this  shid  in  thinking  can  be  challenging  and,   hence,  exci;ng!     •  You  can  NOT  always  make  sense  of  problems  or  issues  by   breaking  them  into  parts!   •  This  course  employs  systemic  perspec;ve,  which  focuses   on  different  aspects  of  a  situa;on,  but  pays  aeen;on  to   the  connec7ons  and  rela7onships  between  things  –  and   to  the  different  percepDons,  priori;es  and  needs  of  the   people  involved.    
    32. 32. Cul;va;ng  a  Mind  for  Today  &  the  Future   •  The   “Synthesizing   Mind”   –   the   ability   to   knit   together  informa;on  into  a  coherent  whole  –     is  one  of  the  5  kinds  of  minds  that  people  will   need  if  they  are  to  thrive  in  the  world  during   the  eras  to  come.     •  Synthesis  (Symphony)  –  pujng  together   the   pieces   to   see   the   full   picture   –   was   suggested  as  a  vital  ap;tude  necessary  in   today’s  conceptual  age.  
    33. 33. Symphony   “The  apBtude  of  “Symphony”  is  the  ability  to  put  together   the  pieces.  It  is  the  capacity  to  synthesize  rather  than  to   analyze;  to  see  relaBonships  between  seemingly  unrelated   fields;   to   detect   broad   paAerns   rather   than   to   deliver   specific   answers;   and   to   invent   something   new   by   combining  elements  nobody  else  thought  to  pair.”       Ref:  A  Whole  New  Mind  
    34. 34. Appealing  to  both  sides  of  the  brain.  However,..  
    35. 35. About  this  Course!   •  Introduces   the   fundamental   concepts   and   tools   of   systems  thinking  &  prac;ce   •  Further   enhances   your   systems   thinking   and   prac;ce   skills   by   applying   a   systemic   approach   to   five   different   applica;on  areas:   –  Perceiving  and  learning  about  situa;ons     –  The  individual  in  rela;on  to  others   –  Managing  in  organiza;ons   –  The  environment  and  sustainability   –  Globaliza;on  and  the  informa;on  society    
    36. 36. What  We’ll  Cover  
    37. 37. List  of  T205  Materials  
    38. 38. Webzone   Blocks   1-­‐3   Concept   Files   (1-­‐3)   T551   Primer   T552   Diagrams   Case  Files   (as  directed)   Fijng  the  Course  Materials  Together  
    39. 39. •  Covers  the  nuts  and  bolts  of  Systems  Thinking   •  Will  enable  you  to  start  to  think  systemically  and  to   make  that  thinking  explicit     •  Will  be  your  reference  guide  throughout  the  en;re   course  of  T205  and  will  carry  over  to  T306.       T551     Systems  Thinking  &  Prac;ce:  A  primer  
    40. 40. Key  Concepts  in  Systems  Thinking     Concepts   • Boundary     • Level  &  Hierarchy   • Worldview  &  perspec;ve     • Components   • Emergence   • Environment   • Feedback  loops   • Interconnec;ons   • Modeling   • System  of  Interest   • Mul;ple  Causes   Applica;ons   • Tackling  Messes  &   difficulBes   • Unlocking  traps     • Untangling  Complexity   • Defying  ReducBonism  
    41. 41. Elements   Feedback  loop   Boundary     Simplifying  Systems   Boundary    
    42. 42. Language  of  Systems  
    43. 43. “Tools  of  the  Trade”   T552     Systems  Thinking  &  Prac;ce:  Diagramming  
    44. 44. Context:  messy   situaDon   YOU…The   Observer     Systems  Thinking:   Tools  &  Concepts      
    45. 45. Always  think  SUDA!  
    46. 46. Assessments   •  Designed  to  assess  your  knowledge  and  understanding   of  key  concepts  covered  throughout  the  course.     •  One  TMA  (20%)     •  Mid-­‐term  Assessment  (30%)   •  Final  Exam  (50%)  
    47. 47. Systems  Theory  +  Prac;ce  
    48. 48. Unlock  the  power  to  think  differently    
    49. 49. T205     SYSTEMS  THINKING:   Principles  and  Prac;ce     Session  02   Osama  M.  Ashri  
    50. 50. What  We’ll  Cover   •  Primer:   –  What  is  this  systems  thing  about   –  Ways  of  thinking   •  Concept  file  One:   –  Reading  1:  Learning  and  Reflec;on   –  Reading  2:  What  is  learning   –  Reading  3:  Models  of  the  learning  process     •  Diagramming:   –  What  is  a  diagram?   –  Why  do  people  use  diagrams?  
    51. 51. Primer  (T551)   –  What  is  this  systems  thing  about   –  Ways  of  thinking  
    52. 52. Main  Objec;ves   •  Build  up  confidence  in  using  systems  concepts  and   languages   •  Introduce  a  set  of  key  systems  concepts   •  Understand  what  is  dis;nc;ve  about  systems   thinking  as  opposed  to  other  forms  of  thinking   •  Understand  how  and  why  systems  thinking  is  useful   in  analyzing  and  improving  situa;ons    
    53. 53. What  is  this  Systems  Thing  all  about?   •  The   essence   of   systems   thinking   and   prac;ce   is   in   "seeing"  the  world  in  a  par;cular  way  because,   •  how   we   "see"   things   affects   the   way   we   approach   situa;ons  or  undertake  specific  tasks,  and   •  How  we  "see"  is  influenced  heavily  by  the  culture  of   the   society   in   which   we   live   and   work   and   by   our   educa;on  and  training.   •  What  you  see  is  what  your  think!  
    54. 54. •  System  thinking  involves  looking  at  the  interconnec7ons   between  parts  of  a  whole  rather  than  concentra;ng  just   on  the  parts.     •  People   and   their   viewpoints   are   part   of   complex     situa;ons  we  normally  have  to  deal  with.   •  Thinking   systemically   (≠   systema;cally)   allows   us   to   iden;fy  mul;ple  ways  to  handle  intractable  situa;ons.   What  is  this  Systems  Thing  all  about?  
    55. 55. ST  Unleashes  Your  Poten;al     “We,  the  trapped,  tend  to  take  our  own  state  of   mind  for  granted  –  which  is  partly  why  we  are   trapped”     -­‐  Geoffery  Vickers   “If  you  do  what  you’ve  always  done…”     You’ll   be   trapped.   Being   trapped   prevents  you  from  thinking  of  new  ways   of  overcoming  problems.    
    56. 56. Trap:  the  Inkwell  Lobster  Pot   •  The   lobster’s   shape   allows   it   to   get   in   the   pot   but   not   turn  round  or  reverse  out.   •  Systems   thinking   helps   you   “change   shape”   enough   to   escape   from   some   of   the   traps   you   are   stuck   in   –   especially  when  facing  complex/messy  situa;ons     The   inkwell   lobsterpot   is   an   openwork   wicker   basket   approximately  50  cm  high  &  75  cm  across.  It  has  a  strong   base  that  rests  on  the  sea  floor,  weighted  by  stones.  At  the   top  is  a  steep-­‐sided  funnel  that  narrows  from  about  20  cm   to  15  cm  and  is  approximately  15  cm  long.  A  strong  but  light   rope,  supported  by  cork  floats,  allows  recovery.  
    57. 57. The  lobster  cannot  change  its  shape,  but  you   can  change  your  thinking!  
    58. 58. Causal     Logical   Mul;ple  Par;al  Mul;ple  Cause   Holis;c   Systems   Thinking   ReducDonist   Features  of  Systems  Thinking   Perspec;ve   Worldview   Systems  Concepts  
    59. 59. Causal     Logical   Mul;ple  Par;al  Mul;ple  Cause   Holis;c   Systems   Thinking   ReducDonist   Features  of  Systems  Thinking   Perspec;ve   Worldview   Systems  Concepts  
    60. 60. Logical  Thinking   •  It  starts  with  a  generalizaDon  (a  premise  assumed  to  be   true)    then  deduces  a  conclusion  about  a  par;cular  case.     •  The  conclusion  follows  from  the  premise  (you  can’t  say   “well,  it  all  depends…”).   •  It  aeempts  to  be  objecDve:  conclusion  shouldn’t  depend   on  your  point  of  view,  opinions  or  values.     •  It  is  sequen;al:  “if  a,  then  b”  –  i.e.,    chain  of  reasoning.     •  It  is  a  useful  way  of  thinking.  However,  it’s  not  always  a   good  way  of  soring  out  emo;onal  problems.    
    61. 61. Causal     Logical   Mul;ple  Par;al  Mul;ple  Cause   Holis;c   Systems   Thinking   ReducDonist   Features  of  Systems  Thinking   Perspec;ve   Worldview   Systems  Concepts  
    62. 62. Causal  Thinking   •  Is  a  way  of  linking  events/ac;vi;es  together   •  Is  objecDve     •  Linear  (If  A  à  then  B  à  then  C…)   •  Same   principles   of   logical   thinking   apply   to   causal   thinking  too!    
    63. 63. Causal     Logical   Mul;ple  Par;al  Mul;ple  Cause   Holis;c   Systems   Thinking   ReducDonist   Features  of  Systems  Thinking   Perspec;ve   Worldview   Systems  Concepts  
    64. 64.     Logical   and   causal   ways   of   thinking   are   not   so   good   at   helping  us  to  think  about  systems  because  they  intend  to:     –  Look  for  general  principles  from  par;cular  instances   –  Ignore  subjec;ve  elements   –  Concentrate   on   simpler   systems   which   leads   to   unintended  consequences   –  Break   situa;ons   down   into   smaller   parts   where   single  causes  and  effects  are  likely   –  Draw   inferences   or   takes   ac;ons   based   on   the   understanding  of  the  parts.   Limita;ons  of  Reduc;onist  Thinking  
    65. 65.   “[Reduc7onism]  is  the  sin  of  modern  life…reducing   things  to  their  component  parts  and  thereby,  too  oeen,   missing  the  meaning  and  message  of  the  forest  in  a   minute  examinaBon  of  its  trees”     -­‐  Charles  Handy    
    66. 66. Causal     Logical   Mul;ple  Par;al  Mul;ple  Cause   Holis;c   Systems   Thinking   ReducDonist   Features  of  Systems  Thinking   Perspec;ve   Worldview   Systems  Concepts  
    67. 67. •  Deals  with  wholes  rather  than  parts!   •  It  is  not  always  clear  what  is  a  whole  and  what  is  a  part.   –  A   person   is   a   whole,   who   is   a   part   of   a   group   and   that   group,  which  is  a  whole,  could  be  a  part  of  a  larger  group   (e.g.,  organizaBon).  So  all  of  them  seem  to  be  both  parts   and  wholes  at  the  same  Bme.     •  The  holis;c  approach  starts  by  looking  at  the  nature  and   behavior  of  the  whole  you  are  concerned  with,  and  if  this   doesn’t  yield  results,  the  next  step  will  be  to  look  at  the   bigger  whole  of  which  it  forms  a  part.       Holis;c  Thinking  
    68. 68. Whole   Part   Whole   Whole   Part   Part   Reduc;onist  (Reduc;ve)  Thinking/  Analysis   Holis;c  Thinking/  Synthesis    
    69. 69. Causal     Logical   Mul;ple  Par;al  MulDple  Cause   Holis;c   Systems   Thinking   ReducDonist   Features  of  Systems  Thinking   Perspec;ve   Worldview   Systems  Concepts  
    70. 70. Mul;ple  Causes   Causality  is  not  usually  a  simple  maAer  of  an  isolated  statement   such  as  A-­‐causes-­‐B   Why  did  the  car  crash?  But  why  did  the  driver  lose  control?     We  can  also  go  forward.  What  will  be  the  further  consequences?   why  did  the  driver  lose  control?  
    71. 71. Why  did  the  Bre  burst  in  the  first  place?   So  the  event,  Bre-­‐burst,  is  the  result  of  a  set  of  causes  that  converge  on  it.   Similarly,  any  event  is  likely  to  have  a  set  of  immediate  consequences   resulBng  from  it  
    72. 72. Causal     Logical   MulDple  ParDal  Mul;ple  Cause   Holis;c   Systems   Thinking   ReducDonist   Features  of  Systems  Thinking   Perspec;ve   Worldview   Systems  Concepts  
    73. 73. Illustra;on  of  mul;ple  par;al  views  
    74. 74. The  more  slices  you  have,  the  more  you  will  know   about  the  whole.    
    75. 75. Causal     Logical   Mul;ple  Par;al  Mul;ple  Cause   Holis;c   Systems   Thinking   ReducDonist   Features  of  Systems  Thinking   PerspecDve   Worldview   Systems  Concepts  
    76. 76. Worldview  vs.  Perspec;ve   •  Worldview  is  about  the  values  you  bring  to  any  situa;on.   It  involves  deeper-­‐seated  views  such  as  our  values  .The   way  you  see  the  world,  regardless  of  your  posi;on   •  PerspecDve  is  about  the  insights  you  bring  to  a  parBcular   situa;on,   based   on   your   own   involvement   in   that   situa;on.   How   things   look   from   your   current   posi;on.   Perspec;ve  could  be  influenced  by  our  worldviews   •  Systems   thinking   embodies   “worldview”   and   “perspec7ve”,   as   they   imply   that   the   foundaBon   for   understanding   lies   in   interpreBng   interrelaBonships   within  systems.    
    77. 77. Why  Perspec;ve  maeers  in  ST   •  Our  perspecDves  are  unique  and  limited!  A  central  fact   of  the  systems  approach  is  that  everyone  sees  the  world   differently.     •  Differences  in  perspec;ve  could  be  part  of  the  mess  and   complexity  that  we  have  to  deal  with.   •  Unless  you  recognize  that  you  own  viewpoint  is  parDal,   you  risk  trapping  yourself  –  with  your  own  unchallenged   assump;ons  –  so  you  cannot  change  your  understanding   of  the  mess  you’re  trying  to  deal  with.   •  We   bring   our   perspec;ves   and   worldviews   to   messy   situa;on  (crea;ng  a  system  of  interest.)  
    78. 78. Gaining  New  Perspec;ves  of  a  System   •  Reconsider   your   own   perspecDve.   Be   clear   and   explicit   about  your  own  points  of  view.     •  Look  for  the  unintended  consequences  of  the  system's   opera;on.   •  Adopt  the  perspecDve  of  another  person  –  access  other   parDal  views  to  supplement  your  own.        
    79. 79. “On  such  occasions,  it  is  oeen  useful  to  have  different  ‘tools  for   thought’   in   order   to   set   about   thinking   about   the   situaBon,   exploring   new   ‘angles’,   trying   out   different   boundaries   and   generaBng  a  more  rounded  appreciaBon  of  a  situaBon,  however   complicated,  familiar  or  unusual.  An  important  part  of  this  is  the   ability  to  explore  and  value  others’  points  of  view,  trying  out   their   perspec7ves   and   incorporaBng   their   insights.   All   these   features  characterize  ‘systems  thinking’…”     Ref:  Primer  Book  T551    
    80. 80. Causal     Logical   Mul;ple  Par;al  Mul;ple  Cause   Holis;c   Systems   Thinking   ReducDonist   Features  of  Systems  Thinking   Perspec;ve   Worldview   Systems  Concepts  
    81. 81. Systems  Thinking   •  Is  holis;c   •  Uses  mul;ple  &  mutual  causality       •  Appreciates  mul;ple  perspec;ves   •  Uses  diagramming  as  a  tool  for  representa;on   •  separates  the  system  from  its  environment  as  a  way  to   capture  connectedness    
    82. 82. Reference:  Growing  Wings  on  the  Way:  Systems  Thinking  for  Messy  Situa;ons    
    83. 83. “Maybe pushing on that wall to the right will give some space.”
    84. 84. “Oops!”
    85. 85. Think  about  This!   If  A  causes  B,    is  it  possible  that  B  also   causes  A?   Ref:  Thinking  in  Systems  by  Donella  Meadows  
    86. 86. Context:  messy   situaDon   YOU…The   Observer     Systems  Thinking:   Tools  &  Concepts      
    87. 87. Diagramming  (T552)   –  What  is  a  diagram?   –  Why  do  people  use  diagrams?  
    88. 88. What  is  a  diagram?   •  Models  are  representa;ons  of  reality   •  We  have  internal  models  of  the  world  (Mental  Model)   •  We  externalize  internal  models  through  diagrams   •  Systems  thinking  considers  the  representa;ons  of  the   structures  that  don’t  readily  exist,  except  in  the  mind.   •  For  diagrams  to  be  used  as  external  models  they  need  to     follow  agreed  upon  rules/conven;ons.    
    89. 89. “The  map  is  not  the  territory”  
    90. 90. Features  of  diagrams   •  Analogue  representa;on     –  Photographs  of  real  objects.       •  Schema;c  representa;ons   –  Represents   the   essence   “real   world”   objects/phenomena   (e.g.,  Maps  and  Plans)   •  Conceptual  representa;ons   –  Describes   interrela;onships   between   ideas   or   processes   that  cannot  be  readily  observed.   –  Represents  non-­‐visual  features  (with  emphasis  on  both  the   emo;onal  and  ra;onal/real  rela;onships   –  Based  on  our  internal  models  
    91. 91. Dis;nc;ons  between  diagrams   •  Pictorial  diagram:  pictures  and  symbol  dominate   •  Non-­‐pictorial  diagrams:  words  and  lines  dominate   •  Generally  speaking,  diagrams  describe  either:     –  Structure  (diagrams  represent  sta;c  rela;onship)  or,   –  Processes  (diagrams  represent  situa;ons  over  a  period  of   ;me)  
    92. 92. Notes  to  keep  in  mind  about  diagrams   •  Whenever   we   express   new   ideas,   we   describe   and   represent   the   “reality”   we   perceive   by   making   simplifica;ons  (diagrams)  for  some  purpose  (Note  that   “Map  ≠  Territory”)   •  It  is  essen;al  to  simplify  the  “real  world”  in  order  to  be   able  to  describe  it.   •  In  simplifying,  we  select  certain  features  of  a  situa;on  –   the  essen;als  –  to  communicate  a  clear  message.   •  The   view,   or   perspec;ve,   taken   and   the   choice   of   features   is   extremely   important   in   conveying   that   message.  
    93. 93. Why  Do  People  Use  Diagrams   •  Influences  on  how  we  perceive  diagrams:   –  Visualizers  (relate  more  to  diagrams)  and  verbalizers   (preference  to  textual  materials)   –  Gender  and  Cogni;ve  Styles     •  Diagrams  are  used  to:   –  Illustrate  what  something  looks  like     –  Demonstrate   how   objects/ideas   are   organized   and   related     –  Further  your  own  thinking  about  a  topic  or  situa;on  –   especially   complex   problems   by   allowing   you   to   see   the   individual   parts   of   a   systems   as   well   as   the   connec7ons  between  them      
    94. 94. Diagrams  can  be  helpful  in…   •  Understanding  a  situa;on,  especially  complex  ones   •  Analyzing  a  situa;on   •  Communica;ng  with  others  about  the  analysis  of   that  situa;on   •  Planning  to  deal  with  a  situa;on   •  Implemen;ng,  monitoring  and  evalua;ng  those   plans  
    95. 95. Reading  Diagrams   •  What  is  the  purpose  of  the  diagram?   •  How  is  the  informa7on  imparted?   •  What  assump7ons  does  it  make  about  our  ability  to   understand  it?   •  What  are  we  expected  to  remember  from  it?   •  How  successful  it  it  in  doing  all  of  the  above?  
    96. 96. Concept  File  (1)  One   –  Reading  1:  Learning  and  Reflec;on   –  Reading  2:  What  is  learning   –  Reading  3:  Models  of  the  learning  process  
    97. 97. Learning  and  Reflec;on   •  Learning  to  Learn   –  Paying  aeen;on  to  HOW  we  are  learning  (process)     –  Being  able  to  learn  independently.     •  ReflecDon  (the  mind's  conversa;on  with  itself)   –  Is  essen;al  for  the  development  of  understanding  and  of   the  ability  to  make  use  of  complex  ideas  and  concepts   –  Raises  awareness  about  how  you  learn  to  improve  your   learning   –  Enables  you  to  monitor  your  progress,  learn  from  good   and  bad  experiences  and  plan  for  beeer  ways  of  doing   things.  
    98. 98. What  is  Learning?   •  Learning  is  a  means  not  an  end!  It’s  not  undertaken  for   its  own  sake,  but  for  what  it  enables  us  to  achieve   •  Pursuing  goals  requires  that  you  learn  to  do  something   new  or  to  do  something  differently.   •  Learning   is   an   interacBve   process   between   people   and   their   social   and   physical   environment   which   results   in   changes  to  people's  knowledge,  ajtudes  and  prac;ces     •  Concep;ons   of   learning   are   diverse   and   based   on   process   (through   which   it   happens)   and   outcomes   (to   which  it  leads)    
    99. 99. Kinds  of  Learning  -­‐  MUD   •  Memorizing   –  helps   in   understanding   something   (Ac;ve)   vs.   rote   memorizing/learning  (Passive)   •  Understanding   –  achieved   through   tes;ng,   elabora;ng   on   and   evalua;ng   what  you  have  read  or  learned     •  Doing   –  prac;cing  the  new  skills  and  seeking  feedback  to  improve   your  performance.    
    100. 100. •  The  Acquisi;ve  Model  of  Learning   •  The  Construc;vist  Model  of  Learning   •  The  Experien;al  Model  of  Learning   Models  of  the  Learning  Process  
    101. 101. The  Acquisi;ve  Model  of  Learning  
    102. 102. Concentrates   on   what   happens   during   the   process   of   learning..     •  Starts   with   the   assump;on   that   learners   use   their   exis;ng  frameworks  of  understanding  to  interpret  what   is  being  taught     •  These   exis;ng   ideas   influence   the   speed   and   effec;veness  with  which  new  ideas  are  learned   •  Learners   are   ac;vely   involved   in   processing   what   is   taught   and,   as   a   result,   the   same   input   is   perceived   differently  by  different  learners.   The  Construc;vist  Model  of  Learning  
    103. 103. Experien;al  Learning  (Kolb’s  Model)  
    104. 104. KOLB  Meets  SUDA  
    105. 105. T205     SYSTEMS  THINKING:   Principles  and  Prac;ce     Session  03  &  04   Osama  M.  Ashri  
    106. 106. What  We’ll  Cover   •  T551  primer:   – Reading  03:  Systems  Thinking   – Reading  04:  Types  of  Situa;ons   •  T552  Diagramming:     – Appendix  A1.1.  (Spray  Diagrams)   •  Concept  File  02   – Sec;on  I  (with  emphasis  on  reading  4&5)    
    107. 107. Systema;c  vs.  Systemic   •  Systema7c  =  Having  a  plan  or  a  method  (Analysis)   –  Breaks   the   system   (issue)   down   into   its   cons;tuent   parts  and  ignores  interconnectedness    (reducDonist)   •  Systemic  =  affec;ng  en;re  body/organism  (Synthesis)     –  Simplifies   complex   situa;ons   without   overlooking   interconnectedness  (holisDc)   –  Explains   and   understands   the   whole   system   &   the   interac;ons  between  the  parts     “Dividing  an  elephant  in  half  does  not  produce  two   small  elephants.”      
    108. 108. Simplifies  complex  situaBons  without   overlooking  interconnectedness   Breaks  the  system  down  into  parts   and  ignores  interconnectedness    
    109. 109. Systems  Thinking:  Ideas  &  Techniques   •  One  of  the  main  characteris;cs  of  ST  is  that  it  is  holis7c         •  A  holis7c  approach  simplifies  complex  situa;ons  without   overlooking  significant  connectedness.  How?   –  Represen;ng   the   issue   as   a   system.   A   systems   way   of   describing  an  issue  is  not  to  say  ‘this  is  how  it  actually  is’   but   to   generate   variety   in   the   way   the   issue   is   thought   about!   –  When  tackling  an  issue  the  first  steps  are  to  go  up  several   levels   of   abstrac;on;   later   stages   involve   “coming   back   down   to   earth’   and   rela;ng   the   general   conclusions   reached  to  the  specific  issue  at  hand.    
    110. 110. Mul;ple  Layers  of  Context   “Problems  cannot  be  solved  at  the  same  level  of   thinking  ….”  -­‐  Einstein  
    111. 111. Systems  Thinking:  Ideas  &  Techniques   •  A   systems/systemic   representa;on   of   a   situa;on   facilitates  a  holis;c  approach  to    problems.   •  Perceiving  an  issue  as  a  system  entails  represen;ng  that   issue  in  a  way  that  captures  the  essen;al  connectedness   of  that  issue  This  also  requires  iden;fica;on  of:   –  A   boundary   that   separates   the   system   from   its   environment,  which  are  made  up  of  elements  that  are  not   part  of  the  system  but  can  indirectly  affect  the  system    
    112. 112. The  Sin  of  Modern  Life   •  “Reduc7onism   is   the   sin   of   modern   life   […]   reducing   things   to   their   component   parts   and   thereby   too   oeen,   missing   the   meaning   and   message   of   the   forest   in   a   minute  examinaBon  of  its  trees”  –  Charles  Handy   •  ReducDonist   approach   presumes   that   there   is   only   one   right  answer/approach  to  a  given  problem.   •  Reducing   the   conflict   may   lead   to   increased   misunderstanding.     •  Thus,  looking  at  something  as  if  it  were  a  systems  helps   generate  a  rich  representa;on  of  the  issue  so  as  to  make   it  easy  to  think  about  in  a  new  light.  
    113. 113. Types  of  Situa;ons   It  is  an  interacBng  set  of  problems   Messes  are  wicked;  Difficulty  are  tame  
    114. 114. Difficulty   Dif$iculty:  Characteristically  smaller  scale  and  well  de1ined
    115. 115. Mess   Messes:  Characteristically  bigger  and  poorly  de1ined   Unbounded  
    116. 116. Systems  Thinking  for  Managing  Messes   •  Messes  are  systems  of  problems   –  Everything  seems  to  connect  to  everything  else     –  they're  so  entangled  that  our  first  mistake  is  usually  to   try  and  fix  them  as  we  would  fix  a  simple  problem.   –  we  oden  try  to  ignore  some  aspects  of  them     •  Hence,  as  in  any  systems,  if  a  mess  is  disassembled,  it   loses  its  essen;al  proper;es.    
    117. 117. What  do  I  mean  by  “mess?”  The  “mess  I  am  talking  about  in  not   what  happens  when  you  spill  something  on  a  floor  or  your  lap.   It’s  not  about  your  infant  child  does  in  her  diaper.  The  “mess”  I   mean   is   not   a   single   problem.   I   use   “mess”   to   represent   an   interac7ng  set  of  problems,  a  system  of  problems,  that  won’t   be   solved   by   any   simple,   single,   narrow   focus.   The   world’s   problems   are   an   interacBng,   inextricably   connected   cluster   of   disorders  that  thus  far  have  eluded  either  resoluBon  or  soluBon,   chiefly   because   they   are   approached   as   singled   or   isolated   concerns”     –  Sheldon  Rovin  
    118. 118. It's  hard  to  know  where  to  start   Not  easy  to  define     Everything  connects  to  everything  else    
    119. 119. A  messy  Problem…   A  soluBon…    
    120. 120. Healthcare   System   Labor   Market   Managing   Change   ?   Examples  of  Messes   Traffic   System  
    121. 121. Reference:  Growing  Wings  on  the  Way:  Systems  Thinking  for  messy  situa;ons    
    122. 122. Exercise   For  each  of  the  following  problems  decide  whether  it  is   a  difficulty  or  a  mess.       •  A  buyer  faced  with  the  choice  of  which  supplier  to  use.   The   choice   is   from   a   list   of   regular   suppliers   each   of   which  is  subject  to  uncertain;es.     •  A  small  business  proprietor  trying  to  decide  whether  to   expand  her  business  into  a  new  area  of  ac;vity.     •  Assembling  a  jigsaw  puzzle    
    123. 123. What  kind  of  situaBons  does  system  thinking  best   help  in  understanding  and  tackling?               “The  SituaBon  the  world  is  in  is  a  MESS.”     -­‐  Russ  Ackoff  
    124. 124. People  are  Different!   •  Everyone  of  us  is  unique   •  If  used  thoughzully  and  purposefully,  psychological   measure  (psychometrics)  can  help  you  learn  more   about  yourself  and  appreciate  more  others.   •  There  are  several  personality  type  tests.  The  one  will   focus  on  is  “Adaptor-­‐Innovator  Scale”  
    125. 125. Do  It  Beger   Do  It  Differently  
    126. 126. •  Likes  precision,  conformity   •  Seeks  proven  solu;ons   •  Rarely  challenges  rules   •  Maintains  group  stability   •  Produces  safe  ideas   •  Solu;ons  within  the  paradigm   •  Approaches  tasks  from   unusual  angles   •  Ques;ons  assump;ons   •  Challenges  rules       •  A  catalyst  to  seeled  groups   •  Produces  risky  ideas     •  Solu;ons  outside  the   paradigm   The  High  Adaptor   The  High  Innovator  
    127. 127. It  is  a  maeer  of  style!   •  Whether  you’re  more  of  an  adopter  or  innovator,  it  is  a   maeer  of  style  –  NOT  necessarily  crea;vity   •  Thomas  Edison  “  I  have  never  worked  on  anything  that   didn’t   already   have   a   working   model”   Adopter   or   Innovator?   •  Albert   Einstein   “ImaginaBon   is   more   important   than   knowledge?”  Adopter  or  Innovator?   •  Understanding  thinking  style  can  help  in  choosing  tasks   and  facilita;ng  communica;on  
    128. 128. Spray  Diagram  
    129. 129. Spray  Diagram  
    130. 130. Spray  Diagrams  (Workshop)   •  Form  a  team  of  three   •  Each  team  chooses  an  issue  they  wish  to   explore  (organiza;onal  or  social  issue)   •  Draw  a  spray  diagram  to  explore  as  much  as   you  can  about  the  chosen  issue  
    131. 131. SUDA  revisited   When   confronted   with   a   messy   situa;on,   use   systems   concepts  and  tools  such  as  diagramming  and  modeling  to:     •  Sensing  the  factors  that  contribute  to  the  mess.  Iden;fy  what   type  of  situa;on  the  problem  is  more  likely  to  be.   •  Understanding   and   untangle   the   complex   mass   of   interconnected   elements.   This   process   results   in   the   iden;fica;on  of  par;cular  systems  of  interest         •  Deciding  an  appropriate  AcDon  to  take  to  approach  the  issue/ situa;on.    
    132. 132. Sensing  is  the  first  Step   When  approaching  any  situa;on,  try  to  sense  whether   you’re  dealing  with  a  difficulty  or  a  mess  by:     – Collec;ng   relevant   informa;on   and   data   about   the  situa;on.   – Gaining  different  perspec;ve/view  of  the  situa;on   – Becoming   aware   of   how   you   feel   about   the   situa;on   – Suggested  diagrams  to  be  used  in  this  phase  are   “Spray  Diagram”  &  “Rich  Picture”  
    133. 133. T205     SYSTEMS  THINKING:   Principles  and  Prac;ce     Session  05   Osama  M.  Ashri  
    134. 134. What  We’ll  Cover   •  T551  primer:   – Reading  05:  Types  of  Complexity   •  T552  Diagramming:     – Appendix  A.2.1  (Systems  Map)   •  Concept  File  02   – Sec;on  II:  Mo;va;on  (Reading  6,7,8  &  9)    
    135. 135. Elements   Feedback  loop   Boundary     Simplifying  Systems   Boundary    
    136. 136. Terrorist    agacks   Threat  to   Americans   Need  to  respond   militarily   US  military    acDvity   Perceived   aggressiveness  of   U.S.   Terrorist    recruits   American  Viewpoint   (Terrorists’)  Viewpoint  
    137. 137. A  systems  View  
    138. 138. Complex  not  just  Complicated!   (Reference:  The  Next  Common  Sense,  by  M.  Lissack  &  J.  Roos)  
    139. 139. Complexity:  The  Next  Common  Sense   •  The   old   common   sense   was   an   understanding   of   cause  and  effect  in  the  complicated  world  of  discrete   events.     •  The  next  common  sense  is  a  descrip;on  of  cause  and   effect  in  a  world  of  interweaving  (s)  –  i.e.,  complex   world.       (Reference:  The  Next  Common  Sense,  by  M.  Lissack  &  J.  Roos)  
    140. 140. Untangling  Complexity   Untangling  Complexity     Systems  thinking  is  a  powerful  approach  to  cope  with  the   muddle  of  this  next  new  common  sense  in  today’s   complex  world.    
    141. 141. Types  of  Complexity   !
    142. 142. Types  of  Situa;ons   It  is  an  interacBng  set  of  problems   Messes  are  wicked;  Difficulty  are  tame  
    143. 143. Aspects  of  Complexity:   Difficul;es  and  Messes  revisited   !
    144. 144. Complexity:  Leading  Ques;ons   •  Have  I  iden;fied  the  main  elements  of  hard  complexity  in   the  situa;on?     •  Have  I  iden;fied  the  main  elements  of  sod  complexity  in   the  situa;on?     •  Viewing   the   situa;on   from   the   perspec;ve   of   other   stakeholders,   can   I   iden;fy   any   further   elements   of   complexity?     •  Might  I  have  overlooked  any  emo;onal,  belief  or  value-­‐ based  aspects    of  the  situa;on  -­‐  in  myself  or  others  -­‐  that   might  be  part  of  the  complexity?    
    145. 145. Hard  or  Sod  Complexity:  An  Exercise   •  An   engineer   choosing   between   different   possible   design  for  a  bridge   •  A  planner  deciding  how  big  a  bridge  is  needed  and   where  it  should  be  located.    
    146. 146. What  mo;vates  you?   AssumpBons  about  people  in  the  way  they  are  moBvated:     •  People  are  ra;onal  economic  (Adam  Smith)   •  People  are  social  being     •  People  are  self-­‐actualizing  (Maslow’s  Hierarchy)   •  People  are  complex  mul;faceted  beings    
    147. 147. People  are  Ra;onal-­‐Economic   –  Maximize  their  self-­‐interests  (Adam  Smith)   –  Work  out  what  is  best  for  them  (ra;onal)   –  In  an  organiza;onal  context:   •  A  system  of  authority  is  used  to  control  the  employees,   ignoring  exper;se  and  personality     •  Employees  are  perceived  to  be  Mo;vated  by  economic   incen;ves  "Carrots  &  S;cks”   •  Managers’  assump;ons  about  people  are  based  on   Theory  X.  
    148. 148. What  mo;vates  you?   Theory  X  and  Y:  Two  ContrasBng  Sets  of  AssumpBons   about  People   Lazy,   dislike   work,   avoid   responsibility,   not   ambi;ous,   seek  self-­‐interest,  prefer  to  be   directed   and   above   all   and   want  security       Enjoy   meaningful   work,   like   responsibility,   commieed   to   organiza;onal  goals  mo;vated   by   challenging   work,   prefer   self-­‐direc;on  
    149. 149. People  are  Social  Being   (Human  RelaBons)     •  People  are  primarily  mo;vated  by  social  needs  and  that   work  itself  is  largely  .   •  Management   func;on   is   to   facilitate   the   sa;sfac;on   of   social   needs   and   harness   these   to   the   organiza;on’s   goals.    
    150. 150. People  are  self-­‐actualizing   •  People  need  meaning  and  challenge  in  their  lives  and   that   given   the   opportunity   they   will   integrate   their   own  goals  with  those  of  the  organizaBon.   – Two  Factor  Theory  (Herzberg)   – Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs  
    151. 151. Two  Factor  Theory  (Herzberg)   Controlled  by  the  organiza7on     Can  be  within  the  control  of  managers  
    152. 152. •  Hygiene  factors  have  liele  poten;al  to  mo;vate  over  the   long  run.  When  they  are  present,  employees  experience   no  dissa7sfac7on.  When  hygiene  factors  are  absent,   employees  are  dissa7sfied  (unhappy)   •  The  presence  of  mo;va;on  factors  produces   sa7sfac7on.  The  absence  of  mo;va;on  factors  produces   no  sa7sfac7on  (neutral;  indifferent)   Two  Factor  Theory  (Herzberg)  
    153. 153. Maslow’s  Hierarchy  of  Needs  
    154. 154. Linking  Concept  to  SUDA  and  Systems   MoDvaDon  is  a  variable  that  could  be  thought  of  as  being  a   a  system  –  as  a  property  of  the  company  or  department  or   person  as  a  whole  or  in  context.         •  Views  of  power  and  authority     •  Individual  mo;va;on  (a  whole)   •  Individual  mo;va;on  (in  the  context  of  organiza;ons)   •  Will   make   more   sense   as   we   explore   other   important   concepts   (or   variables)   such   as   conflict   and   communica;on   •  This   concept   of   mo;va;on   addresses   mainly   the   “understanding”  phase  of  SUDA  
    155. 155. How  does  mo;va;on  work?   •  Self     –  Integrated  paeern  of  values,  belief  and  abili;es  that  have   meaning  and  significance  to  the  individual.   •  Self-­‐concept   –  Percep;on  of  yourself  (conscious  competent  of  the  self)   •  The  self-­‐ideal   –  The  image  of  the  self  we  aspire  to  be     •  Self-­‐esteem   –  The  valuing  of  the  self.  The  more  you  value  your  self-­‐ concept,  the  higher  yourself  esteem  is.  
    156. 156. Self-­‐concept   •  Is   developed   based   on   the   sum   total   of   others’   percep;on   of   you  combined  with  your  own  percep;on  of  self.   •  Includes   all   those   percep;ons   that   you   have   about   yourself   which  are  important  to  you–  (courageous,  honest..)   •  Changes  over;me  but  slowly  as  you  gain  more  experience.  As   self-­‐concept  of  an  experienced  engineer  might  develop.       •  Is   important   because   it   affects/shapes   the   way   you   engage   in   situa;ons  and  the  way  you  deal  with  others.   •  Maintaining  and  developing  one’s  self-­‐concept  and  self-­‐esteem   is  an  essen;al  mo;vator  because  we  tend  to  do  things  that  are   consistent  with  how  we  see  ourselves.  
    157. 157. How  does  mo;va;on  work?     Self-­‐esteem       Others’  percep;on    
    158. 158. System  of  Interest   •  A   system   of   interest   (relevant   whole)   is   a   product   of   dis;nguishing  a  system  in  a  situa;on  in  which  an  individual  or   group  has  an  interest  or  stake.   •  It  is  selected  by  someone  for  a  purpose  to  learn  about  more   about  a  complex  situa;on  and  do  something  about  it.  This  also   involves  making  judging  the  boundary  of  the  system.   •  A   system   of   interest   is   the   end   product   of   the   process   of   finding  a  system  within  a  mess   •  When   formula;ng   a   systems   of   interest,   you   need   to   think   about  yourself  (or  stakeholder  group)  as  part  of  the  process.  
    159. 159. A  schema;c  diagram  of  a  system   Reference:  Growing  Wings  on  the  Way:  Systems  Thinking  for  Messy  Situa;ons    
    160. 160. Reference:  Growing  Wings  on  the  Way:  Systems  Thinking  for  Messy  Situa;ons    
    161. 161. System  of  Interest  (Ac;vity)   Which   of   the   following   statements   conform   to   the   idea   of   formula7ng  a  system  of  interest?   •  I  am  fascinated  by  the  solar  system.   •  I  am  interested  in  making  computer  systems  func;on  more   effec;vely   •  When  I  engaged  with  the  issues  surrounding  child  support,  I   thought  it  might  be  helpful  to  consider  it  as  a  system  from  a   number  of  perspec;ves.  For  example:   –  As  a  system  to  reduce  the  social  security  budget;   –  As  a  system  to  secure  the  best  future  for  children  in  lone-­‐ parent  families;   –  As  a  system  to  ensure  the  non-­‐resident  parent  contributes   equitably  to  the  raising  of  their  children.    
    162. 162. Systems  of  Interest:  Leading  Ques;ons   •  Have   I   used   the   ideas   of   boundary,   purpose,  unintended  consequences,  and   awareness   of   worldview   to   idenBfy   several  possible  systems  of  interest?     •  Why  is  this  parBcular  system  of  interest   worth  pursuing,  and  which  stakeholders   would  find  it  of  interest?    
    163. 163. Systems  Map:  Guidelines  
    164. 164. A  system  map  for  a  system  for  developing  large  scale,  government  funded  IT  projects  
    165. 165. Systems  Map   •  Helps  you  structure  your  thinking  about  the  system   •  Helps  you  discuss  and  share  with  others  (the  map  of   the  system)  you’re  describing     •  Shows  only  the  structure  –  it  does’t  show  connec;ons.     •  Largely  used  in  the  understanding  phase  of  SUDA   model     •  As  you’re  drawing  a  systems  map,  ask  yourself:   –  Is  it  interes;ng?   –  Does  it  lead  to  any  news  ideas?   –  Does  it  tell  anything  new?  
    166. 166. Systems  Map:  Workshop   •  Form  a  team  of  three   •  Each  team  chooses  an  issue  they  wish  to  explore   (organiza;onal  or  social  issue)   •  Draw  a  systems  map  to  structure  your  percep;on   of  the  chosen  issue.   •  Iden;fy  a  system  of  interest    
    167. 167. Notes  on  the  TMA   •  Follow  the  diagramming  conven;ons  as  explained   in  T552   •  Use   systems   language   (environment,   purpose,   interconnectedness,  boundary…)   •  Use   course   concepts   as   instructed   in   the   TMA   ques;ons    
    168. 168. T205     SYSTEMS  THINKING:   Principles  and  Prac;ce     Session  06   Osama  M.  Ashri  
    169. 169. What  We’ll  Cover   •  T551  primer:   – Reading  06:  Types  of  Systems   – Reading  07:  Systems  Concepts   •  T552  Diagramming:     – Appendix  A.1.3  (Rich  Picture)   •  Concept  File  02   – Sec;on  II:  Readings  10,11  &  12    
    170. 170. Systems  Thinking:  What  is  in  a  name?   A  system  is  an  interconnected  set  of  elements   that  is  coherently  organized  in  a  way  that   achieves  a  purpose   Reference:  Thinking  in  Systems,  Donella  meadows  
    171. 171. Ackoff’s  Defini;on  of  Systems   •  A  system  is  a  set  of  two  or  more  elements  that  saBsfies  the   following  three  condiBons:   –  The   behavior   of   each   element   has   an   effect   on   the   behavior  of  the  whole.   –  The  behavior  of  the  elements  and  their  effects  on  the   whole  are  interdependent.     –  However  subgroups  of  the  elements  are  formed,  each   has  an  effect  of  the  behavior  of  the  whole  and  none   has  an  independent  effect  on  it.  
    172. 172. •  A   system,   therefore,   is   a   whole   that   cannot   be   divided  into  independent  parts.         •  The  essen;al  proper;es  of  a  system  taken  as  a  whole   derive   from   the   interac;on   of   its   parts,   not   their   ac;ons  taken  separately     “Dividing  an  elephant  in  half  does  not  produce  two   small  elephants”  
    173. 173. Checkland’s  Defini;on  of  Systems   “The  central  concept  “system”  embodies  the  idea  of  a   set   of   elements   connected   together   which   form   a   whole,  this  showing  properBes  which  are  properBes  of   the   whole,   rather   than   properBes   of   its   component   parts.”                                              
    174. 174. Systems  Concepts  &  Language   •  A   system   is   an   assembly   of   components   connected   together  in  an  organized  way  (interconnec;ons)   •  The  components  are  affected  by  being  in  the  system  and   the   behavior   of   the   system   is   changed   if   they   leave   it   (wholeness)   •  This  organized  assembly  of  components  does  something   (purpose)   •  This   assembly   as   a   whole   has   been   iden;fied   by   someone  who  is  interested  in  it  (system  of  interest)   •  Pujng   a   boundary   around   this   organized   assembly   of   components   dis;nguishes   it   from   its   context   or   environment.  
    175. 175. Systems  Concepts  &  Language   •  Environment  elements,  ac;vi;es,  people,  ideas  and  so   on   that   are   not   part   of   the   system   but   which   may   nevertheless  be  important  in  understanding  it.     •  Boundary   –   defines   where   the   system   ends   and   the   environment  begins.     •  Systems   is   the   foreground;   environment   is   the   background,   the   relevant   context   of   the   system.   The   boundary   is   basically   where   the   system   ends   and   where  the  environment  begins       •  The   language   of   systems   does   not   solve   problems.   It   provides  a  way  of  addressing  them.  
    176. 176. •  Boundaries  separate  what  is  of  direct  interest  from  what   can   be   considered   as   wider,   external   influences   –   i.e.,   environment   •  Redrawing  boundaries  help  generate  other  helpful  views   of  the  issue  (mess/complex)  –  it  is  an  itera7ve  process.   Rethinking  boundaries  à  Thinking  outside  the  box!     Systems  Concepts  &  Language  
    177. 177. A  schema;c  diagram  of  a  system  
    178. 178. Reference:  Growing  Wings  on  the  Way:  Systems  Thinking  for  Messy  Situa;ons    
    179. 179. Drawing  a  System’s  Boundary   •  Does  this  boundary  enclose  the  system  I  am  interested  in?   •  What  might  I  learn  by  pujng  the  boundary  somewhere   else?     •  Should   I   go   up   a   level   (expand)   and   enclose   other   subsystems  in  a  wider    boundary?     •  Does   the   boundary   I've   drawn   appropriately   reflect   my   purpose  in  examining  this  system?     •  Is  the  boundary  consistent  with  my  name  for  this  system?    
    180. 180. Criteria  for  Drawing  A  boundary     •  Interest  and  concern.  This  forces  you  to  think  about  your   purpose.     •  Influence  and  Control.       –  Separate  areas  that  you  have  control  over  from  those  that  are   influenced  by  other  people/group.   –  Understand  the  mutual  influence  between  aspects  of  the   problem.     •  Time.  Drawing  boundaries  around  aspects  of  the  issues   which   raise   short-­‐term   problems   and   those   that   have   longer  effects.  This  help  to  reveal  limita;ons  of  solu;ons  
    181. 181. Hierarchy   •  Set  of  layered,  nested  or  interdependent  structure   •  Each  layer  (level)  contains  elements  or  components  of  all   other  levels  below  it.   •  A  new  type  of  emergent  property  appears  at  each  level   –  Emergent  property  is  that  behavior  that  can  only  be  ascribed  to   that  level  and  cannot  be  deduced  from  the  components.     •  As   you   move   up   the   hierarchy,   complexity   increases,   in   the  sense  that  observers  find  it  harder  to  predict  what  will   happen   •  The  idea  of  a  nested  set  of  systems  with  new  proper;es   and   meanings   emerging   at   higher   or   wider   levels   is   fundamental  to  systems  thinking  
    182. 182.   Simplifying  by  making  more  abstract.  The  simplifica;on  must  not  reduce   the   connectedness.   By   becoming   more   abstract   the   connectedness   is   maintained  and  the  problem  simplified.      
    183. 183. (Going  Up  a  Level  =  Widening  the  boundary)  
    184. 184. Emergent  Proper;es   •  Emergent  proper;es  are  a  product    of  the  interac;ons  of   the  parts  and,  therefore,  they  can’t  be  realized  by  just   looking  at  the  parts  of  a  systems.       •  A  par;cular  whole  only  emerges  if  the  parts  are  organized   in  a  par;cular  way.  It  is  the  organiza;on  of  the  parts  which   results  in  the  emergence  of  the  whole,  not  their   summa;on.  
    185. 185. Emergent  properDes  can’t  be  realized  by  just   looking  at  the  parts  of  a  systems.    
    186. 186. Emergent  properDes  are  a  product  of  the   interacDons  of  the  parts    
    187. 187. A  par;cular  whole  only  emerges  if  the  parts   are  organized  in  a  parDcular  way.  
    188. 188. It  is  the  organizaDon  of  the  parts   which  results  in  the  emergence  of   the  whole    NOT  their  summa;on  
    189. 189. (Going  Up  a  Level  =  Widening  the  boundary)   Emergent  Property   Emergent  Property  
    190. 190. Can  you  iden7fy  the  emergent   proper7es?    
    191. 191. Illustra;ons  of  Emergence   Team   Water   Org’s   Culture   ?  
    192. 192. A  noDonal  system  can  be  taken  to  have  (1/2)     •  A  purpose  –  it  does,  or  can  be  perceived  to  do,  something,   •  An  environment  that  affects  it.   •  A  namer  –  someone  who  is  interested  in  it.   •  A  boundary  dis;nguishing  it  from  the  environment  and   iden;;es  by  the  system  namer.   •  Inputs  and  outputs   •  TransformaBonal  process  that  convert  inputs  to  outputs   •  Parts  (subsystems)  that  interact,  a  paeern  of   rela;onships   •  Hierarchy  –  each  part  is  itself  a  system  an  can  be   treated  as  such  
    193. 193. A  noDonal  system  can  be  taken  to  have  (2/2)   •  Dependency   –   addi;on,   altera;on   or   removal   of   a   part   changes  both  the  part  and  the  system.   •  Communica;on  and  feedback  amongst  the  systems.   •  Control,   both   within   the   system   and   through   the   hierarchy.   •  Emergence   –   the   whole   system   exhibits   proper;es   and   outcomes,  some;mes  unpredictable,  which  derive  from   its  parts  and  structure  but  cannot  be  reduced  to  them.   •  Dynamism   –   it   is   subject   to   change   including   growth,   adapta;on  and  decay.  
    194. 194. Reference:  Thinking  in  Systems,  Donella  meadows  
    195. 195. Types  of  System   There  are  two  ways  in  which  the  term  system  is  used:     •  Recognized  systems  –  “exist  out  there”  because  they’re  based   on   widely   shared   percep;ons.   E.g.,   solar   system,   computer   system,  legal  system.   •  Explanatory   system   –     a   par;cular   way   of   thinking   about   selected   aspects   of   the   world   and   their   interrela;onships   which   is   useful   in   rela;on   to   the   individual’s   concerns.   It   embodies  par;cular  points  of  view  and  is  useful  to  the  extent   that   they   offer   some   insight   into   what   is   puzzling   or   troublesome.  
    196. 196. Exercise   •  Which  of  the  following  do  you  recognize  as  a  system?     1.  The  houses  in  an  old  village.     2.  Your  personal  computer.     3.  Ac;vi;es  needed  to  get  this  course  to  you  on  ;me.     4.  A  small  wood.     5.  The  spare  parts  in  the  store  of  a  garage.     6.  Mathema;cs.     7.  Mee;ngs  of  the  board  of  directors  of  a  company.    
    197. 197. Unintended  Consequences  (Side-­‐effects)   •  Result  from  an  interven;on  to  solve  a  problem  or  exploit   an  opportunity       •  The  drivers  that  work  against  the  objec;ves  sought  from   a  system.   •  Example:   –  Sales  department  lunches  a  campaign  which  aeracts  more   orders   than   the   produc;on   department   can   sa;sfy.   Customers,  aggravated  by  the  delays  in  delivery,  publically   complain,   and   the   overall   result   is   that   the   organiza;on   ends  up  with  fewer  customers  than  before  
    198. 198. Unintended  Consequences   •  People   consistently   overlook   unintended   consequences   because  of  the  many  connec;ons  and  interac;ons  that   exist  between  the  parts  of  a  system.   •  Any   method   of   thinking   about   things   that   ignores   the   interconnec;ons   is   going   to   make   mistakes   when   it   comes  to  systems.     –  Mistakes   in   interpreBng   the   ‘informaBon’   present   in   the   connecBons.     –  The  mistake  of  ignoring  the  effects  of  feedback.    
    199. 199. Unintended  Consequence:  Case  Study   [Nitaqat]  Program  compliance  rates  were  high,  with  firms   hiring  an  addi;onal  96,000  Saudi  workers  over  the  ini;al  16   month  period.  There  were  also  significant  costs,  however,   and   the   program   caused   approximately   11,000   firms   to   shut   down,   raising   exit   rates   by   nearly   50   percent.   The   program  also  decreased  total  employment  among  surviving   firms,  and  overall  private  sector  employment  decreased  by   418,000  workers.*            Ref:  Can  Hiring  Quotas  Work?  The  Effect  of  the  Nitaqat  Program  on  the  Saudi  Private  Sector  
    200. 200. Feedback  101   Feedback:  every  ac;on  triggers  a  reac;on.  It  happens  when   informa;on  about  the  outcome  of  the  process  is  fed  back   to  the  beginning  of  the  process.  What  goes  around  comes   around…     •  PosiDve  Feedback  (snowball  effect)  reinforces  the  effect,   either  as:   –  a  vicious  circle  (When  one  failure  triggers  further  failures)   –  a  virtuous  circle(when  success  breeds  success)     •  NegaDve  feedback  leads  to  a  dampening  down  or  check   of   the   effect   caused   by   the   input.   (e.g.,   Temperature   thermostat)   •  Feedback  is  a  key  characteris;c  of  systems!  
    201. 201. Change  in  one  part  of   the  system     Change  in  a  second  part  of   the  system   Causes   Causes  
    202. 202. Feedback  (exercise)   Which  of  the  following  are  examples  of  nega;ve,  and   which  of  posi;ve,  feedback?     •  An  argument  between  two  people  when,  by  the  end,   they  can’t  remember  how  it  started.   •  Warning   lights/signs   on   a   highway,   telling   you   to   slow  down.    
    203. 203. Reality  is  made  up  of  Circles   Ref:  The  V  Discipline  by  Peter  Senge  
    204. 204. NOT  straight  lines  
    205. 205. NegaBve  Feedback   loop  seeking  balance   PosiBve  feedback  loop  generaBng   growth  and  amplifying  deviaBon   Ref:  General  Systems  Theory  by  Lars  Skyener  
    206. 206. Feedforward   •  Feed   Forward:   An;cipa;ng   events   in   the   future   to   trigger   the   cause   in   the   present   as   a   self-­‐fulfilling   prophecy.   •  e.g.  when  you  expect  to  fail,  you  oden  do.     •  It  can  be  linked  to  the  idea  of  the  “law  of  aerac;on”!   •  Ask  yourself:  “What  can  I  “learn”  or  an7cipate  from  the   future  to  influence  the  present?!  
    207. 207. Contracts  and  Roles   •  Formal  (e.g.,  pay  for  the  job)   •  Informal  (e.g.,  informal  flex;me)   •  Psychological   (Hidden;   expecta;ons   that   may   be   unconsciously   held,   which   each   side   (i.e.,   employer   and  employee)  has  of  the  other  
    208. 208. is  not  self-­‐ actualized   Theory  X!   Theory  X   applied!  
    209. 209. On  Roles   •  A   role   is   a   set   of   expecta;ons   held   by   the   person   concerned   and   those   he   interacts   with   about   the   behaviors   appropriate   in   a   given   situa;on   and   the   contribu;on  to  be  made  that  to  that  situa;on.   •  Roles   don’t   align   themselves   into   a   single   overall   package.     –  E.g.,  a  manager  might  have  to  paly  the  role  of  a  supervisor,   fiend,  evaluator….    
    210. 210. Sources  of  Roles  in  Organiza;ons  
    211. 211. Self-­‐Sealing  Behavior  (prelude)   •  A  key  theme  of  systems  thinking  is:   –  The  need  to  open  new  ways  of  thinking   –  The  adop;on  of  mul;ple  perspec;ve   •  Mental  trap  prevents  seeing  an  “obvious”  solu;on.   •  Therefore,  developing  the  ability  to  recognize  the  traps   in  your  own  thinking  is  key  to  success  in  systems.     •  Three   inextricably   relevant   concepts   to   be   covered:   Paradigm,  Self-­‐Sealing  and  Self-­‐fulfilling  behaviors  
    212. 212. On  Paradigms     •  Like   minded   community   of   [people]   who   work   [think]   within   the   paradigm   (theories   &   assump;ons)   and   are   conduc;ng  experiments  to  validate  it.   •  Defines  a  certain  way  of  looking  at  the  world.   •  Tells   the   prac;;oner   what   type   of   explana;on   to   expect  or  accept  regarding  events   •  Determines  what  is  and  is  not  accepted  as  evidence  in   this  domain.     •  Excludes   alterna;ve   perspec;ve,   making   it   hard   to   challenge     •  Can  be  dangerous!    Paradigms  about  the  world  outside   us  condi;on  the  way  we  perceive  that  world    
    213. 213. The  Power  of  Paradigm   •  Every   significant   breakthrough   in   the   field   of   scien;fic   endeavor  is  first  a  break  with  tradi;on,  with  old  ways  of   thinking,  with  old  paradigms.   –  Einstein  and  the  relaBvity  paradigm   –  Ptolemy  and  the  sun’s  the  center  of  universe  paradigm     •  Many  people  experience  a  fundamental  shid  in  thinking   when  they  face  breakpoints  in  their  lives  (e.g.,  crisis)  and   suddenly  see  their  priori;es  in  a  different  light,  or  when   they   suddenly   step   into     new   role   (e.g.,   becoming   a   parent  or  a  manager.   •  If   you   want   to   make   quantum   change   in   your   life,   you   need  to  work  on  your  paradigms  (reevaluate  them!)  
    214. 214. Self-­‐Sealing…Self-­‐Fulfilling  
    215. 215. Cri;calness,  Blame  &  Guilt   There   are   certain   aspects   of   rela;onships   that   are   always   disabling.   These   include   cri;calness,   blame   and   guilt.   CriDcalness  is  always  based  upon  not  accep;ng  something   about   oneself.   Blame   makes   one   powerless,   creates   a   defensive   rela;onship   and   inhibits   learning.   The   most   common  form  of  guilt  arises  from  blaming  oneself.  It  has   the   effect   of   reinforcing   a   nega;ve   self-­‐image   and   also   inhibits   learning.   When   trying   to   make   progress   in   developing  skills  and  ways  of  avoiding  these  par;cular  traps   it  is  important  to  start  by  accep;ng  oneself  as  one  is  and  to   aim  to  make  only  small  changes  at  a  ;me.    
    216. 216. Case  Exercise   You  believe  that  your  boss  is  out  to  prove  you  wrong.   Your  boss  is  always  cri;cal  of  your  wok  and  is  always   asking   difficult   ques;ons.   You   are   certain   that   the   cri;cisms  and  ques;ons  are  always  a  prelude  to  your   boss  proving  you  wrong?   Is  your  percepBon  of  the  situaBon  self-­‐sealing?  
    217. 217. Rich  Picture   •  Summarizes   what   you   know   about   a   messy   situa;on   in   cartoon  form.     •  Captures  all  the  things  an  individual  senses  about  a  complex   situa;on.     •  Can  be  used  to  iden;fy    the  themes  -­‐  or  clusters  of  issues  -­‐  in   a  situa;on.     •  Helps  you  'no;ce'  things  you  think  or  feel  but  hadn't  so  far   paid  aeen;on  to.     •  In  general,  it  is  used  during  the  sensing  phase  (SUDA)     •  Does  not  define  the  system  of  interest,  it  is  where  you  look   to  begin  to  find  it.     •  Can  be  supplemented  with  lists,  but  try  to  use  images  rather   than  words  in  the  picture  itself.  
    218. 218. What  could  this   change?  What   about  moDvaDon?  
    219. 219. Notes  on  Rich  Pictures   •  The  picture  is  sketchy.  you  don't  need  drawing  skills…'S;ck'   figures  and  scribbles  are  fine.     •  Explain  your  diagram  to  another  person  you  might  decide   to  try  and  improve  some  of  your  images  so  as  to  clarify  the   informa;on  you're  trying  to  convey.     •  Make  sure  that  your  picture  includes  not  only  the  factual   data  about  the  situa;on,  but  also  the  subjecBve   informa;on.   •  include  yourself  in  the  picture…  you  are  NOT  an  objec;ve   observer,  but  someone  with  a  set  of  values,  beliefs  and   norms  that  color  your  percep;ons.  (worldview)  
    220. 220. T205     SYSTEMS  THINKING:   Principles  and  Prac;ce     Session  07  &  08   Osama  M.  Ashri  
    221. 221. What  We’ll  Cover   •  T551  primer:   –  Reading  08:  Represen;ng  Systems         •  T552  Diagramming:     –  Appendix  A.2.2    (Influence  Diagram)   •  Concept  File  02   –  Reading  13:  Personality  Dynamics  and  Transac;onal  Analysis   –  Reading  14:  Ac;ve  Listening   –  Reading  15:  Developing  Ideas  and  Resolving  Disagreements   –  Reading  16:  Asser;on  and  Argument      
    222. 222. Represen;ng  systems   •  The   reality   is   so   complex   and   contains   so   much   informa;on  that  it  is  essen;al  to  simplify  it  in  order  to  be   able  to  describe  it  or  think  about  it.  Modeling  is  a  central   to  the  way  we  think!     •  A  Model  ‘a  simplified  representaBon  of  certain  aspects  of   a  real  situaBon,  constructed  for  some  defined  purpose’.   •  Modeling  is  any  process  of  abstrac;ng  and  represen;ng   certain   aspects   of   a   situa;on   in   a   simplified   form   with   some  predefined  purpose  in  mind.    
    223. 223. Modeling   •  Qualita;ve  Models   – Emphasize  the  relaBonships  between  enBBes   without  trying  to  quanBfy  the  relaBonships  or   enBBes  in  any  way.   – Examples:  Metaphors  and  Diagrams     •  Quan;ta;ve  Models   – Example:  a  mathema;cal  equa;on    
    224. 224. Metaphor   •  Helps  in  understanding  unfamiliar  things  by  reference  to   familiar  things  and  our  language     •  ‘He   was   imprisoned   in   his   anger,   he   could   do   nothing   but…”   •  Systems   prac;ce   is   nothing   more   than   orchestra7ng   a   par;cular  type  of  conversa7on   •  Trying   out   metaphors   is   like   trying   out   different   boundaries,   perspec;ves.   It   is   a   way   of   taking   mul;ple   par;al  views.      
    225. 225. Diagrams   •  lead  you  to  test  and  refine  your  ideas.   •  make  you  think  about  the  system  you  are  interested   in  and  understand  it  beeer.   •  help   you   see   ways   of   changing   the   situa7on   and   thinking  through  the  consequences.     •  show  interconnec7ons  visually,  rather  than  verbally.  
    226. 226. Quantita;ve  Models   •  Useful  for  predic;ng  what  might  happen  as  well  as   describing  what  does  happen.  They  are:   –  Quicker  and  easier  to  build,  and  you  ask  the  ques;on   “what  would  happen  if  …’  over  and  over  again  simply   by  changing  the  numbers  in  the  model.   –  There’s   a   good   deal   of   knowledge   about   how   to   represent   rela;onships   accurately   and   about   the   behavior  of  a  range  of  types  of  models.     •  We’ll  talk  in  detail  about  modeling  in  later  sessions    
    227. 227. Types  of  Models   •  Physical  scale  model   –  e.g.,  a  scale  model  bridge     •  Financial  model   –  e.g.,  bad  debt  wrieen  off,  deprecia;on  policy     •  MathemaDcal  models   –  e.g.,  engineering  calcula;ons  of  heat  losses  from  buildings   •  Systems  model:     –  a   simplified   representa;on   of   some   person's   or   group's   view   of   a   situa;on,   constructed   to   assist   in   working   with   that  situa;on  in  a  systemic  manner.    
    228. 228.        However  good  the  model  (whether  a  metaphor,   diagram  or  mathemaBcal  model)  it  can  never  replicate   a  situaBon  exactly,  but  it  is  an  essenBal  feature  of   systems  thinking  and  pracBce.    
    229. 229. Communica;on:  A  Prelude   •  A   central   concept   in   systems   thinking   is   the   idea   that   communica;on  and  the  flow  of  informa;on  are  crucial  to   maintaining  the  con;nuing  existence  of  any  organiza;on.   •  Systems   diagramming   can   help   in   depic;ng   paeerns   of   informa;on  flow.   •  Messy  situa;ons  have  communica;on  problems  .  People   have  different  worldviews  and  interests.   •  The   idea   is   to   be   able   and   –   to   get   others   -­‐   to   communicate  as  coherently  and  produc;vely  as  possible