What is it?Jewellery (jewelry in American English) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from jewels, precious metals or other substance.
Materials and methods Modern jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, or silver. Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay; polymer clay; and even plastics.
• Jewish Star of David• Christian crucifix• crucifix carved by hand from linden wood
Form and function Jewellery has been used for a number of reasons:•Currency, wealth display and storage, •Functional use (such as clasps, pins, and buckles) •Symbolism (to show membership or status)•Protection (in the form of amulets and magical wards), and•Artistic display (fashion)
The mood ring. • The "stone" in a mood ring is, essentially, thermotropic crystals covered or surrounded by glass. The crystals then reflect different wavelengths of light, thereby changing the color of the ring. • Black:, Stressed, tense or feeling harried • Grey: Anxious, very nervous, strained • Amber: A little Nervous, emotions mixed, unsettled • Green: Average reading. Active, not under great stress • Blue-green: Emotionally charged, somewhat relaxed • Blue: Relaxed, at ease, calm • Dark blue/Purple: happy, romantic, passion, in love
• A class ring (also known as a graduate, senior ring, or grad, ring) is a ring worn by students and alumni to commemorate their graduation, generally for a high school, college, or university.
Amulets and magical wards.• A magic ring is an article of jewelry that appears frequently in fantasy and fairytale. They are found in the folklore of every country where ring- wearing is known.
Medallions and medals. • A medallion is a piece of metal, usually carved or engraved; circular (like a coin) and large, that is used as a work of art, souvenir, medal, or worn on the body as a special symbol or as a fashion accesory on a necklace (see pendant).
Cufflinks.• A cufflink (also cuff link or cuff-link) is a decorative fastener worn by men or women to fasten the two sides of the cuff on a dress shirt or blouse.
Fabergé Eggs.• It was only in the late 19th century, with the work of such masters as Peter Carl Fabergé and René Lalique, that art began to take primacy over function and wealth. This trend has continued into modern times, expanded upon by artists such as Robert Lee Morris.
Beads.• Beads can be woven together with specialized thread, strung onto thread or wire, or adhered to a surface (e.g. fabric, clay).
DiamondsDiamonds, long consideredthe most prized ofgemstones, were firstmined in; Currently, Africaand Canada rank among theprimary sources.
Metal finishes• For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery there are many different techniques to create different finishes. The most common however are: high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered.
Impact on societyBy the mid 1940s, 85% of weddingsin the U.S. featured a double-ringceremony, up from 15% in the1920s. Religion has also played arole: Islam, for instance, considersthe wearing of gold by men as asocial taboo, and many religionshave edicts against excessivedisplay.
Tiffany & Co`s wedding rings.• Tiffany & Co. is a jewelry and silverware company founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany and John B. Young in New York City in 1837. Tiffany & Co has since opened stores in major cities all over the world.
Rome• Although they used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilized wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery.
Brooches.• A brooch (also known as broach or in ancient times, a fibula) is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments. It is usually made of metal, often silver or gold but sometimes bronze or some other material.
Middle Ages• Clothing fasteners, amulets, and to a lesser extent signet rings are the most common artifacts known to us;• By the 8th century, jeweled weaponry was common for men.
The Renaissance• Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings.
Romanticism• Perhaps the most significant influences were the public’s fascination with the treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology, and the fascination with Medieval and Renaissance art.• Changing social conditions and the onset of the industrial revolution also lead to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery.
Modern• Modern jewellery has never been as diverse as it is in the present day. The advent of new materials, such as plastics, Precious Metal Clay (PMC) and different colouring techniques, has led to increased variety in styles.• The "jewellery as art" movement, spearheaded by artisans such as Robert Lee Morris, has kept jewellery on the leading edge of artistic design.
Body modification• Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as 5 years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves too.• Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some South American peoples.
Earrings and piercing. • Nose piercing • Tongue piercing • Hand piercing • Ears piercing
Research What is jewellery for modern people? 4% 7%2%8% 79% Currency, wealth display and storage, Functional use (such as clasps, pins, and buckles) Artistic display (fashion) Symbolism (to show membership or status) Protection (in the form of amulets and magical wards)
The criterions of the selection of thejewellery by children and teenagers. The criterions of the selection of adornments by women from the age of 10 to 18 4% 2% 38% 45% 11% Elegance Luxury Fashion Quality Price
The criterions of the selection of the jewellery by middle aged people. 12% 19% 19% 41% 10% Elegance Luxury Fashion Quality Price
The criterions of the selection of the jewellery by elderly people. 4% 25% 40% 21% 10% Elegance Luxury Fashion Quality Price