Power Management in BMS

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Power Management in BMS

  1. 1. Electrical Power Management Power Quality Electrical Motors Lighting System
  2. 2. Energy Management <ul><li>The fundamental goal of energy management is to control the use of energy or to produce goods and provide services with the least cost and least environmental effect. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>“ The judicious and effective use of energy to maximize profits (minimize costs) and enhance competitive positions” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Another comprehensive definition may be….. <ul><li>“ The strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy, using systems and procedures so as to reduce energy requirements per unit of output while holding constant or reducing total costs of producing the output from these systems” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objective of Energy Management <ul><li>To achieve and maintain optimum energy procurement and utilization, throughout the organization and: </li></ul><ul><li>To minimize energy costs / waste without affecting production & quality </li></ul><ul><li>To minimize environmental effects. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Saving Your Energy -Means- Reducing Your Costs -Leads to- Protecting the Environment
  6. 6. Factors Behind Energy Management <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Rising global market competition </li></ul><ul><li>Rising oil prices </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Security </li></ul><ul><li>Environment pollution </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>ENERGY BROADLY DIVIDED INTO TWO CATEGORIES </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Non Renewable Energy </li></ul>TYPES OF ENERGY
  8. 8. TYPES OF ENERGY <ul><li>Non renewable energy </li></ul><ul><li>cannot be generated again </li></ul><ul><li>and again, limited sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable energy can be generated continuously practically without decay of source. e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean energy </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why to Conserve? <ul><li>Most of the world energy comes form fossil fuels which are burnt in power stations, factories, homes and vehicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have limited fuels available on earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our demand for energy is increasing day-by-day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someday, most of fuels will be exhausted, and we will have to switch over to alternatives. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Why to Conserve? <ul><li>With present consumption rates; </li></ul><ul><li>Crude oil will last only for 40 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas will last for 60 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Coal will be finished in nearly 200 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Think life without oil and gas? </li></ul>- our consumption is increasing day-by-day ~solution??
  11. 11. Problems with burning fossil fuels <ul><li>Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are given off into the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide causes global warming or the greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><li>coal-burning power stations also give off sulphur dioxide gas which leads to acid rain </li></ul>- In the past 100 years the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by 25%.
  12. 12. <ul><li>CH 4 + 2 O 2 = CO 2 + 2 H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>(12 + 4*1) +2(2*16) = (12 + 2*16) + 2(2*1 +16) </li></ul><ul><li>16 Kg of CH 4 produces 44 Kg of CO 2 ; </li></ul><ul><li>or 2.75 Kg of CO 2 is produced for </li></ul><ul><li>each Kg of methane burned. </li></ul>Problems with burning fossil fuels
  13. 13. Greenhouse effect? 4% absorbed by clouds. 17% reflected by clouds. 6% reflected by surface. 19% absorbed by water vapor, dust Earth 100% 46% absorbed by ground Earth acts as Solar Collector
  14. 14. ENERGY COST REDUCTION Option 1 Electrical Distribution Correction Option 2 Motor Efficiency Improvement Option 3 System Matching and Process optimization Energy Efficient Equipments ~ Energy Efficient Procedures
  15. 15. <ul><li>Phase imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Current imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage drops </li></ul><ul><li>Power factor </li></ul>POWER QUALITY
  16. 16. PHASE IMBALANCE Phase imbalance should be within 1% to avoid de-rating of the motor. If the measured line voltages are 403, 406, and 415 volts, the average is 408 volts. VOLTAGE IMBALANCE IS: [(408 – 403) / 408 ] x 100 = 1.225 % Current imbalance creates voltage imbalance
  17. 17. VOLTAGE DROPS Poor power distribution - one of the causes of energy loss <ul><li>5% voltage drop means </li></ul><ul><li>2 to 4 point loss in efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>10 to 11 ºC increase in temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>1 ºC increase in temperature means 0.5 % efficiency loss . </li></ul>Try to maintain voltage drops within 2.5 %
  18. 18. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Power factor is the percentage of electricity that is being used to do useful work </li></ul><ul><li>power factor= active power/apparent power </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent power has two components: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Productive power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive power </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Power factor (P.F) is the ratio between actual power to the apparent power. </li></ul><ul><li>Actual power/Apparent power. </li></ul><ul><li>P.F=KW /KVA. </li></ul><ul><li>For a purely resistive load the power factor is unity. Active and reactive power are designated by P & Q respectively. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Active Power: </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as “real power” or simply “power.” Active power is the rate of producing, transferring, or using electrical energy. It is measured in watts and often expressed in kilowatts (KW) or megawatts (MW). The terms “active” or “real” power are used in place of the term “power” alone to differentiate it from “reactive power. </li></ul>Apparent Power: The product of the voltage (in volts) and the current (in amperes). It comprises both active and reactive power . It is measured in “volt-amperes” and often expressed in “ kilovolt-amperes” (KVA) or “megavolt-amperes” (MVA).
  21. 21. <ul><li>Inductive loads cause the current to lag behind the voltage. The wave forms of voltage and current are then &quot;out of phase&quot; with each other. The more out of phase they become then the lower the Power Factor. Power Factor is usually expressed as Cos Phi. (Ø) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Consider a canal boat being pulled by a horse. If the horse could walk on water then the angle (Phi) Ø would be zero and COSINE Ø=1. Meaning all the horse power is being used to pull the load. However the relative position of the horse influences the power. As the horse gets closer to the barge, angle Ø1 increases and power is wasted, but, as the horse is positioned further away, then angle Ø2 gets closer to zero and less power is wasted. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CAUSES OF LOW POWER FACTOR <ul><li>A poor power factor can be the result of either a significant phase difference between the voltage and current at the load terminals or it can be due to a high harmonic content or distorted/discontinuous current waveform. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor load current phase angle is generally the result of an inductive load such as an induction motor power transformer, lighting ballasts, welder or induction furnace, Induction generators Wind mill generators and high intensity discharge lightings. </li></ul>
  24. 24. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION <ul><li>Power factor decreases with the installation of non resistive loads such as induction motors, Transformers. </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting ballasts and electronic equipments. </li></ul><ul><li>Power factors can be corrected by using capacitors. These are rated in electrical units called VAR or KVAR. One VAR is equivalent to one volt of reactive power. VAR then are units of measurement for indicating just how much reactive power the capacitor will supply. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>As reactive power is usually measured in thousands the letter K is used for thousand. the capacitor KVAR rating then shows how much reactive power the capacitor will supply. Each unit of the capacitor's KVAR will decrease the inductive reactive power demand. </li></ul>
  26. 26. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION <ul><li>Most loads on an electrical distribution system fall into one of three categories; resistive, inductive or capacitive. </li></ul><ul><li>In most plant, the most common is likely to be inductive. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical examples of this include transformers, fluorescent lighting and AC induction motors. </li></ul><ul><li>Most inductive loads use a conductive coil winding to produce an electromagnetic field, allowing the motor to function. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>All inductive loads require two kinds of power to operate: </li></ul><ul><li>Active power (KW) - to produce the motive force </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive power (KVAR) - to energize the magnetic field </li></ul><ul><li>The operating power from the distribution system is composed of both active (working) and reactive (non-working) elements. The active power does useful work in driving the motor whereas the reactive power only provides the magnetic field. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Any industrial process using electric motors (to drive pumps, fans, conveyors, refrigeration plant etc.) introduces inefficiencies into the electricity supply network by drawing additional currents, called &quot;inductive reactive currents&quot;. </li></ul></ul>UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR
  29. 29. LOW POWER FACTOR FATALITIES <ul><li>Reduced electrical distribution capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased KVA demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased power losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased voltage drops. </li></ul><ul><li>WAPDA Penalty. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced equipment life. </li></ul>
  30. 30. HOW TO IMPROVE PF When all the reactive power demand of the system is provided by installed capacitors and reactive power utilization from DISCOs (power source) is zero, we say power factor improvement is 100%, 0.98 Optimum
  31. 31. PFI BENEFITS <ul><li>Reduced utility bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Better voltage regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced distribution losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient Protection system </li></ul><ul><li>Increased available capacity to serve actual working power requirements </li></ul>- PFI does not cost much investment and the ROI is within 1.5 year. So it’s not a bad idea to invest in power factor improvement . PFI ‘Conclusion’
  32. 32. ELECTRICAL MOTORS
  33. 33. ELECTRICAL MOTORS Motor life cycle energy cost – 95 % First Induction Motor, 1888 Inventor Nikola Tesla
  34. 34. MOTOR LOSSES <ul><li>Mechanical (friction and wind-age) losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>friction in bearings and seals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor cooling fan load </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnetic (core) losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hysteresis and eddy current losses in core, both stator and rotor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrical (I 2 R) losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stator winding losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotor conductor bar losses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stray losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>miscellaneous losses mainly electromagnetic radiations </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><ul><li>Larger wire gage – Lower stator winding loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer rotor and stator – Lower core loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower rotor bar resistance – Lower rotor loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller fan – Lower wind-age loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized air gap size – Lower stray load loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better steel with thinner laminations -- Lower core loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimum bearing seal/shield – Lower friction loss </li></ul></ul>HOW HIGH EFFICIENCY IS ACHIEVED IN MOTORS Same components - But more and better materials. Electric Motors
  36. 36. HIGH EFFICIENCY MOTOR
  37. 37. MOTOR EFFICIENCY CLASSES <ul><li>Classification; dividing motors into efficiency classes: </li></ul><ul><li>Standard EFF 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Improved EFF 2 </li></ul><ul><li>high efficiency EFF 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Eff1 motors are expensive to buy, be deployed for 24/7 working </li></ul><ul><li>Eff2 motors can be installed in all cases </li></ul>
  38. 38. EFFICIENT MOTOR BENEFITS Calculations: significant energy saving potential in high efficiency motors. Motor Efficiency Class-III Efficiency Class-II Efficiency Class-I Rating 30 HP 30 HP 30 HP Efficiency, 88 % 91.4% 93.2% Load Reqt., kW 16.5 16.5 16.5 Motor Input, kW 18.75 18.05 17.7 Annual kWh used 164,250 158,118 155,052 Annual kWh saved - 6,132 9,198 Annual Rs saved - 30,660 45,990
  39. 39. EFFICIENCY COMPARISON Class – 1 Class – 2 Class – 3 Electric Motors
  40. 40. Electric Motors EFFICIENCY STANDARDS <ul><li>IEEE 112-B (United States) </li></ul><ul><li>IEC IEC60034.2 </li></ul><ul><li>(International Electro-technical Commission) </li></ul><ul><li>JEC-37 (Japanese Electro-technical Committee) </li></ul><ul><li>C-390 (Canadian Standards Association ) </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>At home: </li></ul><ul><li>The fan over the stove and in the microwave oven </li></ul><ul><li>The dispose-all under the sink </li></ul><ul><li>The blender </li></ul><ul><li>The can opener </li></ul><ul><li>The refrigerator - Two or three in fact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one for the compressor , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one for the fan inside the refrigerator , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as well as one in the icemaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The mixer </li></ul><ul><li>The tape player in the answering machine </li></ul><ul><li>Probably even the clock on the oven </li></ul><ul><li>The washer, dryer </li></ul><ul><li>The electric screwdriver </li></ul><ul><li>The vacuum cleaner, the Dustbuster mini-vac </li></ul><ul><li>The electric saw, electric drill, furnace blower </li></ul><ul><li>Even in the bathroom, there's a motor in: </li></ul><ul><li>The fan , electric toothbrush, hair dryer, </li></ul><ul><li>electric razor </li></ul>Electric Motors EXAMPLES OF EVERYDAY MOTORS <ul><li>Your car is loaded with electric motors: </li></ul><ul><li>Power windows (a motor in each window) </li></ul><ul><li>Power seats (up to seven motors per seat) </li></ul><ul><li>Fans for the heater and the radiator </li></ul><ul><li>Windshield wipers </li></ul><ul><li>The starter motor </li></ul><ul><li>Electric radio antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Motors in all sorts of places: </li></ul><ul><li>Your iPod </li></ul><ul><li>Several in the VCR </li></ul><ul><li>Several in a CD player or tape deck </li></ul><ul><li>Many in a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Most toys that move </li></ul><ul><li>Electric clocks </li></ul><ul><li>The garage door opener </li></ul><ul><li>Aquarium pumps </li></ul>
  42. 42. MOTOR REPLACEMENT & MAINTENANCE <ul><li>Less than 40 hp & 15 year life </li></ul><ul><li>Rewind cost exceeds 65% of new high efficiency motor. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor re-winded several times </li></ul><ul><li>Working less than 50% of full load </li></ul>Minimize Rewind Losses Optimize Transmission Efficiency Perform Periodic Checks Lubricate Correctly Maintain Motor Records Motor Maintenance Electric Motors
  43. 43. SYSTEM MATCHING AND PROCESS OPTIMIZATION Change or reconfigure the process or application so that less input power is required. Downsize the over sized pumps, fans, compressors or other driven loads if possible. Install more efficient mechanical subsystems. Check that coupling, gearbox, fan or pump must be energy efficient. Electric Motors
  44. 44. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION Reducing circulation fan speed from 80% to 60%; power consumption was reduced by 54 %. REGULATE FAN SPEEDS WITH TEMPERATURE Unwise use of machines Average Speed Reduction 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Potential Energy Savings 22% 44% 61% 73% 83% 91%
  45. 45. <ul><li>Options: </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting efficiency improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in no. Of fixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Mounting height – Task lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Improved quality reflectors </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed control </li></ul>LIGHTING SYSTEM
  46. 46. FLUORESCENT TUBE LIGHTS Lighting System <ul><li>T-5: New generation of economic lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>T-12 Fluorescent lamps were developed in 1936. The main source of light during the last couple of decades. </li></ul><ul><li>The more economic T-8 fluorescent lamp was introduced in 1978. </li></ul>
  47. 47. LIGHT OUTPUT- T8 & T5 – All lights with ECG Lighting System T8 Luminux Plus T5 (at 35 0 C) T8 Luminux Plus T5 (at 35 0 C) T8 Luminux Plus T5 (at 35 0 C) Power 18 Watt 14 Watt 36 Watt 28 Watt 58 Watt 35 Watt lm 1,300 1,350 3,200 2,900 5,000 3,650 lm / W 72,2 96,4 88,8 103,6 86,2 104,3
  48. 48. ENERGY COST COMPARISON Lighting System
  49. 49. ENERGY SAVING IN LIGHTING T-12 lighting system up gradation to T-8 = (kWh saved/year)(Rs./kWh ) = (20,000 kWh saved/year)(8 Rs./kWh ) = 160,000 Rs. = (# fixtures) [(40 watts-T12)—(36 watts-T8 )] = (1000) [( 40 watts )-( 36 watts )] = 4 kW = (kW savings)(Annual Operating Hours) = (4 kW)(8000 hours/year) = 32,000. kWh/year KW Savings KWh Savings Rs. Savings per year Lighting System
  50. 50. Lighting System The Mercury from a single fluorescent tube will pollute 30,000 liters of water. The UK currently discards 300 million fluorescent tubes each year. <ul><li>In the UK they currently recycle 3.5% of fluorescent tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>72% in Scandinavia . </li></ul>FLUORESCENT TUBES MUST BE RECYCLED
  51. 51. <ul><li>By switching of lights when not required. </li></ul><ul><li>By using cloth/jute bags instead of plastic bags. </li></ul><ul><li>Using both side of paper (printing/writing) </li></ul><ul><li>Using refills instead of buying a new pen. </li></ul><ul><li>Buying materials in bulk/without packing </li></ul><ul><li>By growing plants. </li></ul><ul><li>By not wasting food. </li></ul>YOUR DIRECT CONTRIBUTION
  52. 52. Hand operated machines; like Generators Water pumps Washing machines Flour grinding machines etc… THINK ABOUT IT . World population of 6B, increasing to perhaps 10B by 2050 FUTURE BUSINESS???
  53. 53. THANK YOU

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