Free to mix: an educators guide to reusing digital content


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'Free to mix: An educator’s guide to reusing digital content' has been developed by Digital New Zealand with the support of Services to Schools, National Library of New Zealand. This Slideshare remix has been made by the NZ Transport Agency (NZTA) to support teachers and students entering the NZTA_Remix Competition 2012.

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Free to mix: an educators guide to reusing digital content

  1. 1. Free to MixAn educators guide to reusing digital content
  2. 2. AboutFree to mix: An educator’s guide to reusing digital content has been developed by Digital New Zealandwith the support of Services to Schools, National Library of New Zealand.This Slideshare remix has been made by the NZ Transport Agency (NZTA) to support teachers andstudents entering the NZTA_Remix Competition 2012NZTA Education Services and competitions: http://education.nzta.govt.nzDigital New Zealand: www.digitalnz.orgServices to Schools and libraries supporting literacy and learning: schools.natlib.govt.nzMake it Digital: This presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand License. In essence, you are free to copy, distribute and adapt the work, as long as you attribute the work to the National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, when required, and abide by the other licence terms.
  3. 3. The NZTA Remix competitionKey pointsThe theme is Safer Journeys for Teens or for Auckland schools Safe Motorway Travel with threesets of prizes to be won. Entries will open on September 1st 2012 and close on October 31st 2012.The NZTA_Remix competition is for students in years 9 - 13 in the following competitions: ● Auckland schools (schools in the Auckland Council area) ● Rural schools (schools defined by the Ministry of Education as being rural) ● All other schools with year 9 - 13 students (including schools with other year levels)The competition is in two parts: 1. To create an infographic, mashup, creative remix, or a literature remix (based on the works of Shakespeare) using content and data from NZTA websites and publications. 2. The second part is to present or engage with students at your school with the entry you have made, and provide evidence of having undertaken this.For more information:
  4. 4. Contents1. Introduction2. Understanding remix3. Remixing with respect4. Understanding copyright5. Finding great content for reuse6. Becoming part of the creative remix community Digital storytelling7. Photo remix8. Infographics
  5. 5. Introduction re•mix n. (rē-mĭks) A new version of a song, book, picture, video (you name it) made by adding to, or otherwise changing the original version (license permitting).This presentation has been written to support educators to easily find and use excellent reusablecontent for creative activities. After using this presentation, it is intended that: ● Educators understand the variety of usage rights applicable to digital content ● Educators have ideas for teaching their students about usage rights ● Educators and students have the skills and confidence to find material that is suitable for reuse ● Educators and students feel confident creating new digital content, including remixes ● Educators and students create amazing, inspiring, creative new works to share with others
  6. 6. Understanding RemixThe term remix originally referred to using music samples to create alternative versions of a song.It can now refer to any sampling or overlaying of text, music, video and images.Now that almost anyone can make new works using digital copies we need a new media literacy, so wecan successfully create, quote and reference digital content.Key points ● Remix can refer to any sampling and overlaying of print, music, video and images ● Collage, photomontage and documentaries are early forms of remix ● Remix requires similar skills to traditional literacy, only using multiple forms of media content ● Creating, quoting and referencing for multiple media content are similar to printed content. Both involve convention and law
  7. 7. Quoting and remixing“Why should it be that just when technology is most encouraging of creativity, the law should be mostrestrictive?” ― Lawrence Lessig, Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid EconomyA quote used to review or illustrate a point of discussion or argument does not require any permissionor licence from the original author or creator.This is seen as ‘fair dealing’ under copyright law.Convention and law allows quoting where the source of the quote is acknowledged; and the length of the quote is not disproportionate to the original source.A quote that is too long or not acknowledged is seen as plagiarism by convention; and if it is substantial enough can be a copyright infringement by law.
  8. 8. Quoting and remixingThe convention in most cases is to ask permission of the owner or copyright holder of a photograph,film or video clip or recorded music before using it in a new work.This convention is often followed even where the copyright in a work has expired.News and current affairs reporting are excepted from this convention (although using photographs stillrequires permission).It is often easier to follow the convention of asking permission than to assume using a sample or animage is ‘fair dealing’. Conventions are generally agreed or Laws are written and decided on by accepted standards, norms or customs that Parliament, but are often focused on what may take the form of an “unwritten law”. you cannot do rather than what you can do. Plagiarism is an example of a convention, Judges in courts have the power to interpret as it is not against the law, but is widely and decide on whether a particular law has viewed as dishonest behaviour. been broken in a specific case. Their decisions have the same effect as a law written by Parliament.
  9. 9. Remix and the internetThe internet itself works by constantly copying content and moving it to other computers so it can beread or used.That means by default anything you place on the internet can be easily copied.For a long time people assumed that this ease of copying meant all the content on the internet was freefor anyone to use without permission.This assumption is wrong: content on the internet is protected by the same laws as any other works likebooks, CDs or DVDs.The difficulty now is, unlike books, CDs or DVDs, reading, watching or listening to anything on theinternet involves making a copy (copies of web pages and media download into your browser cache,memory or hard drive).You cannot avoid making copies when you use the internet.
  10. 10. Classroom remix ideasSome classroom activities ● Watch and play examples of remix (music, video, artworks) ● Search the internet for remixes of famous works like the Mona Lisa ● Identify/count how many different sources are involved in making a new work (e.g. a book with references, photos and quotes; a video documentary) ● Create a class collage with a mix of photos, drawings and words. Discuss the different elements and what you could add (e.g. sound and movement) if your collage was in a digital format ● Use an application like GIMP or to alter an image or add something else to it.For more classroom ideas: Download the Free to Mix printable guide
  11. 11. Remixing with respectBorrowing, adapting and building on the works of others the way we build and share our culturalknowledge and experiences.The creative process we call remix does this with multiple media, but the clearest example of remixingis storytelling.Shakespeare is a famous example from the past of someone who borrowed The oldest knownor adapted his storylines from others with great popular success. version of ShakespearesKey points Romeo and Juliet was told by the ● Borrowing and adapting is part of the creative process Roman poet Ovid (43BC-17AD). It was ● It is important to acknowledge the original work, the story of Pyramus and Thisbe, two even if it is not in copyright lovers in the city of Babylon who, despite ● Some works have special conditions put on them to prevent remixing being neighbours, were forbidden by their parents to wed.
  12. 12. Acknowledgement is importantTodays literary convention is to acknowledge where possible the original creator as the inspiration orsource for a new work.This convention of acknowledging the original(s) also applies to remix works made with multiple media.There are three main reasons we acknowledge our sources (students might be able to think of others): 1. We want to be honest and give credit to the work of others, especially those who depend on rightful acknowledgement of their work to earn a living or gain credentials or qualifications. 2 Acknowledging sources helps a reader or viewer to put the new work into context. In scholarly work this is commonly called ‘referencing’ or ‘citing’, and in film and broadcast media ‘crediting’. 3. Originals may come with some special conditions such as restrictions to protect individuals or sources.
  13. 13. Special conditionsMany museums, archives and libraries hold works that have special conditions placed on who can usethem and for what purposes.For example, diaries and letters are often of cultural or historic significance, but the original authorsoften never intended that their material would be published.In these cases, talk to the institution that holds the material you want to reuse.Key pointsImages of people, where they are identifiable, should also be considered with extra care. If in doubt -ask for their permission.Before reusing, consider if the person in the image knows about it and the way it has been madeavailable. In some cases the use and display/publication of an image may infringe a persons right toprivacy.Netsafe has sections about creating new content while respecting privacy. Download the Free to Mix printable guide for Remixing with Respect Classroom Ideas
  14. 14. Understanding CopyrightThe first copyright law was the Statute of Anne, put in place in England in 1709 to give protections toboth authors and buyers of printed books.Copyright is an internationally recognised legal protection under the New Zealand Copyright Act 1994that gives someone (usually the creator or publisher) an exclusive right for a set period of time to copy,distribute, show, perform, communicate or adapt an original work.Creators or publishers also have the exclusive right to licence that work to someone else.Key points: ● Copyright was established in a time of printed material ● Copyright is international ● Copyright enables people to make money from their work ● Copyright expires and then the work becomes available for other people to use it ● Use without permission is not the same as piracy
  15. 15. Copyright exceptionsA copyright licence is a legal means for a copyright holder to give permission to someone to copy,distribute, show, perform or adapt an original work. Unless you have a licence, you cannot lawfully dothese things. However, there are some exceptions:Fair dealingFair dealing is allowed (with some conditions) for criticism, review, news reporting, research and privatestudy. There are also a range of permitted copying uses for educational purposes - for the full list checkwith the Copyright Council of New Zealand.Public domainThe term public domain is a general concept that can be applied to a range of things that are freelyavailable or visible to the public. In the context of copyright, public domain is used to describe materialthat has no legal protection.Unknown copyrightMaterial that is likely to be in copyright, but the creator and copyright owner cannot be identified, isoften the most difficult to deal with. In some cases published material can be made available, if there isno known copyright owner and authorship cannot be established.
  16. 16. Permission v PiracyCommercial media organisations such as music and movie studios and distributors often equate allforms of use without permission to piracy.The term piracy, being an act of intentional counterfeiting or copying for financial gain, may not reflectwhat is actually happening to this content.Copyright infringement is not the same as piracy.While remix and sharing of content without permission can certainly be for commercial gain, manycases of use and sharing are purely creative or social.Video sharing sites such as YouTube are well known for their remixed content, most of which is non-commercial and used without permission, and there is generally no passing off or financial gain.However some publishers seek to prosecute users of their content regardless of whether or not there iscommercial gain. Download the Free to Mix printable guide Understanding Copyright Classroom Ideas
  17. 17. Finding great content for reuseThere is so much fantastic content out there already licensed for reuse that there is no good excuse touse material you do not have the rights for.Searching by Creative Commons licence is an easy way to find material you can remix, add to orchange.Creative Commons was set up to enable copyright holders to give permission in advance so people canuse their content without having to directly ask permission.Key points: ● There is lots of great material that you have the rights to reuse ● You will need to acknowledge the creator of the material and note where the items can be found ● You’ll need to understand any other restrictions – but this isn’t hard!
  18. 18. Creative Commons LicensesThere are a range of Creative Commons licences; the four that allow remixing are: Attribution (BY) – only need to credit the original creator Attribution Noncommercial (BY-NC) – for non-commercial purposes, and you need to credit the original creator Attribution Share Alike (BY-SA) – credit the original creator, and make your new content available under the same cc licence Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike (BY-NC-SA) - credit the original creator, and make new content available under the same cc licence, and for non-commercial purposes.
  19. 19. Watch Creative Commons Kiwi“Have you ever wondered how to download and share digital content legally? How do you let people know thatyou want them to reuse your own work? Creative Commons licences can help you do both. We’ll show you how.” Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand
  20. 20. Places to find CC materialIf you are looking for New Zealand images, video, audio and lots of other content to reuse, a great placeto start is Digital NZ: can apply a ‘modify’ usage rights filter to the search results to find digital content you can add to orchange.
  21. 21. How Digital NZ Works
  22. 22. Other places to find CC ContentOther places to find Creative Commons licensed content include:ImagesFlickr - images - - (select the CC tab)FedFlix - - http://www.jamendo.comCcMixter - http://ccmixter.orgMixed mediaSpin Express - Commons
  23. 23. Acknowledging content useYou always need to acknowledge the creator of the content you are reusing. If possible add a link to theoriginal work or describe how to find it.Acknowledgements can be next the item such as pictures, or at the end in a bibliography or credits.For a guide to styles for acknowledging information from books, websites, images, audio video anddata: Download the Free to Mix printable guide from the National Library, Services to SchoolsOther useful resources:APA style guide - http://www.apastyle.orgEndNote - http://www.endnote.comZotero - http://www.zotero.orgBibme -
  24. 24. Join the creative communityKey pointsYou can create your own digital content as ● Completely your own original work ● Your original work remixed with someone else’s work ● Your work as a development of other people’s worksRemixes can be in any format – film, music, digital story, poetry, cartoon, data visualisation, painting,poster etc.You can make your work available for other people to remix, and give explicit permission for whatpeople can do using Creative Commons licenses.Use this online tool to help you choose a CC license: to Make It Digital:
  25. 25. Becoming a creatorA bit of planning before you start remixing will lead to a greater chance of success. ● Think about what you want to achieve and who your audience is ● Choose technology that is available and appropriate – be careful not to let the technology direct what you want to do ● Do a practice run if any part of the process or technology is new to youAlso consider,: ● Where do you want to present your work and store it? ● Who else do you want to be able to access it? ● How will you let other people re-use your work?
  26. 26. Sharing your new workOnce your new work is complete, you will usually make it available for other people to view.If any of the material you have remixed was sourced under a Share Alike Creative Commons licence,you will have to use the same licence for your work.Hosting sites like YouTube and Flickr make it easy to set the CC license you want.If you are not given this option, you can apply a Creative Commons licence by following the steps onthe Creative Commons Aotearoa NZ website even provide a snippet of code you can embed into your website to link people to an explanationof the licence you have used. Download the Free to Mix printable guide Creative Remix Classroom Ideas
  27. 27. Digital StorytellingKey points Digital storytelling is simply storytelling in a digital format. It can come in lots of different formats using sound, video, images, music, text and more. Telling a good digital story is the same as telling a good story, with some new things to consider. All the content you reuse needs to be licensed for reuse. Digital stories are usually short (ideally 30 seconds to 3 minutes). There is generally more showing and less emphasis on the telling. Every frame must have impact and purpose.
  28. 28. Elements of storiesAll stories: have a specific topic or plot have a beginning, a middle and an end relate to people or characters are told from a particular point of view a good story makes the audience FEEL somethingDigital stories are produced using digital tools, usually published on the internet or DVD.They can use newly created digital material, existing digital material, or material that has been digitisedfor this purpose.
  29. 29. Photo RemixKey pointsA photo remix can be very complicated or very simple, you choose.Think about the statement you are trying to make or the concept you are trying to show.Make sure your final product still has the elements of a good photo.You can combine different photos or change a single photo in some way.You can add elements, crop parts, change bits, whatever you like.Techniques of collage, photomontage and scrapbooking can all be used.
  30. 30. InfographicsInfographics usually use a combination of text and graphics to explore a set of related ideas and databut they are primarily a visual compositionGood infographics will be interesting, beautiful and easy to understandKeep it simple!Sometimes people talk about infographics as being visual essays.This is a useful comparison and you can approach an infographic in much the same way as you wouldan essay.The difference is that essays are more text based, infographics are more visual.Look at for good examples or make your own infograhics.
  31. 31. InfographicsMake your own infographics with
  32. 32. Making an infographicGather your materials and explore the dataBegin by importing the data into an environment where you can easily visually explore the data.Spreadsheets are the easiest way to do this.At this stage, forget about what it will look like and just think about the interesting aspects of the data.Create a visual frameworkSketch a skeleton of concepts and arrows, grouping related data togetherBe conscious of the path(s) you want the reader to take through your infographic.Some infographics, set context with a broad introduction, other use a series of small visualisations
  33. 33. Making an infographicAssemble your infographicOnce you have a broad structure you can start filling in the details.Color is a critical visual element for conveying a wide array of messages and for orienting the reader.Use as few colours as you can get away with and assign them to particular themes (e.g. pale grey fornavigation and chart axes, dark grey for text and labels, blue for growth, red for loss, etc.).Design around a visual hierarchy – the order in which the human eye perceives what it sees. People willsee large dark text in the middle of the page before they see pale text in the margins.Through colour, layout and typography you can guide a reader’s eye around the page the way you wantto.Less is more!
  34. 34. Some free remix toolsImages:Pixlr - online image editor - http://pixlr.comFotoflexer - http://fotoflexer.comVideo:YouTube Video Editor - - http://www.stroome.comAudio:Aviary audio editor - Animate - -
  35. 35. NZTA Remix Competition 2012 Key points The competition is in two parts:1. To create an infographic, mashup, creative remix, or a literature remix (based on the works of Shakespeare) using content and data from NZTA websites and publications.2. The second part is to present or engage with students at your school with the entry you have made, and provide evidence of having undertaken this. There are three sets of prizes to be won including $10,000 of vouchers for your school, $2,000 towards presenting at the International Conference of Thinking 2013 and $500 vouchers for the winning team. Start remixing now! Entries will open on September 1st 2012 and close on October 31st 2012. For more information:
  36. 36. NZTA Remixable ContentNZTA WebsitesThere are many resources available at the NZTA education website and other related sites for remixingin the competition. You can start by visiting: ● ● ● ● ● ● more NZTA Remix resources at:
  37. 37. NZTA Remix Competition 2012 Full competition information can be found at: