5. the communications process

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  • Chapter Five The Communications Process © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp.139 and Figure 5-1 of the text. Summary Overview This slide provides an overview of the basic elements of the communications process which includes: Source/Sender – the person or organization that has information to share Receiver – person(s) with whom the sender is sharing thoughts Message – the information the source hopes to convey Channel – method by which the communication travels from source to receiver Encoding – putting thoughts, ideas, or information into symbolic form Decoding – transforming the senders message back into thought Response – receiver’s reactions after seeing, hearing, or reading the message Feedback – part of the receiver’s response that is communicated back to the sender Noise – unplanned distortion or interference Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the communication process and discuss the basic elements in a communication system. It is important for students to understand each of these elements and the role they play in the communication process.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p. 151 and Exhibit 5-1 of the text. Summary Overview The source can be an individual, such as a celebrity, or a non-personal entity such as the corporation or the organization itself. This ad is for Rolex watches and is an example of using a celebrity as the source. In this ad, Olympic skiing champion Picabo Street appears as a spokesperson for Rolex. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show how celebrities are often used as a source in an advertising message. Although source characteristics will be discussed in Chapter 6, this is a good opportunity to discuss how marketers must be careful in selecting a source the receiver believes is knowledgeable and trustworthy or whom the receiver finds attractive and can relate to in some manner.
  • Relation to text This material relates to material on p.141 of the text which discusses source encoding. Summary Overview This slide summarizes the various forms of encoding which is the process by which thoughts or ideas are put into a symbolic form. The sender’s goal is to encode the message is such a way that it will be understood by the receiver. The various forms by which a message can be encoded include: Verbal Graphic Musical Animation Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain the various forms by which as messages can be encoded by the sender. Many of these are used in the development of advertising messages.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p.141-143 of the text. Summary Overview The encoding process leads to the development of a message that contains information or meaning the source hopes to convey. To better understand the symbolic meaning that might be conveyed in a communication, marketing researchers have been focusing on semotics which studies the nature of meaning and asks how our reality – words, gestures, signs, products, symbols – acquire meaning. From a semiotic perspective every marketing message has three components: Object – product or brand that is the focus of the message (e.g., Marlboro) Sign or symbol – sensory imagery that represents the intended meanings of the object (Cowboy) Interpretant – intended meaning (masculine, rugged, individualistic) Use of slide This slide can be used to demonstrate the use of semiotics as a technique to develop a meaningful communications message. It can be helpful in analyzing how various aspects of the marketing program – such as advertising messages, packaging, brand names, and even the non verbal communications of sales people – are interpreted by the receivers.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to the material on p. 142 which discusses semiotics. Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Snuggle, which is one of the leading brands of fabric softener. Lever Brothers conducted an semiotic analysis to better understand the meaning of Snuggle, the huggable teddy bear that has become a symbol for the brand. The semiologist concluded that Snuggle is a “symbol of tamed aggression” and is a perfect symbol for a fabric softener that “tames the texture of clothing.” Use of this slide This slide can be used as part of a discussion of semiotics. As noted in the text, some advertising and marketing people are skeptical about the value of semiotics. They question whether semiologists read too much into advertising messages and are overly intellectual in interpreting them. You might ask your students if they agree with the assessment of the symbolic meaning of the Snuggle bear.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 141-143 and Exhibit 5-2 Summary Overview This slide is an ad for the Estee Lauder perfume, Spellbound. It is an example of a message that is conveyed primarily through images rather than words as Spellbound perfume uses only a picture to deliver its message. However, the product name and picture help communicate a feeling of attraction and fascination between the man and woman shown in the ad. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of an ad where the message is conveyed through images rather than through words. For many products it is not the actual words of the message that determine it communication effectiveness but rather the impression or image the ad creates.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to Diversity Perspective 5-1 on p. 140 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows a Hispanic commercial for Oscar Mayer Wieners and is an example of how companies develop advertising for this ethnic market. In this spot the popular jingle for the brand (“I wish I was an Oscar Mayer wiener”) jingle is translated into Spanish. As discussed in Diversity Perspective 5-1, marketers targeting the Hispanic market have to decide whether to translate their commercials into Spanish or try to reach this market with English language ads. Oscar Mayer, like many large companies, now develops advertising specifically for the Hispanic market that go beyond just using Spanish language versions of ads developed for the general market. This particular ad was developed specifically for the Hispanic market. Use of this slide The commercial shown in this slide is a very good example of how marketers are developing commercials specifically for the fast-growing Hispanic market in the U.S. This spot can be used to generate discussion of the importance of developing advertising specifically for Hispanics rather than trying to reach them with general market ads.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp.143-145 of the text. Summary Overview This slide summarizes the types of communications that can be used in advertising and promotional messages. Communications fall into two basic categories, verbal and nonverbal . Verbal communications consist of items such as vocabulary, grammar, and inflection. Non-verbal communications include gestures, facial expressions, and body language. Nonverbal forms of communication can be very important in advertising as well as personal selling situations Use of this slide This slide can be used to discuss the two basic types of communication, verbal and nonverbal. Marketers must consider how these forms of communication will be interpreted by consumers who receive them.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p.143 of the text. Summary Overview Communication channels can be broken into two types, personal and nonpersonal . Personal channels are direct, interpersonal (face-to-face) contact with individuals or groups. Sales people serve as personal channels when they deliver their sales messages. Social channels such as friends, family, and co-workers can be a powerful personal source of information through what is commonly referred to as word-of-mouth communications. Nonpersonal channels are those than carry a message without a personal contact between sender and receiver. Nonpersonal channels are generally referred to as mass media and include various forms of print and broadcast media. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain the communication channels of the communication process and the difference between personal and nonpersonal channels. Both can be used very effectively in advertising and promotion programs.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to the material in Diversity Perspective 5-1 on p. 140. Summary Overview This slide contains a commercial for Pennzoil motor oil that was developed specifically for the Hispanic market. The commercial is called “Angels in the Alcove” and shows two angels who awaken to accompany a father and mother as they drive their children in their cars. As the vehicles leave home, the angels fly overhead to offer protection as a super comes on screen stating: “To protect the car is to protect the driver.” This spot is a good example of how advertising to the Hispanic market often stresses the family and family values. Use of this slide The commercial shown in this slide is another good example of how marketers are developing commercials specifically for the fast-growing Hispanic market in the U.S. This spot can be used to generate discussion of the importance of developing advertising specifically for Hispanics rather than trying to reach them with general market ads.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp.143-145 of the text. Summary Overview Decoding the message can be heavily influenced by the receiver’s frame of reference or field of experience , which refers to the experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and values he or she brings to the communication situation. Effective communication is more likely when there is some common ground between the two parties. This slide illustrates this concept by showing different levels of experiential overlap ranging from the sender and receiving being in different worlds, to moderate and high overlap or commonality. Use of this slide This slide can be used to demonstrate that for effective communication to occur the message decoding process of the receiver must match the encoding of the sender. The more overlap present in their experiences the greater chance of effective communication. This notion can cause great difficulty in the advertising communication process because marketing and advertising people often have very different fields of experience from the consumers who constitute the mass markets with whom they must communicate. These differences can result from differences in characteristics such as age, education, profession, lifestyle, and other factors.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 146-147 and Figure 5-2 of the text. Summary Overview The marketing communications process begins with identifying the audience that will be the focus of the firm’s advertising and promotional efforts. The target audience may consist of individuals, groups, niche markets, market segments, or a mass audience. This slide shows the various levels of the audience aggregation which include: Individuals – those with specific needs for whom a message must be specifically tailored Small groups – multiple people in the audience who are involved in the purchase decision such as families or people who members of a buying center Niche markets – smaller, well-defined markets consisting of customers who have similar needs Market segments – broader classes of people who have similar needs and can be reached with similar messages Mass markets – markets consisting of large numbers of potential customers Use of this slide This slide can be used to show the various types of markets and customers that can be identified as targeted audiences. Marketers usually approach each of these audiences differently from a communications perspective.
  • Relation to text This slide relate to material on pp.147-150 and Figure 5-2 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows various examples of hierarchical response models that have been developed through the years to depict the stages consumers/customers go through as they learn about a company’s product or service and move to a stage of purchase readiness or actual behavior. These four models include: AIDA model – developed to depict the stages in the personal selling process Hierarchy of effects model – shows the process by which advertising works Innovation adoption model – shows the stages a consumers passes through in the process of adopting a new product Information processing model – a model of the process through which a consumer must pass to be influenced by advertising Use of this slide This slide can be used to provide an overview of the various hierarchical response models that have been developed through the years. It should be noted that each of these models views the consumer as passing through a cognitive, affective and behavioral stage.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp.149-150 and Exhibit 5-5 of the text. Summary Overview The hierarchy models of communication response are useful to promotional planners. Potential buyers may be at different stages in the hierarchy, so the advertiser will face different sets of communication problems. This ad for Zenith’s new plasma HDTV is an example of a communication message that is focused on making the target audience aware of the product and some of its features. This type of advertising is designed to make consumers aware of the new product and to encourage then to seek more information about it when they enter a retail store where it is sold. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of an advertising message that is designed to take help move consumers through the various stages of the innovation adoption model. This type of communication is common in products that are in the early stages of their product life cycle.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p.149 and Figure 5-4 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows that there are various stages of the persuasion process that marketers want to attain. Each stage can be measured, providing the advertiser with feedback regarding the effectiveness of various strategies designed to move the consumer closer to purchase. The types of effectiveness tests that can be used to measure each step of the persuasion process are included on this slide. Use of this slide This slide can be used to demonstrate the various methods of obtaining feedback given each stage of the persuasion process. There are a variety of measures that are appropriate to use depending on where the customer is in the persuasion process and the type of communications being used.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 150-153 of the text. Summary Overview Michael Ray has developed a model of information processing that identifies three alternative orderings of the three stages based on perceived product differentiation and product involvement . The three alternative hierarchies include: The Standard Learning Hierarchy = learn  feel  do sequence. The consumer is viewed as an active participant and this sequence is likely when there is much differentiation among brands and the consumer is highly involved in the purchase process. The Dissonance/Attribution Hierarchy = do  feel  learn sequence. Occurs when consumers must choose between two alternatives that are similar in quality but are complex and may have unknown attributes. Focus of mass media should be on reducing dissonance after purchase. Low involvement Hierarchy = learn  –  do  feel sequence. Occurs when involvement in the purchase decision is low, there are minimal differences among brand alternatives, and mass-media advertising is important. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain Michaels Ray’s alternative response hierarchies. Understanding these alternative response sequences is important to marketers as they must recognize that not all purchase decisions are explained adequately by the traditional response hierarchy. From a promotional perspective, it is important that marketers examine the communication situation for their product or service and determine the type of response process that is most likely to occur
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p.152 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows one of the ads from the “Insist on Heinz” campaign for Heinz ketchup. This ad can be used as an example of advertising for a low involvement product and the low involvement hierarchy. Advertisers of low involvement products often repeat simple product claims such as a distinctive feature or benefit. Heinz has dominated the ketchup market for years by repeatedly telling consumers that its brand is the thickest and richest and the highest quality. The company has used a variety of ad campaigns over the years; however, they have always communicated the same basic message of product quality. This ad features a police officer sitting in a restaurant and staring at an off-brand ketchup bottle punctured with forks. The headline reads: “Must not be Heinz.” The copy at the bottom of the ad encourages consumers to insist on Heinz when they eat out. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of a low involvement product advertisement. Heinz has been consistent through the years in reminding the consumer they are the best and most preferred brand of ketchup. Because it is a low involvement product, Heinz has used clever advertising emphasizing product attributes and a heavy repetition schedule for its advertising.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p.150-151 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Dell Computers and is an example of advertising for a high involvement, highly differentiated product. Ads for high involvement products such as personal computers provide customers with detailed information that can be used to evaluate brands, form attitudes and help them make a purchase decision. Use of this slide This slide can be used as an example of advertising for a high involvement, highly differentiated product. Consumers purchasing a computer are likely to follow a standard learning hierarchy where they learn about the product, form feelings or attitudes, and then make a purchase. In this hierarchy the consumer is generally an active participant and gathers information. As such, the advertisement includes information the consumer can use to make an informed purchase decision.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 154-157 and Figure 5-7 of the text. Summary Overview This slide shown the advertising planning model developed by associates from the Foote, Cone & Belding agency. This model builds on traditional response theories such as the hierarchy of effects model and its variants and research on high and low involvement. They added the dimensions of thinking versus feeling processes at each involvement level. Their model is known as the FCB grid and delineates four primary advertising planning strategies: Informative – for highly involved purchases where rational thinking and economic considerations prevail. Affective – for highly involved/feeling purchases. These types of products should be advertised stressing psychological and emotional motives. Habit formation – for low involvement/thinking products where routine behavior patterns and learning occurs most often after purchase. Self-satisfaction – low involvement/feeling products where appeals to sensory pleasures and social motives are important Use of this slide This slide can be used as part of a discussion of the FCB which provides a useful way for those involved in the advertising planning process to analyze consumer /product relationships and develop appropriate promotional strategies. It is also useful in developing effective creative options such as using rational versus emotional appeals, increasing involvement levels, or even getting customers to evaluate a think-type product on the basis of feeling.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p.154-157 of the text and Figure 5-7. Summary Overview This slide shows in detail the informative (thinker) cell of the FCB Grid which is characterized by the following: Highly involved purchases where rational thinking and economic considerations prevail A Learn  feel  do response sequence Product examples: car, house, furniture, and new products Possible implications Tests: recall, diagnostics Media: long copy Creative: demonstration, information Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain in more detail each of the four planning strategies of the FCB model. The informative strategy is the focus of this slide. It provides a useful way for those involved in the advertising planning process to analyze consumer/product relationships and develop appropriate promotional strategies.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p. 154-157 of the text and Figure 5-7. Summary Overview This slide shows in detail the affective (feeler) cell of the FCB Grid which is characterized by: Highly involved/feeling purchases a Feel  learn  do response sequence Product examples: jewelry, cosmetics, fashion products Possible implications Tests: attitude change, emotional arousal Media: image, large space Creative: impact, executional Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain in more detail each of the four planning strategies of the FCB model. The affective strategy is the focus of this slide. It provides a useful way for those involved in the advertising planning process to analyze consumer/product relationships and develop appropriate promotional strategies.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 154-157 and IMC Perspective 5-3 of the text. Summary Overview This slide contains one of the commercials for the “Just Imagine” campaign for Whirlpool appliances that is discussed in IMC Perspective 5-3. The purpose of this campaign is to encourage the modern day woman to connect with Whirlpool appliances on an emotional level by demonstrating how they are in touch with their changing needs and values. Appliances have traditionally used more rational advertising that focuses on product features and benefits. This campaign takes a different approach in trying to reach women. Use of this slide This commercial can be used as an example of how marketers might use an emotional appeal to encourage consumers to evaluate a think-type product such as an appliance on the basis of feelings. The imagery-laden Whirlpool ads are a very good example of this type of strategy.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on p. 154-157 of the text and Figure 5-7. Summary Overview This slide shows in detail the habit formation (doer) cell of the FCB Grid which is characterized by the following: Low involvement/thinking purchases Do  learn  feel response sequence Product examples: food, household items Possible implications Tests: sales Media: small space ads, radio, POP Creative: reminder advertising Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain in more detail each of the four planning strategies of the FCB model. The habit formation strategy is the focus of this slide. It provides a useful way for those involved in the advertising planning process to analyze consumer/product relationships and develop appropriate promotional strategies.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to the material on pp. 154-57 of the text and Figure 5-7. Summary Overview This slide shows in detail the self-satisfaction strategy (reactor) cell of the FCB Grid which is characterized by the following: Low involvement/feeling purchases Do  feel  learn response sequence Product examples: cigarettes, liquor, candy Possible implications Tests: sales Media: billboards, newspapers, POP Creative: attention advertising Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain in more detail each of the four planning strategies of the FCB model. The self-satisfaction strategy is the focus of this slide. It provides a useful way for those involved in the advertising planning process to analyze consumer – product relationships and develop appropriate promotional strategies.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to the material on pp. 157-58 of the text and Figure 5-8. Summary Overview This slide provides a definition of the cognitive response approach to examining consumers processing of advertising messages. This approach examines the type of thoughts that are evoked by an advertising message by having consumers write down or verbally report their reactions to a message. Use of this slide This slide can be used to introduce the cognitive response approach to understanding the nature of consumers’ reactions to persuasive messages. It is widely used in research by both academicians and advertising practitioners to determine the types of responses evoked by an advertising message and how these thoughts relate to attitudes toward the ad, brand attitudes, and purchase intentions.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 157-158 of the text and Figure 5-8. Summary Overview This slide shows a model of the cognitive process and how these thoughts relate to traditional outcome measures such as brand attitude, attitude toward the ad, and purchase intentions. Cognitive responses are the thoughts that occur while reading, viewing, and/or hearing a communication. The assumption is that these thoughts reflect the recipient’s reactions and help shape ultimate acceptance or rejection. of a message. The categories of cognitive responses include: Product/message thoughts Source-oriented thoughts Ad execution thoughts Use of slide This model can be used to show how cognitive responses to an advertisement mediate outcome reactions such as brand attitudes and attitude toward the advertisement which in turn impact purchase intentions.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 157-158 of the text and Figure 5-8. Summary Overview This slide shows the three basic categories of cognitive responses. These are: Product/message thoughts – directed at the product or service and/or claims being made in the communication. These types of thoughts include: Counterarguments – thoughts the recipient has that are opposed to the position taken in the message Support arguments – thoughts that affirm or support the claims made in the message Source-oriented thoughts – directed at the source of the communication and include: Source derogations – negative thoughts about the spokesperson or organization making the claims Source bolsters – favorable thoughts about the spokesperson or organization making the claims Ad execution thoughts – thoughts about the ad itself, including execution factors such as creativity, quality, colors, or voice tones. Affect/attitude toward the ad represents the receivers’ feeling of favorability or unfavorability toward the ad. Use of this slide This slide can be used to further explain the cognitive response model by providing examples of the three categories of thoughts that might occur in reaction to an advertising message.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp. 158-160 of the text and Figure 5-9. Summary Overview Differences in the way consumers respond to persuasive messages are addressed in the elaboration likelihood model (ELM). According to the model, the attitude formation or change process depends on the amount and nature of elaboration, or processing, of relevant information that occurs in response to a persuasive message. This model recognizes two basic routes to persuasion or attitude change: Central route to persuasion – the receiver is viewed as an active participant in the communication process whose ability and motivation to attend, comprehend, and evaluate the message is high. Peripheral route to persuasion – the receiver is viewed as lacking the motivation or ability to process information and is not likely to engage in detailed cognitive processing. Rather than evaluating the information in the message, the receiver relies on peripheral cues or cognitive shortcuts. Use of this slide This slide can be used to explain the elaboration likelihood model and discuss its use by marketers to develop communication messages. According to the model there are two basic routes to persuasion or attitude change. When central processing of an ad occurs, the consumer pays close attention to message content and scrutinizes the message arguments carefully. Thus, the ad’s ability to persuade depends on the receiver’s evaluation of the arguments presented. Under the peripheral route to persuasion , the receiver’s reaction to the message depends on how he or she evaluates peripheral cues such as the attractiveness of the source, music, or imagery. These cues might help consumers form a positive attitude toward the brand even if they do not process the message portion of the ad.
  • Relation to text This material relates to material on pp. 158-160 of the text and Figure 5-9. Summary Overview This slide shows an ad for Gillette Right Guard Clear Stick and Clear Gel deodorant featuring basketball star Scottie Pippen. It contains several positive peripheral cues including the use of a popular celebrity endorser and excellent visual imagery. Use of this slide This slide can be used to show an example of an ad that might result in attitude change through a peripheral route to persuasion. The celebrity endorser and visual imagery might serve as peripheral cues and help consumers form a positive attitude toward the brand even if they do not process the message portion of the ad.
  • Relation to text This slide relates to material on pp.161-162 and Figure 5-10. Summary Overview This slide presents a framework for studying how advertising works that was developed by Vakratsas and Ambler following an extensive review of more than 250 articles and studies of the advertising response process. This framework is as follows: Advertising input – message content, media scheduling, repetition Filters – the message is mediated by factors such as motivation and ability Consumer – intermediate effects between advertising and purchase Cognition – the thinking dimension of a person’s response Affect – the feeling dimension of a person’s response Experience – the feedback dimension based on outcomes of the product purchasing and usage Consumer behavior – consumption, choice, loyalty, habit Use of this slide This chapter has presented the process consumers go through in responding to marketing communications from a number of different perspectives. This slide can be used to explain the framework for studying how advertising works and to summarize the different models. The various communication models provide insight into how consumers may process and respond to persuasive messages and help marketers make better decisions in planning and implementing their IMC programs.
  • 5. the communications process

    1. 1. The CommunicationsProcess © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    2. 2. The Communications Process © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    3. 3. Attractive sources are appropriate forimage-related products + © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    4. 4. There are many forms of encoding Encoding Encoding Verbal Verbal Graphic Graphic Musical Musical Animation Animation• Spoken• Spoken • Pictures • Pictures • Arrange- • Arrange- • Action/ • Action/ Word Word ment ment Motion Motion • Drawings • Drawings• Written• Written • Instrum- • Instrum- • Pace/ • Pace/ Word Word • Charts • Charts entation entation Speed Speed• Song• Song • Voices • Voices • Shape/ • Shape/ Lyrics Lyrics Form Form © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    5. 5. The Semiotic PerspectiveThree Components to every marketing message Object Object Brand such as Brand such as Marlboro Marlboro Sign or symbol Sign or symbol Interpretant/ Interpretant/ representing representing intended meaning intended meaning intended intended (masculine,rugged (masculine,rugged meaning meaning individualistic) individualistic) (Cowboy) (Cowboy) © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    6. 6. What is the symbolic meaning of theSnuggle bear? + © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    7. 7. Images Encoded in Pictures ConveyEmotions Very Powerfully © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin +
    8. 8. Music and Symbols Readily Cross Ethnic Boundaries *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    9. 9. Forms of Personal Communication Vocabulary Vocabulary Verbal Verbal Grammar Grammar Inflection Inflection Gesture Gesture Facial Facial Nonverbal Nonverbal Expression Expression Body Body Language Language © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    10. 10. Communications Channels Personal Selling Personal Personal Channels Channels Word of Mouth Print Media Nonpersonal Nonpersonal Channels ChannelsBroadcast Media © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    11. 11. Pennzoil Creates Advertising forthe Hispanic Market *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    12. 12. Experiential Overlap Different Worlds Sender Receiver Receiver Sender Experience Experience Experience Experience Moderate Commonality Receiver Receiver Sender Sender Experience Experience Experience Experience High Commonality Receiver Receiver Receiver Experience Sender Sender Experience Experience Experience Experience © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    13. 13. Levels of Audience Aggregation Mass Markets Market Segments Niche Markets Small Groups Individuals © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    14. 14. Models of the Response Process © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    15. 15. Advertising Creates Awareness for a New Product + © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    16. 16. Models of Obtaining FeedbackEffectiveness Test Persuasion Process Circulation Reach Circulation Reach Exposure, Presentation Exposure, Presentation Listener, Reader, Listener, Reader, Viewer Recognition Attention Attention Viewer Recognition Recall, Checklists Recall, Checklists Comprehension Comprehension Brand Attitudes, Brand Attitudes, Message Acceptance/ Message Acceptance/ Purchase Intent Purchase Intent Yielding Yielding Recall Over Time Recall Over Time Retention Retention Inventory, POP Inventory, POP Consumer Panel Purchase Behavior Purchase Behavior Consumer Panel © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    17. 17. Alternative Response Hierarchies Topical Involvement High Low Learning Model Low Involvement Model Perceived product High Cognitive differentiation Cognitive Affective Conative Dissonance/ Conative Attribution Model Low Conative Affective Affective Cognitive © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    18. 18. Clever Ads Encourage LowInvolvement Learning + © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    19. 19. Computers are high-involvement,highly differentiated products + © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    20. 20. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Thinking Feeling Involvement 1 2 High Informative Affective The Thinker The Feeler 3 4 Involvement Habit Self- Low Formation Satisfaction The Doer The Reactor © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    21. 21. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Thinking 1 Informative The Thinker Car-house-furnishings-new products Involvement Model: Learn-feel-do (economic?) High Possible implications Test: Recall diagnostics Media: Long copy format Reflective vehicles Creative: Specific information Demonstration © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    22. 22. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Feeling 2 Affective The Feeler Jewelry-cosmetics-fashion goods Involvement Model: Feel-learn-do (psychological?) High Possible implications Test: Attitude change Emotional arousal Media: Large space Image specials Creative: Executional Impact © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    23. 23. Whirlpool Encourages Women to ConnectWith Its Appliances on an Emotional Level *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    24. 24. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Thinking 3 Habit formation The Doer Food-household items Involvement Model: Do-learn-feel (responsive?) Low Possible implications Test: Sales Media: Small space ads 10-second ID’s Radio; Point of Sale Creative: Reminder © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    25. 25. Foote, Cone & Belding Grid Feeling 4 Self-satisfaction The Reactor Cigarettes, liquor, candy Involvement Model: Do-feel-learn (social?) Low Possible implications Test: Sales Media: Billboards Newspapers Point of Sale Creative: Attention © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    26. 26. Cognitive ResponseA method for examining consumers’ cognitive A method for examining consumers’ cognitiveprocessing of advertising messages by looking at processing of advertising messages by looking attheir cognitive responses to hearing, viewing, or their cognitive responses to hearing, viewing, orreading communications. reading communications.Examines types of thoughts that are evoked by anExamines types of thoughts that are evoked by anadvertising message.advertising message.Consumers write down or verbally report theirConsumers write down or verbally report theirreactions to a message.reactions to a message. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    27. 27. A Model of Cognitive Response © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    28. 28. Cognitive Response Categories Product/Message Thoughts Product/Message ThoughtsCounter ArgumentsCounter Arguments Support Arguments Support Arguments Source - Oriented Thoughts Source - Oriented ThoughtsSource DerogationSource Derogation Source Bolstering Source Bolstering Ad – Execution Thoughts Ad – Execution Thoughts Thoughts About Thoughts About Affect Attitude Affect Attitude the Ad Itself the Ad Itself Toward the Ad Toward the Ad © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    29. 29. Elaboration Likelihood ModelFocuses on the way consumers respond to persuasiveFocuses on the way consumers respond to persuasivemessages based on the amount and nature of elaborationmessages based on the amount and nature of elaborationor processing of informationor processing of information Routes to attitude changeCentral route toCentral route to Peripheral route to Peripheral route topersuasion – abilitypersuasion – ability persuasion – ability persuasion – abilityand motivation toand motivation to and motivation to and motivation toprocess a message isprocess a message is process a message is process a message ishigh and closehigh and close low and receiver low and receiverattention is paid toattention is paid to focuses more on focuses more onmessage contentmessage content peripheral cues rather peripheral cues rather than message content than message content © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    30. 30. Celebrity Endorsers Can Be Peripheral Cues © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin +
    31. 31. How Advertising Works Advertising Input Advertising InputMessage content, mediaMessage content, media scheduling, repetition scheduling, repetition Filters Filters Motivation, ability, Motivation, ability, (involvement) (involvement) Consumer Consumer Cognition, Affect, Cognition, Affect, Experience Experience Consumer Behavior Consumer Behavior Choice, consumption, Choice, consumption, loyalty, habit, etc. loyalty, habit, etc. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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