Biculturalism andMulticulturalism: the Politics of Identity and Inclusion Professor James H. Liu Centre for Applied Cross Cultural Research School of Psychology Victoria University of Wellington
Interrogating Multiculturalism and Biculturalism• According to Canadian researcher John Berry (1984) multiculturalism (MC) is achieved when all cultures can be maintained and are respected, and when members of each culture can participate fully in the wider, plural society.• Psychologically, at least, it appears that MC is compatible with biculturalism (BC). But there are elements of BC that do not sit comfortably within MC.
Historical Basis for Biculturalism in NZ • The basis for BC arises out of the status of Māori as tangata whenua in what is widely regarded as the foundational document of NZ sovereignty, the Treaty of Waitangi. • This contractual relationship between Māori and the Crown has evolved over time, but includes provisions for kawanatanga, rangatiratanga, equality for all citizens, reasonable cooperation between Crown and iwi, and redress of past injustices. • These principles are specific to NZ.
Historical Basis for Biculturalism in NZ • The basis for BC arises out of the status of Māori as tangata whenua in what is widely regarded as the foundational document of NZ sovereignty, the Treaty of Waitangi. • Contractual elements of the relationship between Māori and the Crown have evolved over time, but may include provisions for kawanatanga, rangatiratanga, equality for all citizens, cooperation between Crown and iwi, and redress of past injustices. • These principles are specific to NZ, and can be conceptualized as involving a partnership between Māori and the Crown.
Symbolic elements of this relationship arewidely accepted according to research using the Implicit Associations Test (IAT)
At the symbolic level (IAT), Maori and Pakeha areBOTH implicitly associated with the national identity
Maori language is recognized as an official languageof NZ, and some Maori words have entered into the national lexicon
Support for Biculturalism in Principle, or Symbolic Inclusion of Maori (4.89/1-7) • Maori language should be taught in all New Zealand schools • The New Zealand national anthem should be sung in both Maori and English. • New Zealand should be known and seen as a bicultural society, reflecting an equal partnership between Maori and Pakeha. • If New Zealand were to change to a republic, then the Treaty of Waitangi should be used as a foundation for our constitution. • New Zealand should embrace it’s cultural diversity.
More Support for Liberal Democratic principle of Equality & Opposition to Resource Specific Biculturalism (5.73)• We are all New Zealanders, and no one ethnic group should get special privileges.• It is racist to give one ethnic group special privileges, even if they are a minority• I feel that although Maori have had it rough in past years, they should still be treated the same as everyone else.• No one group should be given privileges on the basis of ethnic or racial background• I find the idea of giving priority or special privileges to one group appalling, minority or otherwise
Historical Negation as a Legitimizing Myth for NZ Europeans The Historical Negation Scale Loading Grievances for past injustices should be recognized and due compensation .86 offered to the descendants of those who suffered from such injustices. (r) New Zealand law needs to recognize that certain ethnic minorities have been treated unfairly in the past. People belonging to those groups should be entitled .84 to certain benefits and compensation. (r) I believe that I should take part in the efforts to help repair the damage to others .83 caused by earlier generations of people from my ethnic group. (r) We as a nation have a responsibility that see that due settlement is offered to .82 Maori in compensation for past injustices. (r) We should not have to pay for the mistakes of our ancestors. .81 We should all move on as one nation and forget about past differences and .79 conflicts between ethnic groups. It is true that many things happened to Maori people in the past that should not have happened, but it is unfair to hold current generations of Pakeha/NZ .78 Europeans accountable for things that happened so long ago. People who werent around in previous centuries should not feel accountable for .69 the actions of their ancestors. (r) = Item is reverse scored.
Maybe not racist, but it does maintain NZEuropean Privilege through policy preferences
The ComplementaryRoles of Biculturalism and Multiculturalism?• Biculturalism relates to Symbolic elements of the National Identity of Nzers. It is rooted in the Treaty of Waitangi, which makes specific provisions for Maori as tangata whenua. These symbolic associations are part of the national landscape of NZ history and cannot be avoided, but can be actively negated where historical grievances are concerned. The practice of te reo is a potential area of growth where symbolic identification can create social structures.• Multiculturalism is a more general social contract relating to rights of all NZ citizens to maintain their cultural heritage and to participate in a pluralistic society. It can be considered as a subset of liberal values relating to freedom, equality and fraternity. It is less a source of symbolism for national identity, and still less a claim for resources or historical injustice.
Core Issues In Liberalism (the philosophical basis for Multiculturalism)• Equality, but only in terms of removal of discrimination. Positive actions like affirmative action are construed as disadvantaging the majority or other ethnic groups.• Privileging of two levels of identity, the individual and the state. The interests of all other groups are subordinate to the state, and fairness/property rights at the individual level.• Many liberal states, however, have historical exceptions to these general rules, usually where there is a historically embedded minority (In Switzerland and Canada this works particularly well).
Core Issues in Biculturalism and Multiculturalism• Egalitarianism (both deal with equality but in different time frames and using different perspectives on the importance of the ind v group)• Partnership (non-assimilable difference, acknowledges cultural groups)• Equity (implementation issues; improve procedural justice, argue about distributive justice) Biculturalism has more of a social justice orientation.• Inclusiveness (are Asians and Pacific islanders more included under Biculturalism or under Liberalism?) Multiculturalism is more about issues of social participation .