1. From Biculturalism to Multiculturalism: The Canadian Case Adrienne N. Girling Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
2. Outline• Canadian multiculturalism policy• Canadian Diversity• Diversity Policies Official Languages Act Multiculturalism Policy/Act• Outcomes of Multicultural Policy• Suggestions for NZ
3. Multiculturalism Policy• Multiculturalism within a bilingual framework. – Emphasises that everyone living in Canada should be treated equally, while at the same time promoting the use of English or French.• Integration is promoted where everyone is encouraged to both maintain their heritage culture and adopt a common Canadian one.• Emerged out of a commission on bilingualism and biculturalism.
4. Canadian Diversity in Context• Sixty percent of Canadians speak English as a first language; 23% speak French; 17% speak a third language as their mother tongue.• Nearly 4% of the population is Aboriginal; 16% identifies as a visible minority.• Approximately 1 in 5 Canadians was born overseas.•
5. Bi and Bi Commission “To inquire into and report upon the existingstate of bilingualism and biculturalism in Canadaand to recommend what steps should be taken todevelop the Canadian Confederation on the basis of an equal partnership between the two founding races, taking into account the contribution made by the other ethnic groups to the cultural enrichment of Canada and the measures that should be taken to safeguard that Contribution.”
6. Bilingualism and Biculturalism Report• Made many recommendations for resource-based bilingualism, including: - Official Languages Act (1969) - That Ottawa become bilingual - French OR English school for anyone• Recommended multiculturalism instead of biculturalism, leading to the multicultural policy of 1971.
7. Inception of Multiculturalism“...there cannot be one cultural policy for Canadians of British and French origin, another for the original peoples and yet a third for all others. For although there are two official languages, there is no official culture, nor does any ethnic group take precedence over any other. No citizen or group of citizens is other than Canadian, and all should be treated fairly.” - Pierre Elliott Trudeau, PM
8. Multiculturalism Act (1988)Officially recognised:• Canadas multicultural heritage and that thisheritage must be protected• Aboriginal rights• English and French remain the only officiallanguages but that other languages may be used• Equal rights regardless of colour, religion, andethnicity• All Canadians’ full participation in society
9. Outcomes of Policy/Act• 13% of MPs in Parliament are foreign born; 5.6% visible minority; 1.7% Aboriginal• Media reporting on cultural and ethnic diversity is highly inclusive of minorities• 76% of immigrants proud to be Canadian• 78% feel more strongly attached to Canada than to their country of origin• Increase in religious and ethnic accommodation
10. Unresolved Issues• Discrimination and inequality still persist• Misrepresentation and under-representation of minorities in the media• Aboriginal issues are not a central part of multiculturalism and seem to sit elsewhere
11. Suggestions for NZ• Adopt a policy of multiculturalism within the existing bicultural framework. - Officially recognise the diversity that already exists in NZ - Could take form of Treaty-based multiculturalism - Possibly an easier transition than multiculturalism in lieu of biculturalism