The Origins of  World War One Theme B Nationalism, International Relations and the Search for Security
Contents <ul><li>Introduction  |  NCEA </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3...
Focusing Questions <ul><li>Why did the balance of power in Europe shift? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the major powers of Eur...
NCEA Level 2 Standards <ul><li>During the course of this study you will cover material which will enable you to answer the...
AS 90469 <ul><li>Examine how a force or movement in an historical setting influenced people’s lives, in an essay </li></ul...
AS 90470 <ul><li>Examine individual or group identity in an historical setting, in an essay . </li></ul><ul><li>This achie...
The European States System <ul><li>The first World War did not just happen. Its roots can be traced back  to events and pe...
Europe 1815-1861
Nationalism <ul><li>In the mid 19 th  Century many of the people in Europe began to question who and what they were.  </li...
Austria-Hungary Ethnic groups <ul><li>German  11,987,000   ( 24% )  </li></ul><ul><li>Hungarian 10,051,000   ( 20% )  </li...
The Balance of Power <ul><li>With 4 major powers in Europe a balance was achieved by their changing  alliances. </li></ul>...
The Birth of a Nation <ul><li>Before 1870 Germany did not exist. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1860’s the largest Germanic Stat...
The Franco-Prussian War <ul><li>As Bismarck unified the Germans he decided to establish its place in Europe as a major pow...
Revenge <ul><li>The humiliating defeat of France effectively created the climate that would lead to WWI. </li></ul><ul><li...
Activities Chapter 1 <ul><li>Complete a ‘Pen’ portrait of Bismarck. (6 bullet points of his life and achievements) </li></...
Chapter 2: Shifting Alliances <ul><li>Bismarck needed to ensure the future of Germany. He would do this by creating allian...
German Search for Security 1870 1890 1880 1900 1910 France Defeated Bismarck Resigns 1873 3  EMPE R O R S LEAGUE 1878 DUA ...
Kaiser Wilhelm II <ul><li>In  1888   Wilhelm ll  was crowned Kaiser of Germany.  </li></ul><ul><li>He did not get on with ...
Empire: Big Kids and their toys <ul><li>Empires were a status symbol.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks, Romans, Persians were...
a <ul><li>a </li></ul>
Activities Chapter 2 <ul><li>Why did Germany see colonies as being so important? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems did Germa...
Chapter 3:Britain Returns! <ul><li>Britain had always sought naval superiority by ensuring her fleet was the equal of any ...
The First Moroccan Crisis 1905 <ul><li>Wilhelm visited  Tangiers  in Morocco in 1905. In an effort to force a division bet...
Activities Chapter 3 <ul><li>Activities associated with resources, A, C-F pages 16-19. </li></ul><ul><li>Review activities...
Activities Answers <ul><li>Resource A  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain, Colonia (the Empire), Germany, France, Rus...
Search for Security 1890-1910 1870 1890 1880 1900 1910 France Defeated Bismarck Resigns 1873 3  EMPE R O R S LEAGUE 1878 D...
Chapter 4:The Balkans <ul><li>The Balkans was described as ‘the powder keg of Europe’.  It was an area with many competing...
The Bosnian Crisis 1908 <ul><li>In 1908 the ‘Young Turks’ overthrew the Ottomans. They hoped to rebuild the Turkish Empire...
Activities Chapter 4 <ul><li>What were the major outcomes of this crisis in terms of lasting peace in the region? </li></u...
<ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosnia and Herzegovina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She (her empire) is large. She ...
Chapter 5: The Arms Race <ul><li>There were huge industrial advances in the late 19 th  century. Factories became larger, ...
Naval Gazing <ul><li>Great Empires were built on the back of Navies. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain had an empire because...
HMS Dreadnought
Chapter 5: Activities <ul><li>Activities associated with resources A, C-E page 26-29 </li></ul><ul><li>Review activity B, ...
<ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 200% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1...
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The origins of WWI

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AS 90649
AS 90470
Origins of World War One

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The origins of WWI

  1. 1. The Origins of World War One Theme B Nationalism, International Relations and the Search for Security
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction | NCEA </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 8 | Flashcards </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 10 | Flashcards 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 12 </li></ul><ul><li>REVISION </li></ul>
  3. 3. Focusing Questions <ul><li>Why did the balance of power in Europe shift? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the major powers of Europe deal with this shift? </li></ul><ul><li>Why and how did the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand lead to the outbreak of WW1? </li></ul>
  4. 4. NCEA Level 2 Standards <ul><li>During the course of this study you will cover material which will enable you to answer the following Achievement Standards. </li></ul><ul><li>90469 - Examine how a force or movement in an historical setting influenced people's lives, in an essay. </li></ul><ul><li>90470 - Examine individual or group identity in an historical setting, in an essay. </li></ul>
  5. 5. AS 90469 <ul><li>Examine how a force or movement in an historical setting influenced people’s lives, in an essay </li></ul><ul><li>This achievement standard requires writing an essay examining cause(s) and/or consequence(s) and/or event(s) related to a force or movement in history, and the influence on people’s lives of the force or movement. </li></ul>Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence <ul><li>Describe cause(s) and/or consequence(s) of action(s) and/or event(s) related to a force or movement in an historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain cause(s) and/or consequence(s) of action(s) and/or event(s) related to a force or movement in an historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensively and accurately explain cause(s) and/or consequence(s) of action(s) and/or event(s) related to a force or movement in an historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the influence on people’s lives of the force or movement in the historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the influence on people’s lives of the force or movement in the historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensively explain the influence on people’s lives of the force or movement in the historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and organise information and ideas in an appropriate essay format. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and organise information and ideas in an appropriate essay format. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and organise information and ideas in an appropriate and effective essay format. </li></ul>
  6. 6. AS 90470 <ul><li>Examine individual or group identity in an historical setting, in an essay . </li></ul><ul><li>This achievement standard requires writing an essay describing factors that have contributed to the formation of individual or group identity, and ways the identity was expressed, in an historical setting, and describing characteristics of this individual or group identity. </li></ul>Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence <ul><li>Identify and describe some factors that have contributed to the formation of an individual or group identity, and ways the identity was expressed, in an historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain a range of factors that have contributed to the formation of an individual or group identity, and ways the identity was expressed, in an historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensively explain a range of factors that have contributed to the formation of an individual or group identity, and ways the identity was expressed, in an historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe characteristics of the individual or group identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain characteristics of the individual or group identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensively explain characteristics of the individual or group identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and organise information and ideas in an appropriate essay format. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and organise information and ideas in an appropriate essay format. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and organise information and ideas in an appropriate and effective essay format. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The European States System <ul><li>The first World War did not just happen. Its roots can be traced back to events and people that occurred decades before 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to understand the makeup of Europe at the end of the 19 th century, and how this influenced peoples feelings and Government decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 Europe experienced a long period of relative peace. </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid 19 th Century several countries experienced revolutions which broke up old systems of government. Italy and later Germany became nations under their own Government. </li></ul><ul><li>But old rivalries remained and France, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Britain remained wary of their old foes. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Europe 1815-1861
  9. 9. Nationalism <ul><li>In the mid 19 th Century many of the people in Europe began to question who and what they were. </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation, Improvements in education, the development of a middle class, unionism and ideas of nationality based on culture/language all contributed tho this development. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people found their native languages religious, ethnicity and culture dominated by and often subjugated by foreigners. </li></ul><ul><li>They began to see themselves as different and wanted to join together with people of their own culture/language and to control their own affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>The major empires of Europe increasingly faced challenges from ethnic groups who had been consumed by the Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism was becoming an important force of change in the second half of the nineteenth century. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Austria-Hungary Ethnic groups <ul><li>German 11,987,000   ( 24% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hungarian 10,051,000   ( 20% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Slovene 1,253,000   ( 2% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Croat, Serb 5,623,000   ( 11% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Czech 6,436,000   ( 13% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Slovak 1,946,000   ( 4% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Polish 4,968,000   ( 10% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ruthenian 3,983,000   ( 8% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Italian 768,000   ( 2% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Romanian 3,223,000   ( 6% ) </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL 50,238,000 </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Balance of Power <ul><li>With 4 major powers in Europe a balance was achieved by their changing alliances. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France generally sided with each other while Austria-Hungary and Russia usually worked together. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 19 th century this kept Europe stable and peaceful. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Germany and Italy joined these groups keeping a nominal balance, gradually developing into the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Birth of a Nation <ul><li>Before 1870 Germany did not exist. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1860’s the largest Germanic State of Prussia began to unify the German speaking Countries, Principalities. </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia created a new well equipped, highly disciplined army with which it intimidated its neighbours. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary was the pre-eminent German State, but Bismarck provoked a was over control of Holstein. After a 7 week campaign Prussia was able to create and dominate the North German Federation. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the Spanish throne as an excuse Bismarck then provoked a war with France. </li></ul><ul><li>With victory over France Bismarck was able to convince the southern German states to join him. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost overnight a collection of almost 200 German states had been pulled together creating a huge nation in the middle of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The balance of Power was changed forever. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Franco-Prussian War <ul><li>As Bismarck unified the Germans he decided to establish its place in Europe as a major power. </li></ul><ul><li>He provoked a dispute with France and attacked them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Prussians quickly encircled Paris within 6 weeks France eventually capitulated . </li></ul><ul><li>Germany took the opportunity to seize Alsace-Lorraine from France as well as demanding that France as the loser should pay for the cost of the war (Reparations). </li></ul><ul><li>Bismarck identified France as Germany’s greatest threat and began to build alliances designed to isolate them. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Revenge <ul><li>The humiliating defeat of France effectively created the climate that would lead to WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Losing was bad enough. But the loss of land (Alsace-Lorraine) compounded this feeling of humiliation. </li></ul><ul><li>To reinforce their superiority and the shift in power, Germany demanded that France reimburse their cost. These reparations were large and added to the French desire to seek revenge. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Activities Chapter 1 <ul><li>Complete a ‘Pen’ portrait of Bismarck. (6 bullet points of his life and achievements) </li></ul><ul><li>Resources C-D page 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Review Activity A page 8 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Chapter 2: Shifting Alliances <ul><li>Bismarck needed to ensure the future of Germany. He would do this by creating alliances (networks) of supporting nations in a policy called REALPOLITIK . </li></ul><ul><li>Although allied to France, Great Britain was increasingly pre-occupied by her Empire and had a policy of ‘Splendid Isolation’ which meant she chose to remove herself from European affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>He identified that Russia and Austria as potential allies. In 1873 he negotiated the Three Emperors League (Dreikaiserbund) with them. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1878 Russia withdrew leaving Germany and Austria in the 1879 Dual Alliance . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1881 Italy joined them in the Triple alliance . Italy however also had a secret pact with France to remain neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1887 he negotiated the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia guaranteeing their neutrality in a war with a third party. </li></ul>
  17. 17. German Search for Security 1870 1890 1880 1900 1910 France Defeated Bismarck Resigns 1873 3 EMPE R O R S LEAGUE 1878 DUA L Al L L A N CE 1881 T R I P L E A L L L A N CE 1887 RE INSURANCE T R EA T y
  18. 18. Kaiser Wilhelm II <ul><li>In 1888 Wilhelm ll was crowned Kaiser of Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>He did not get on with Bismarck and dismissed him in 1890 . </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike Bismarck who wanted a secure Germany in Europe, Wilhelm was more interested in establishing Germany as a world power. </li></ul><ul><li>This policy was known as ‘ Weltpolitik’ . </li></ul><ul><li>Within days of Bismarck’s resignation Wilhelm refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>This gave the French the opportunity to form an anti-German alliance with the Russians. In 1894 the Dual Entente was signed whereby France and Russia pledged to support each other in the event of an attack on either party by Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany’s desire for world status was driven by her rapid industrial and economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany quickly overhauled Britain in industrial production, in particular, steel. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly she felt entitled to what Britain had - a large overseas Empire. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Empire: Big Kids and their toys <ul><li>Empires were a status symbol. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks, Romans, Persians were generally associated with great periods in history. </li></ul><ul><li>The Portuguese (Americas, Asia), Spanish (Americas, Pacific), French (Africa, Asia, Pacific) and even the Dutch (Asia) had once all had extensive Empires. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 19 th Century most of Asia, Africa and the Pacific were now part of one of the other European Empires. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain was Great because of the size of its Empire – the most extensive the world had ever seen. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had no empire, and there was little left to choose from.. </li></ul>
  20. 20. a <ul><li>a </li></ul>
  21. 21. Activities Chapter 2 <ul><li>Why did Germany see colonies as being so important? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems did Germany face in its quest for colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise the section on Naval Expansion from page 10. What was significant about this change in the German navy? </li></ul><ul><li>Activities associated with resources B-F pages 12,13 & 14. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Chapter 3:Britain Returns! <ul><li>Britain had always sought naval superiority by ensuring her fleet was the equal of any two rivals combined. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it was becoming increasingly difficult for Britain to ignore Germany. The Dual Entente also concerned the British, as Russia and France were their colonial rivals. </li></ul><ul><li>Many saw Germany as a suitable ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany for her part was suspicious of Britain’s motives and no alliance was made. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain in turn signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in 1902 . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1903 King Edward VII began a process of reconciliation with France which culminated in 1904 with the signing of the Entente Cordiale . </li></ul><ul><li>This agreement gave Britain a free hand in Egypt, while in return Britain would not intervene in Morocco. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, Germany viewed it as an anti- German alliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany sought to break the Entente Cordiale up by provoking a fight with France over Morocco. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The First Moroccan Crisis 1905 <ul><li>Wilhelm visited Tangiers in Morocco in 1905. In an effort to force a division between France and Britain he declared that Morocco should be independent. </li></ul><ul><li>France could not rely on Britain and Russia was involved in a war with Japan and internal revolution, its Government fell. </li></ul><ul><li>To Germany’s surprise at the 1906 Algeciras Conference , Britain backed France more forcefully than they expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Even worse the following year Britain and Russia settled their differences and established the 1907 Triple Entente . </li></ul><ul><li>Suddenly Germany found herself surrounded by Enemies. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Activities Chapter 3 <ul><li>Activities associated with resources, A, C-F pages 16-19. </li></ul><ul><li>Review activities A-D </li></ul>
  25. 25. Activities Answers <ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain, Colonia (the Empire), Germany, France, Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They had more in common with each other and didn’t need Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Splendid Isolation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource C </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany needs somewhere to keep her Navy(!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany had been ignored/treated like a 3 rd rate nation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It isolated her. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To break the agreement between France & Britain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource D </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain, France and Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France occupies Morocco, Germany would like to break them up. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany would like to keep them apart. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource E </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Algeciras Conference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased German isolation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain & Japan, France and Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France wants Russia to join their entente </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interfere in her colonial ambitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource F </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That he wishes nothing but peace with Britain. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The consul went to Fez to ‘safeguard’ German interests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The French consul had already been there for several months. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mischief makers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plus Grand Gaffeur de L’Europe certainly sounds better than Dickhead </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Search for Security 1890-1910 1870 1890 1880 1900 1910 France Defeated Bismarck Resigns 1873 3 EMPE R O R S LEAGUE 1878 DUA L Al L L A N CE 1881 T R I P L E A L L L A N CE 1887 RE INSURANCE T R EA T yz 1890 RUSS I A W I THDRAWS 1 9 0 2 A NGLO- JAPANESE ALL 1 9 0 4 ENTENETE CORDI ALLE 1 9 0 5 F I R S T M O RR OC AN CRISI S 1 9 0 6 A LGECIRAS CONFERENCE 1 9 0 7 TRI PLE ENTENTE 1 894 DUAL ENTNENTE
  30. 30. Chapter 4:The Balkans <ul><li>The Balkans was described as ‘the powder keg of Europe’. It was an area with many competing forces, Imperial desire competing with emerging nationalism of ethnic groups in the area such as the Serbs, Greeks and Bulgars. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ottoman Empire was in decline. At its height it controlled this region but by the end of the nineteenth century it was struggling to hold on in the Balkans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hapsburg Empire had slowly taken control of much of the region but had met resistance from the Kingdom of Serbia. Many of the people living in this area were Slavs and Serbia saw itself as capable of uniting all Slavs under their leadership. Austria-Hungary therefore saw Serbia as a major threat. </li></ul><ul><li>For Russia this area was of strategic interest. Much of its trade passed through the Black Sea and into the Mediterranean. Direct control of this area would enable the Russians to control this vital waterway. In addition the Russians shared the Orthodox religion with the Slavs. Russia saw itself as the champion of the Slavs. </li></ul>
  31. 31.
  32. 32. The Bosnian Crisis 1908 <ul><li>In 1908 the ‘Young Turks’ overthrew the Ottomans. They hoped to rebuild the Turkish Empire, and looked first to regaining Bosnia & Herzegovina – administered since 1878 by Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria sought Russian help in annexing the area first, promising access via the Bosphorus for the Black Sea fleet </li></ul><ul><li>Austria went ahead before Russia was ready and Russia was forced to disown the bargain to save face amongst its Slav population. </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia felt cheated in its bid to create a Slav state and appealed to Russia for help. </li></ul><ul><li>With German support Austria was able to force Russia to back down. </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey was distracted by the Bulgarians declaration of independence and accepted a cash payment in compensation. </li></ul><ul><li>In its aftermath Russia was left embittered </li></ul>
  33. 33. Activities Chapter 4 <ul><li>What were the major outcomes of this crisis in terms of lasting peace in the region? </li></ul><ul><li>Activities associated with resources A, C, & D pages 22-23. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosnia and Herzegovina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She (her empire) is large. She cannot protect them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annexe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because they are Slavic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing both ends against the middle. Appeared to support Austria then Serbia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As support for Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource C </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly Unfriendly </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia & Russia Serbia Vs Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Austria & Germany Ottomans Vs Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Ottomans & Austria Germany Vs Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Resource D </li></ul><ul><li>The annexation of Bosnia & Herzegovina </li></ul><ul><li>The empire is made up of many parts </li></ul><ul><li>The Congress of Berlin 1878 </li></ul><ul><li>Empire </li></ul><ul><li>They were exchanging one Imperial master (Turkey) for another (Austria). </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia </li></ul>
  35. 35. Chapter 5: The Arms Race <ul><li>There were huge industrial advances in the late 19 th century. Factories became larger, investment in research and development increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these new technologies were in military hardware. Weapons became more efficient and powerful and cheaper to produce. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of what their neighbours might have drove a growing market. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments invested in vast quantities of Ordinance mainly because they feared being left behind by their neighbours/enemies/rivals. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies like Krupp, Skoda and Vickers made huge profits selling to anyone who would buy their wares. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Naval Gazing <ul><li>Great Empires were built on the back of Navies. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain had an empire because of its navy which was larger than any other. </li></ul><ul><li>It had more Capital Ships (battleships, heavy cruisers) than anyone else. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany wanted to emulate this. The Second Naval Law of 1900 saw the Germans set a target that would double the size of their navy by 1916. </li></ul><ul><li>The British responded by establishing a new North Sea fleet. Then they built the Dreadnought. </li></ul><ul><li>Faster, heavier armed and armoured its unintended result was to make every other existing battleship obsolete. </li></ul><ul><li>Suddenly the overwhelming numbers of capital ships Britain had disappeared. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany now had an opportunity to overtake Britain as the paramount Naval power. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Germany and Britain began a race to see who could build more Dreadnoughts/Rheinlanders. </li></ul><ul><li>Disarmament conferences held in 1899 and 1907 failed. The rivalry was too far advanced to permit any progress in this direction. </li></ul>
  37. 37. HMS Dreadnought
  38. 38. Chapter 5: Activities <ul><li>Activities associated with resources A, C-E page 26-29 </li></ul><ul><li>Review activity B, page 29. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 200% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1880 & 1914 German Army doubled, its Navy increased almost 10 times. British army increased 25% its Navy by less than 3 times. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two reasons; Sea Power and Political necessity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without a fleet they were only a continental power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain would not have given them their due respect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Edward & Wilhelm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The planned Navy is to large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany – she is being treated like a small child. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect her trade routes, because Japan does, to support Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He is wary of a Germany who will want to use their military power. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Chapter 6: the Agadir Incident 1911 <ul><li>Morocco had remained unstable after the Algeciras Conference, France controlled some elements of Moroccan internal affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>French and German businesses continued to be rivals. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1911 the Sultan asked for French assistance to put down a revolt of tribesmen. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany was concerned that any increase in French involvement would result in a Gallic takeover. </li></ul><ul><li>When French troops occupied Fez Germany sent their gunboat Panther into the port of Agadir. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany demanded compensation for this French gain. </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted French Congo in return for allowing France to have Morocco. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Chapter 6: Activities <ul><li>Activities associated with Resources A-E </li></ul><ul><li>Pages 31-33 </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilhelm II (Germany) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German threatened Morocco with the Panther. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was heavy handed (Bismarck’s “Iron Fist in a Velvet glove”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because again they have been outmanoeuvred once again and made to look weak and indecisive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of Desperation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An attempt to undermine/destroy the Entente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is more solid than it looks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany was surprised by the strength of the response. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the top – maintain her place/potent influence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bound to say – Listen Buddy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place and prestige – We’re Number ONE! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centuries of heroism – Miltary conquest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced upon us – Backed into a corner </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humiliation intolerable – This means War! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t place us in a situation where we can’t back down. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He is angry at the threat he identifies Britain as their enemy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has a destiny to expand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The suggestion by Tirpitz would allow Germany to mass their Capital ships quicker. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Resource A
  44. 44. Resource C
  45. 45. Chapter 7: the Balkans Bites Back <ul><li>In 1912 the former Ottoman Provinces Serbia, Greece Bulgaria and Montenegro formed the Balkan League. The League attacked ( the First Balkan War ) Turkey, which was weakened and distracted by war with Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>In only 7 weeks Turkey was left with only a toehold in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria was horrified. Serbia was now the real power in the Balkans. Austrian Generals demanded an immediate attack. Existing alliance met that an attack on Serbia would drag everyone into a war. </li></ul><ul><li>The great powers forced a peace conference – Austria insisted on the creation of Albania cutting Serbia off from the sea, which left Serbia bitter. </li></ul><ul><li>The League quickly fell apart. Bulgaria attacked Serbia and Greece ( the Second Balkan War ) – but was easily defeated and forced to surrender all of her gains from the first war in the Treaty of Bucharest . </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia was left embittered at Austria (over Albania) and at the 6 million Serbs and Croats still under Austrian rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria was bitter at Serbian gains and at the threat they now posed. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Balkan Wars 1912-13
  47. 47. Chapter 7: Activities <ul><li>Complete Activities for Resources A – D page 35-36 </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey/Ottomans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albania- To cut their access to the sea (trade). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria: angry Serbia: happy/angry Bulgaria: Angry Turkey: Angry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It will drag everyone into it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace want’s to stop them becoming involved in the war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain, Austria, Germany, Russia and France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Serbian/Austrian conflict of interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War would eventuate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Powers were not willing to become involved if it meant war. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Chapter 8: Willing to make war. <ul><li>An important aspect in preparing for a war is the selling of the idea to the public. The human and financial cost of war is such that it requires public support to actually start a war. Nationalism became jingoism in the decade after 1900. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Literature was often used to express the importance of war, it was made to sound romantic and heroic. National histories emphasised military traditions and victories. </li></ul><ul><li>The Press (Newspapers) used sensationalism to inflame nationalistic feelings. Hearst is credited with starting the Spanish-American War. </li></ul><ul><li>In some countries education emphasised the past glories or past injustices that had robbed them of their destiny. </li></ul><ul><li>Patriotism was emphasised as a virtue, in the press and literature. Popular entertainments highlighted and lampooned perceived enemies </li></ul>
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60.
  61. 61.
  62. 62. Chapter 8: Activities <ul><li>What does Jingoism mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the Activities associated with Resource A-F. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>The finger, the eyes, The resolute stare </li></ul><ul><li>It would have boosted recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Resource B </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The Lord Mayor’s is emotional. The Daily Mail is Scaremongering. </li></ul><ul><li>It is emphasising the more extreme view of Germany character (destroy the British Empire/Teutonised/Drilled/Rod of Iron) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource C </li></ul><ul><li>War is inevitable and sanctioned by God </li></ul><ul><li>Resource D </li></ul><ul><li>Britannia </li></ul><ul><li>The Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>They are scaremongering/creating a racket (lot of noise) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource E </li></ul><ul><li>Baden Powell and the Boy Scout Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and her Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The Empire will protect Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Resource F </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm is using the sponge (Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>It is portraying Wilhelm as aggressive and predatory. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Flashcards <ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of Power </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>Bismarck </li></ul><ul><li>North German Federation </li></ul><ul><li>Franco Prussian War </li></ul><ul><li>Alsace-Lorraine </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Kaiser </li></ul><ul><li>Realpolitik </li></ul><ul><li>Dreikaiserbund </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Reinsurance Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Splendid Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm II </li></ul><ul><li>Weltpolitik </li></ul><ul><li>Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>First Moroccan Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Algeciras conference </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Entente </li></ul><ul><li>The Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Habsburg Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Bosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Slavic people </li></ul><ul><li>Bosnian Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Herzegovinia </li></ul><ul><li>Black Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinance </li></ul><ul><li>Krupp, Skoda Vickers </li></ul>
  65. 65. Chapter 9: Planning is Everything <ul><li>In the years prior to the outbreak of WW1 the major powers had to prepare detailed plans for mobilisation so that they could respond quickly in the event of war breaking out. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these plans were complicated and hard to reverse if a peaceful solution was later found. </li></ul><ul><li>Railways became the keys to rapid mobilisation and thousands of kilometres of new tracks were laid in the years prior to 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilisation became important. Since most countries had a standing army supplemented by conscripts – how long it took for the army to be ready to fight became a crucial part of planning. </li></ul><ul><li>The German Schlieffen Plan was based on crushing France quickly before her Russian allies had time to help. </li></ul>
  66. 66. a <ul><li>a </li></ul>
  67. 67. Chapter 9: Activities <ul><li>READ WAR PLANS HANDOUT: </li></ul><ul><li>How did the existence of plans increase their chances of being used? </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly describe the French Plan XVII – what were its chief weaknesses? </li></ul><ul><li>What was necessary for the Schlieffen Plan to work? Why was 42 days so important? What was an important weakness? What was the key factor according to Schlieffen? </li></ul><ul><li>Using the information on page 36-7 </li></ul><ul><li>In a Table (2 Columns) Name the Countries with War Plans then Identify the countries against whom they were planning. Also identify Allies upon whom they relied. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat step 4 for the Naval Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Activities for Resources A-E page 43-45. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>WAR PLANS </li></ul><ul><li>The War Plans made everyone nervous. Just like the Arms Race if your neighbour had one – you had to have one. Once begun the Plans could not be reversed. </li></ul><ul><li>To defend the border. It ignored good tactics (protect the flanks!) </li></ul><ul><li>The Plan meant invading Belgium whose neutrality was guaranteed. Russia would be mobilised in 42 days. Keeping the Right Wing strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><li>To sweep around behind the French Army. </li></ul><ul><li>A swift advance. Surround Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>It weakened and shortened the Right Wing. </li></ul><ul><li>It concentrates its defence on the German border. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource B </li></ul><ul><li>To much relied on a strict timetable. </li></ul><ul><li>It relied on trains. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource C </li></ul><ul><li>Because the timetable was so exacting. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource D </li></ul><ul><li>The Russo-Japanese war had been static, technology gave an advantage to defenders, traditional units and tactics did not work. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource E </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking Belgium would result in almost every other major power entering the conflict. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Chapter 10: Assassination <ul><li>By 1914 all the pieces were in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe was divided between two camps - the Triple Alliance/Entente. </li></ul><ul><li>Each side was heavily armed. </li></ul><ul><li>Every side had detailed plans for war. </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides distrusted the other – Germany especially seemed bent on upsetting the balance. (Naval supremacy, Empire building) </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides had interests in the Balkans. Russia in support of Serbia expansionism, Austria in opposition to a strong Serbian State. </li></ul><ul><li>All it required was a trigger. </li></ul><ul><li>The assassination of Austrian heir Franz Ferdinand’s was seen as such a trigger. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria was outraged at the death and demanded satisfaction. </li></ul>
  70. 70. The Slide into War <ul><li>Austria could not prove Serbian involvement in the assassination, but many believed it was time to crush the upstart Balkan state anyway. </li></ul><ul><li>First they had to ensure German support and their need for a 30 day mobilisation. </li></ul><ul><li>In July German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollwegg assured their support for Austrai if Russia became involved. (The Blank Cheque) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany was relying on Russia still recovering from its 1905 defeat by Japan. (they expected Russia would back down again as she did in 1908) </li></ul><ul><li>Austria sent Serbia a list of Ultimatums – demanding acquiescence within 48 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite Serbia agreeing to all of the demands Austria remained unhappy. </li></ul>
  71. 71. All the Kings horses... <ul><li>On 28 July Austria declared war on Serbia. </li></ul><ul><li>France had agreed to back Russia so they began mobilisation. Russia was determined to avoid a repeat of its 1908 humiliation. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm and Nicholas exchanged telegrams trying to defuse the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite this, the rigid timetables meant that Germany could not delay and on the 29 th Germany began preparations. 11,000 trains left for the Belgian border. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany issued ultimatums to both Russia (cease mobilisation) and France. (Promise neutrality). </li></ul><ul><li>On August 1 st Germany declared war, France began mobilisation. (Russia had already started) </li></ul><ul><li>On August 3 rd Germany demanded Belgian agreement to crossing their country. Britain backed Belgium’s refusal. </li></ul><ul><li>On August 4 th Britain and Germany were at war. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Activities <ul><li>Complete Activities 1-5 for Resources A-C and Activities 10-15 for resources E-G, Pages 48-53 </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><li>They’re in an open topped car. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource B </li></ul><ul><li>They believe propaganda is responsible for the build up of tension/hate. </li></ul><ul><li>4 and 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Resource C </li></ul><ul><li>Placatory </li></ul><ul><li>1.Suppression of publications 2.Black Hand </li></ul><ul><li>Resource E </li></ul><ul><li>German mobilisation meant invading Belgium – too many countries guaranteed its neutrality. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource F </li></ul><ul><li>The news meant war with France and Britain could be avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted Moltke to stop the invasion of Luxembourg and Belgium. Moltke knew the invasion was almost impossible to stop. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource G </li></ul><ul><li>The small boy (clogs) is Belgium (No Thoroughfare) defending the gate (to France) against the old bully (Germany/Sausages). </li></ul><ul><li>It is the key to a successful attack on France </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-German - Germany is a heavily armed Bully. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Timeline 3 1906 1907 1908 1911 1910 1909 1912 1913 1914 D R E A D N O U G H T L A U N C H E D T R I P L E E N T E N T E A U S T R I A A N N E X E S B O S N I A A G A D I R I N C I D E N T F I R S T B A L K A N W A R S E C O N D B A L K A N W A R F R A N Z F E R D I N A N D D I E S R U S S I A B A C K S D O W N
  75. 75.
  76. 76. Flashcards II <ul><li>Capital Ships </li></ul><ul><li>Dreadnought </li></ul><ul><li>Rheinlander </li></ul><ul><li>Arms Race </li></ul><ul><li>Agadir incident </li></ul><ul><li>Sultan </li></ul><ul><li>Fez </li></ul><ul><li>French Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Balkan League </li></ul><ul><li>First Balkan War </li></ul><ul><li>Second Balkan War </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Bucharest </li></ul><ul><li>Jingoism </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Literature </li></ul><ul><li>The Press </li></ul><ul><li>Patriotism </li></ul><ul><li>War Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Schlieffen Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Sarajevo </li></ul><ul><li>Franz Ferdinand </li></ul><ul><li>Black Hand </li></ul><ul><li>Pan Slavism </li></ul><ul><li>Tsar Nicholas </li></ul><ul><li>Gavrilo Princip </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of London </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimatum </li></ul><ul><li>Colonel Dimitrijvevic </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Grey </li></ul>
  77. 77. Chapter 11: German Culpability <ul><li>In the Treaty of Versailles Germany was forced to accept responsibility for the war. How accurate is this view? </li></ul><ul><li>After the Bosnian Crisis Russia was left embittered and in 1913 began to rearm. The German military realised that once finished in 1916 Russia would be a formidable foe. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany offered the ‘blank cheque’ to Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Bethmann-Hollwegg believed that a quick victory by Austria would forestall a Russian attack and Germany would be able to calm the aggrieved Entente Powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria delayed the war fudging the assassination as an excuse. The Mobilisation timetable became paramount. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm’s telegram exchange with Nicholas indicated his reluctance to go to war until he felt forced by Russian preparations. </li></ul><ul><li>Did Germany believe a strong line would frighten the Russians – who had already backed down over Bosnia.... </li></ul>
  78. 78. Chapter 11 Activities <ul><li>Complete Activities for Resources A-D & F Pages 55-57 </li></ul>
  79. 79. <ul><li>Resource A </li></ul><ul><li>Because of Russian Humiliation over Bosnia and rearmament. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource B </li></ul><ul><li>Austria was weak, and might join the Entente. </li></ul><ul><li>It hoped to encourage Austrian resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource C </li></ul><ul><li>Russians and Pan-Slavist’s, the Serbian Government </li></ul><ul><li>To protect his (royal) house and territories. To reduce Serbian power. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure their support in a war </li></ul><ul><li>Resource D </li></ul><ul><li>That Russia will not intervene (too weak and unprepared.) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany feared that Russia especially would be too well prepared if the inevitable war was delayed. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource F </li></ul><ul><li>Moltke fears that France and Russia may already be mobilising while Germany must prepare for a war on two fronts. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Chapter 12: Summing Up <ul><li>Nationalism – German Nationalism resulted in the Franco-Prussian War. French nationalists demanded revenge and return of Alsace. Nationalism saw rivalries between Austria and Ottomans and its vassal nations develop in the Balkans. </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism – disputes occurred over colonies always threatened to escalate. Colonial rivalry did not stop GB Russia and France from co-operating. Germany saw its lack of an empire as an impediment to greatness. Threat to Morocco and French Congo. </li></ul><ul><li>Militarism – Each side had large well armed military machines. It was really only the Naval race that caused tension. It was not so much the armies, but the plans required to use them, that created tensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Alliances – Alliance’s were designed to strengthen countries defences. The balance of power was changed by the emergence of Germany. However an alliance could also threaten the involvement of many countries into disputes they had little interest in. (ie Germany or France over Serbia). </li></ul>
  81. 81. How and why did Germany seek to isolate France after 1870? <ul><li>Define isolate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To remove any potential allies (Austria/Russia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain why Germany wanted to isolate France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franco-Prussian War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenge – Humiliation for loss of war, compounded by annexing of Alsace Lorraine and Reparations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Splendid Isolation meant Britain was not a possible ally. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe the Alliance System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreikaiserbund - Three Emperors League (All three major powers together meant France had no-one to ally with) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual Alliance – replaced Driekaiserbund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance – included Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinsurance Treaty.- kept Russia away from France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismarck was architect of Realpoltik. </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. How did the foreign policies of Bismarck and Wilhelm differ? <ul><li>Bismarck – Realkpolitik (Real/Pragmatic politics) </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to make Germany a powerful EUROPEAN nation (Continental power) </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to isolate France especially after 1870 (Franco-Prussian War) </li></ul><ul><li>Dreikaiserbund, Dual Alliance, Triple Alliance, Reinsurance Treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation of one of above. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm – Welt Politiks (World Politics – World Power) </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to challenge Britain as the pre-eminent power. Required an Empire - challenge to France/Dual Entente </li></ul><ul><li>Required a great Navy – Dreadnought/Rhienlander Naval race. </li></ul>
  83. 83. AS 90469 <ul><li>Examine how a force or movement in an historical setting influenced people’s lives, in an essay </li></ul><ul><li>This achievement standard requires writing an essay examining cause(s) and/or consequence(s) and/or event(s) related to a force or movement in history, and the influence on people’s lives of the force or movement. </li></ul>Achievement with Merit GERMAN NATIONALISM <ul><li>Explain cause(s) and/or consequence(s) of action(s) and/or event(s) related to a force or movement in an historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Define Nationalism – the idea of shared language culture religion, with self determination ( Self Government). </li></ul><ul><li>How did Germany attempt to define its Nationalism? Creation of a single German State (Wars against A-H and France) ruled by the Kaiser. Include North German Federation and annexation of Alsace Lorraine. (Humiliation of France to reinforce their Status.) </li></ul><ul><li>System of Alliance to strengthen their Status. (Real Politik) </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts at creation of Empire/Naval race to rival GB. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the influence on people’s lives of the force or movement in the historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Created great German pride. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased their links to Austria-Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased distrust and suspicion of French and Russians. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasised their rivalry with Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to war. </li></ul>
  84. 84. AS 90469 <ul><li>Examine how a force or movement in an historical setting influenced people’s lives, in an essay </li></ul><ul><li>This achievement standard requires writing an essay examining cause(s) and/or consequence(s) and/or event(s) related to a force or movement in history, and the influence on people’s lives of the force or movement. </li></ul>Achievement with Merit GERMAN NATIONALISM <ul><li>Explain cause(s) and/or consequence(s) of action(s) and/or event(s) related to a force or movement in an historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Define Nationalism – the idea of shared language culture religion, with self determination ( Self Government). </li></ul><ul><li>How did Germany attempt to define its Nationalism? Creation of a single German State (Wars against A-H and France) ruled by the Kaiser. Include North German Federation and annexation of Alsace Lorraine. (Humiliation of France to reinforce their Status.) </li></ul><ul><li>System of Alliance to strengthen their Status. (Real Politik) </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts at creation of Empire/Naval race to rival GB. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the influence on people’s lives of the force or movement in the historical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Created great German pride. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased their links to Austria-Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased distrust and suspicion of French and Russians. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasised their rivalry with Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to war. </li></ul>
  85. 85. ESSAY <ul><li>In what ways did an event involving conflict between groups of people in an historical setting show the influence of an historical force or movement ? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways did THE _________ involving conflict between Countries in Europe show the influence of nationalism ? </li></ul>
  86. 86. ESSAY: Franco Prussian War <ul><li>Background: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire for a unified German State. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussian defeat of Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of North German Federation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to secure Western border </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimidation of remaining German States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France weakened by internal dissent – easier to defeat? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeat of France – Paris surrounded in 6 weeks! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annexation of (German) Alsace Lorraine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for Reparations – Humiliation of France. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French desire for Revenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of Real Politik </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship to Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia under Bismarck wanted to create a united Germany for all German speaking peoples. A war against a weak France allowed him to unite the rest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The defeat of France allowed him to annexe the German speaking Alsace-Lorraine and inflict humiliation upon France with reparations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Victory made Germany economically and politically stronger and increased German peoples feeling of patriotism and well being. </li></ul></ul>

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