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Social Science Skills for Years 9-11
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Social Science Skills for Years 9-11

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Some of the general skills that can be taught to junior secondary students.

Some of the general skills that can be taught to junior secondary students.

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Hi there Henry.

    Thank you for posting this powerpoint. Your work is awesome and greatly appeciated.

    Kind regards.


    John Bower
    HOD Social Sciences
    McAuley High School
    Auckland, NZ.
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  • Ptolemy was generally credited with describing the world was round.
  • Auckland is better known internationally Auckland has a bigger population 1/3 of our MPs are from Auckland It was the capital from 1840 to 1860 anyway. Wellington is more central Wellington already has the infrastructure – it would be expensive to move It would create a lot of resentment in other parts of NZ
  • Auckland is better known internationally Auckland has a bigger population 1/3 of our MPs are from Auckland It was the capital from 1840 to 1860 anyway. Wellington is more central Wellington already has the infrastructure – it would be expensive to move It would create a lot of resentment in other parts of NZ

Social Science Skills for Years 9-11 Social Science Skills for Years 9-11 Presentation Transcript

  • Social Sciences Skills Unit
  • Teacher Instructions
    • The work in this slideshow is free for you to use. It is not to be sold or published. This is mainly because many images used in this presentation are probably copyrighted. The Units and pages mentioned here are from one of two books.
    • “ Skills” by Stella Bond
    • “ The Social Studies Geography Tool Kit” by Ruth Naumann.
    • I suggest you run through the presentation several times so that you are familiar with the timing of animations and the sequence of the slides before showing it to a class.
    • I would recommend you use a Data Projector to show this to a class rather than a Television or a Computer Suite. (Easier to see and greater class control.) NB Ensure you know how to use the equipment first!
    • Any suggestions corrections or additions you might like, feel free to let me know.
    • Henry Hollis HOF Social Sciences Wellington High School. henry.hollis@whs.school.nz
  • Contents
        • Maps through History | Shell Map | Ptolemy | 3D | Cook | Mercator v Peters
        • Symbols
        • Wellington
        • Maps are about information
        • Scale and Distance | 1:2m | 1:50K
        • Direction | Compass Rose | Wellington
        • Location | Grids | Topography (Grid References) | Turangi .
        • Contour Lines | | Cross Sections | Construction
        • Precis Sketching | Construction | Precis Mapping
        • Graphing | Rules | Column | Line | Multiple Line | Pie Charts | Population Pyramids | Climographs
        • Comprehension | Paragraph Writing | Paragraph Planning
        • Essay Writing | Writing Essays
  • Maps
    • What is a map? Copy the definition on page 5
    • What are the 5 Rules of mapping?
        • Title (Explanation or Description)
        • Border (Frame)
        • Scale (Size and Distance)
        • North Point (Direction)
        • Key (Explanation of Symbols)
    • Two other features are identified on page 5 why are they important?
    Chinese clay tablet showing map from 1000 B.C.
  • Polynesian Shell Map Ancient Polynesians used maps to navigate around the vastness of the Pacific. Without a written language, they instead utilised local materials to pass on information. The Shells indicate islands or island groups. The Sticks show Ocean Swells and their direction. (Swells change direction as they pass islands)
  • Ptolemy: 200AD Ptolemy a Greek who studied both Astronomy and Geography, believed the world was round and used mathematics and his observations to prove it. Later through the Dark Ages and the Authority of the Church in Europe, this idea was discouraged. Usually by burning….
  • Henricus Martellus 1490
  • Attica (New York) 19 th Century: A Map in 3D
  • Cooks Charts accuracy can be attributed to his new found ability to locate longitude using Chronometers. Until the advent of Satellites only more accurate clocks improved mapmaking. New Zealand
  • Mapping Accuracy: Mercator v Peters? The Mercator map is a standard map used in classrooms. Surprisingly it is inaccurate because it does not take into account the fact that lines of longitude move closer together as they near the Poles. The Peters projection shows the landmasses more accurately. (See Africa and South America)
  • Symbols
    • Why are Symbols used in mapping? (From page 8-9)
    • All features shown on a map can be either:
    • Natural/Physical = Naturally Occurring
    • Human/Cultural = Man-Made
    • Copy the symbol and description for 3 Natural and 3 Cultural Features from page 8.
  • Teacher Slide
    • The Following slides are intended to show the various uses and roles that maps can be used for.
  • Wellington: Maps
  • Wellington Region This map was created using radar imagery from satellites which are then stitched together by a computer and shadow is added to show depth.
  • Wellington: Roads
  • Taranaki: Maps are about Information .
  • Taranaki Radio Audiences Useful for a Radio Station selling advertising.
  • Taranaki District Health Boards Useful for anyone wanting to know which DHB they belong to.
  • State Highway 45 (Hand drawn) Useful for anyone wanting to get to the Backpackers which advertised on the Internet.
  • Taranaki Search and Rescue Useful for showing the areas covered by Taranaki SAR.
  • Taranaki Iwi Used by the Treaty of Waitangi Commission in the Claims process.
  • Taranaki Surf Beaches
  • Taranaki Oil and Gas Fields Shows areas where Oil or gas Can be found – often effects the Value of land.
  • Taranaki Vegetation Shows the types of vegetation Found in different places. Often Shows land use ie farms parks etc.
  • Taranaki TB Zones Useful for pest control especially of Bovine Tuberculosis which is carried by Possums and can be spread to cattle. Worksheet Unit 9
  • Scale and Distance
    • Scale is used to allow us to estimate distance between different points on a map.
          • From page 11 what are the THREE ways that scale can be expressed (Stated)
          • What do the terms Larger Scale , Moderate Scale and Smaller Scale mean? Give an example.
          • Copy Resource 1.14 (The Purpose of Scale) on page 11.
          • Worksheet Unit 14
  • Taranaki 1:2,000,000
  • Taranaki 1:50,000
  • Direction
    • The compass rose has appeared on charts and maps since the 1300's.  The term "rose" comes from the figure's compass points resembling  the petals of the well-known flower.
    • When we use direction we should always be clear that Wind is always described as the direction it is coming FROM.
  • Compass Rose
    • At Sagres in Portugal, Prince Henry the Navigator built the first School of Navigation.
    • One of its most impressive features is the 100m Compass Rose
    • The large size mean the could be more accurate
    The Enormous Size of this Rose allowed many more points to be included making it much more accurate.
  • The Compass Rose
    • The 4 main points are N orth, E ast, S outh and W est.
    • The next 4 are N orth E ast, S ouh E ast, S outh W est and N orth W est.
    • These 8 are called the CARDINAL points.
    • If the rose is large enough another 8 are added. NNE, ENE, ESE, SSE, SSW, WSW, WNW, NNW.
    • Complete Unit 10
    N S E W NW NE SW SE
  • Direction: Wellington
    • What direction is it from Arthur’s Nose to Ataturk Memorial ?
    • In which direction would you be looking if you were at the Wahine Memorial looking towards Point Dorset?
    • If planes always face the wind when taking off and the wind is a Southerly , over which bay would they take off? Lyall or Evans?
    • In a Northerly wind, a balloon lost in Newtown would fly over Berhampore . T/F?
    • If you are looking from the Broadway Golf Course towards Kilbirnie you are looking in which direction?
  • Location: Grids
    • The most important function of a map is to show us where we are. In order for us to do this we must use consistent conventions.
    • Most maps use a GRID to divide the map into areas.
    • On most Road maps one side is usually labelled with numbers down one axis and letters down the other.
    Letters Numbers
  • Location: Grids
    • Reading the map we can view it as a grid or a graph.
    • We usually start in the bottom left hand corner.
    • We always move from left to right and then from bottom to top. ie D2
    • This can be vague because features can only be located somewhere inside a square
    A B C D E F 1 3 2 4 X ?
  • Location: Topography
    • Topographic maps are also divided into Grids but use numbers on both axes.
    • Grid References are usually expressed as a SIX figure number.
    • To Find a GRID Reference .
    • The number is split in half (3 each).
    • The first 3 numbers are read along the horizontal axis then the last 3 are read along the vertical axis .
    • Try 385433
    • It is read as 385 and 433
    • OR 38 .5 and 43 .3
    • Or 38 ½ and 43 1/3
  • Now try 402428 and 375416
  • Teacher Slide
    • The next slide is not necessary for many students.
  • Turangi 4 Figure Grid References refer to the bottom left hand corner of a square. Grid Reference 5245 is…. Refer Unit 11 Question 5 a, b and c. Read page 23 -24 of Skills Book. Contour Lines
  • Contour Lines
    • Contour Lines are imaginary lines which link points of the same height.
    • Complete Unit 16 Question 1 and 2
  • Contour Lines: page 34
  • Cross-Sections
    • Cross-Sections use contour lines to show the height of the land.
    • Follow the Steps of Construction 1 – 7 Page 36-7
  • Building a Cross-Section
    • Contour Lines link points that are the same height above sea level.
    • Where contour lines are close together the slope is steep.
    40 60 80 40 60 80
  • Contour Lines : The Shortest Route from A to B. This means climbing straight up and over the Hills. The Quickest Route from A to B. This means climbing up to the 30m Contour line then walking across the shoulder of both hills and down. Using Cross-Sections
  • Wellington 1997
    • Complete the Following Questions
    • Location
    • What are the FEATURES at:
    • 625832
    • 650825
    • 661885
    • 596919
    • 590871
    • 584826
    • 586879
    • 636832
    • DIRECTION
    • What is the Direction from
    • 629898 to 590898
    • 637845 to 625831
    • Distance
    • What is the scale of this map?
    • What is the distance..
      • from Pt Jerningham to Pt Halswell?
      • from Greta Pt to Kaiwharwhara Pt?
      • from Pt Dorset to Hinds Pt?
      • How long is the Airport?
    • The highest point on the Miramar Peninsula?
    Wahine Memorial Inconstant Point Beacon Ferry terminal Hospital Taputeranga Island WHS Barrett Reef West South-West 1: 50,000 1.8-2.0km 4.5-8km 1.6-8km 1.9-2.1km Mt Crawford Map
  • Wellington Topo Slide 44
  • Precis Sketching
    • Precis means approximate.
    • Artistic ability is useful but not necessary.
    • Precis Sketches are usually of either a landscape or a map.
    • They are designed to show usually in rough blocks what can be seen.
  • How to Construct a Precis Sketch Identify the main areas of interest. The Mountains in the Far distance. The Wooded Hills in the Middle distance The Grassy flatlands close to us. The vegetation immediately in front is up to you. The Sky is often left BLANK.
  • Try this Precis Sketch Mountains Foothills Beach
  • Now try this Precis Sketch (Mitre Peak) Mitre Peak Mountains (Foreground) Mountains (Background) Gravel Flatland Beech Forest
  • Last Chance to get your Precis Sketch right (Petone) Western Foothills Petone Industrial Area Suburban Housing Brush (Foreground) Park
  • Precis Mapping
    • Precis Maps are usually simplified versions of Topographic maps.
    • Read Pages 20-21
    • Complete Wellington Exercise
    • Motorway (may extend to airport)
    • Airport (must NOT touch the shoreline)
    • Rocks along coast (must NOT cross the edge of coastline)
  • Precis Mapping #2
    • Precis Maps often ask you to identify and locate things like Land use:
    • AREAS
    • the CBD (Central Business District)
    • Suburban Areas (east of airport)
    • PHENOMENA
    • Major Sports Venues (TheBasin & the Cake-tin).
    • NB The SHAPE of the area/phenomena on the Map should be copied – NEVER use an X
  • Graphing
    • What are the advantages of a good Graph? (Page 41)
    • What is dependent and independent data?
    • We usually take the information from a table of data
    X Y Dependent Data ie Income Independent Data ie Age Title:_____________ Water Use per day (Billions litres) Agriculture 559 Electricity Generation 73 Industry 23 Domestic 54
  • Rules of Graphing
    • Always use a Ruler
    • Always Label the axes
    • Give the graph a Title
    • Ensure axes increase at Regular intervals
    • If you do not start at zero then use a Break symbol
    • Colour the graph
    • Use a Key if necessary
    • Draw graphs Large enough to be easily read ( ½ page is usually best)
    81 86 91 96 01 5 10 15 Tropical Cyclones in the SW Pacific 1981-2001 0 Year No. of Cyclones
  • Column Graphs
    • What other name is used for Column Graphs. (Page 42)
    • A rule of thumb is that Columns can touch when their information is related otherwise they should be separate.
    • Complete Q 1, 2 and 3 Unit 3
    Water Use per day (Billions litres) Agriculture 559 Electricity Generation 73 Industry 23 Domestic 54
  • Line Graphs
    • Line Graphs are most often used to show information that changes over time.
    • Construct a Graph for the following information on the occurrence of Tropical Cyclones in the SW Pacific
    • Complete Q1-3 Unit 6
    81 86 91 96 01 5 10 15 X X X X X Tropical Cyclones in the SW Pacific 1981-2001 0 Year No. of Cyclones Year Number 1981 17 1986 9 1991 6 1996 8 2001 11
  • Multiple Line Graphs
    • Multiple Line Graphs are most often used to show information that changes over time from a number of sources.
    • Construct a Graph for the following information on the occurrence of Tropical Cyclones in the SW Pacific and Typhoons in Asia
    81 86 91 96 01 5 10 15 X X X X X Tropical Cyclones & Typhoons 1981-2001 0 Year No. of Storms X X X X X KEY Tropical Cyclones ------- Typhoons ------- Year Tropical Cyclones Typhoons 1981 17 12 1986 9 8 1991 6 11 1996 8 16 2001 11 7
  • Pie Charts or Horizontal Bar Charts?
    • In general we want to produce Graphs that are easy to interpret and most importantly are easy and quick to produce.
    • We must look at the information and decide what is the best way to display it. What is important is that it should be easy to understand.
    • Pie charts are an good way to display information but are difficult to create and time consuming to produce.
    • A similar graph which shows the same information but is easier to make is a Horizontal/Percentage Bar Graph.
    Maori 12 Asian 8 Polynesian 5 European 75 Maori 12 or 43.2 ° Asian 8 Or 28.8 ° Polynesian 5 or 18 ° European 75 or 270 ° Maori 12 or 12mm Asian 8 or 8mm Polynesian 5 or 5mm European 75 or 75mm
  • Constructing a Pie Chart
    • This table lacks the necessary information to make a Pie Chart.
    • A Pie chart is a circle of 360 °.
    • The percentage for each category must be converted to the number of degrees by multiplying by 3.6.
    • Because 100% divided by 360° = 3.6 which means each 1% = 3.6°
    Maori 12 Asian 8 Polynesian 5 European 75 Maori 12% 43.2 ° Asian 8% 28.8 ° Polynesian 5% 18 ° European 75% 270 °
  • Horizontal/Percentage Bar Graphs
    • Horizontal Bar Graphs can only be produced from percentage data.
    • Draw a 10 Cm Long Bar (100mm)
    • Each mm of the bar is equal to 1%
    • Start at one end and then simply add each set of data on to the next until the bar is full.
    10cm = 100mm 12% = 12mm 8% = 8mm 5% = 5mm 75% = 75mm Maori 12% Asian 8% Polynesian 5% European 75%
  • Population Pyramids (Age-Sex Pyramids)
    • Population pyramids are usually produced from census data.
    • They show the distribution of males and females based on their age.
    • Usually this is in 5 year bands but can be larger if required.
    • They are useful because they show population changes over time , and allow Governments to plan for future needs.
      • ie Schools, Hospitals etc.
    • They are simply TWO column graphs placed back to back.
    This Population Pyramid shows how Chinas will change between 1950 and 2050
  • Age-Sex Pyramid Construction Res 2.81 Japan Page 61 0-14 15-29 30-44 45-59 60-74 75+ 3 3 6 6 9 9 12 12 Male Female
  • Japan 1950-2050
  • Climograph
    • A climograph shows us at a glance the climate of a place.
    • It does this by showing the average rainfall and average temperature for each month on the same graph.
    • It displays data month by month.
    • By comparing the average temperature and rainfall we can make assumptions about the climate.
    • Warm temperatures and good rainfall means a good growing season.
    • High temperatures and high rainfall means high HUMIDITY (Auckland in January)
    • Cool temperatures and high rainfall in Wellington during July means its good time to go somewhere else for a holiday!
  • Teachers Slide
    • Print off the slides 67-68 for your class
  • Climograph – Wellington (P 52) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec R A I N F A L L T E M P E R A T U R E 0 10 20 25 50 75 100 125 150 Ensure the line touches BOTH axes Connect points by hand Climograph for Wellington Month Rainfall (mm) Temp ( ºC) Jan 80 19 Feb 80 19 Mar 80 18 Apr 98 15 May 120 11 Jun 120 10 Jul 140 9 Aug 120 10 Sep 99 12 Oct 104 13 Nove 90 15 Dec 90 18
  • Climograph – Wellington (P 52) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec R A I N F A L L T E M P E R A T U R E 0 10 20 25 50 75 100 125 150 Month Rainfall (mm) Temp ( ºC) Jan 80 19 Feb 80 19 Mar 80 18 Apr 98 15 May 120 11 Jun 120 10 Jul 140 9 Aug 120 10 Sep 99 12 Oct 104 13 Nove 90 15 Dec 90 18
  • Climograph – Wellington (P 52) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec R A I N F A L L T E M P E R A T U R E 0 10 20 25 50 75 100 125 150 Month Rainfall (mm) Temp ( ºC) Jan 80 19 Feb 80 19 Mar 80 18 Apr 98 15 May 120 11 Jun 120 10 Jul 140 9 Aug 120 10 Sep 99 12 Oct 104 13 Nove 90 15 Dec 90 18
  • Comprehension
    • Reading text is a skill. You must read carefully and keep in mind several things:
        • W hat is it about?
        • W ho is involved?
        • W here does it take place?
        • W hy did it happen?
        • W hen did it take place?
  • Comprehension
    • READ the Following, then answer the questions:
    • Rogue kiwifruit vines are destroying native bush and forest in the Bay of Plenty. Animals such as rats and birds are spreading the seeds and creating rogue vines after eating the fruit. Since 2002 a special program to control the spread of kiwifruit and save native bush has been funded by Zespri International, HortResearch and the Regional Council.
        • W hat is it about?
        • W ho is involved?
        • W here does it take place?
        • W hy did it happen?
        • W hen did it take place?
  • Paragraph Writing
    • Paragraphs are simply a group of sentences which are designed to explain, describe or prove an idea.
    • At this level the easiest paragraph needs only 3 sentences.
    • We use the GEE Method.
    • A G ENERALISATION
    • An E XPLANATION
    • An E XAMPLE
    • READ page 101
  • An Example of GEE
    • Rogue kiwifruit vines are destroying native bush and forest in the Bay of Plenty.
    • Animals such as rats and birds are spreading the seeds and creating rogue vines after eating the fruit.
    • Since 2002 a special program to control the spread of kiwifruit and save native bush has been funded by Zespri International, HortResearch and the Regional Council.
    G E E
  • Paragraph Planning
    • You should never simply start writing.
    • You will get better results if you follow these steps.
    • Read the Question
    • Construct a simple plan (Brainstorm/Star Diagram)
    • Each Point should have a supporting FACT(s)
    • Write! Write! Write!
    • Complete Unit 42 Q1-3.
  • The best program on TV is… Shortland Street Good Villains ie Dominic Develops Local Talent ie Temuera Morrison & Martin Henderson Showcases our Culture ie Pakeha Pasifika, Maori and Asian It’s shown around the world ie British TV
  • Essay Writing
    • Essays are simply a group of paragraphs. They have a common theme and will often justify a point of view.
    • In many subjects an Essay is broken into 3 parts.
          • Introduction.
          • Body
          • Conclusion
    • In Social Sciences the Introduction and Conclusion are less important. (It is too easy to simply repeat information).
    • At Year 9 or 10 an essay may be as little as a page of A4 (3-4 paragraphs = 300+ words)
    • At Senior levels 3-5 pages is the norm.
    • Read pages 102-103
  • Writing Essays
    • You should never simply start writing an essay.
    • You will get better results if you follow these steps:
    • Read the Question.
    • Underline or highlight the important words, dates or phrases.
    • Construct a Plan . (Brainstorm or Mind map or Star Diagram or Bullet points) Each point will become a paragraph. Each point should have a supporting FACT.
    • Number the points in the order you want to write.
    • Write! Write! Write!
  • Example
    • Write an essay agreeing or disagreeing with this statement.
          • “ Auckland would be better as New Zealand’s Capital.”
    Auckland would be better as New Zealand’s Capital For Against
  • Example
    • Write an essay agreeing or disagreeing with this statement.
          • “ Auckland would be better as New Zealand’s Capital.”
    Auckland would be better as New Zealand’s Capital For Against
    • Auckland is better known internationally.
    • Americas Cup
    • Auckland has a bigger population
    • 1/3 of the population is in Auckland.
    • 1/3 of our MPs are from Auckland
    • It was the capital from 1840 to 1860 anyway.
    • Wellington is more central (geographic)
    • Wellington already has the infrastructure.
    • Government departments etc.
    • It would be expensive to move
    • It would create a lot of resentment in other parts of NZ, especially the South Island.