Revolution in Russia


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  • Give each group one of these people to talk for 5 mins about what that person would be thinking…
  • Revolution in Russia

    1. 1. The Causes and Consequences of the Russian Revolutions (1905, Feb 1917 & Oct 1917) 1An event of historical Importance Name:
    2. 2. Significance... Some historians argue that the Russian revolution of 1917 was the most significant event of the 20th century . – The results of this revolution created a bi-polar world that in the nuclear age post-1945 threatened the extinction of the planet. – The struggle between capitalism and communism dominated the twentieth century and this conflict can trace its origins to those momentous events in 1917. 2
    3. 3. What’s in a date? In 1917 Russia still used the Julian calendar, which was 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar used by the rest of the Western world. Early in 1918 the Bolsheviks adopted the Gregorian calendar. The revolution, which overthrew Tsarist rule in 1917, occurred in February according to one calendar and in March according to the other. 3
    4. 4. What kind of country did Nicholas inherit? (Good points to remember for Focus Question One: What factors contributed to revolution in Russia?) • Rapid population growth – hard to feed, major famines in 1891 and 1898 • Agriculture was the main source of wealth BUT old fashioned methods used, technologically backward and poor crop outputs. • Poor communications and transport routes • Huge and inefficient civil service (bureaucracy) • Industrialisation led to changes in the class structure including: – the rise of the bourgeoisie (commercial and intellectual middle class) who wanted more say in the government – the rise of the proletariat (industrial working class) – the need for an educated workforce. • Peasants migrating into cities due to famine and to work in factories • Living conditions in cities very poor for urban workers • Dangerous working conditions and long working hours in factories • Very poorly educated working class/peasantry, lack of skilled workers • Revolutionaries infiltrating and educating working class/peasants • Strikes and riots by workers and peasants due to their working and living conditions • Foreign investment meant profits left the country • Over 100 different nationalities within Russia 4
    5. 5. Russia in 1905 • Russia was an enigma. • It was feared because of its size. • It was a backward still medieval nation. • The Tsar was an Autocrat. • He was supported by Nobles (1.1%) • Government was small, inefficient and resistant to change. (4%) • Most of its population were uneducated, superstitious, peasants. (85%) • The Church relied on Royal patronage and supported this system. • Literacy was the lowest in Europe. (11%) • It had little or no industrialisation and few urban workers. (5%) • There were almost no Middle Class. 5
    6. 6. Russia: Social Groups • The Nobility: 1.1% • The Priests: 1.1% • The Officials: 3.7% • The Military: 5.0% • The Merchants: 0.5% • Urban Workers: 3.7% • Serfs: 84.9% Russian Social Groups 1897 Nobles Priests Officials Military Merchants Urban Workers Serfs Russian Social Groups 1897 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % Nobles Priests Officials Military Merchants Urban Workers Serfs 6
    7. 7. The Autocratic System Political Oppression No political parties were allowed. No-one could openly express opposition to the Tsar or his policies. Censorship No freedom of press or speech. Strict censorship of books allowed into Russia. Education was censored and Western ideas were banned. Serfdom The social system under which people were the property of the nobles or the Tsar to whom they owed labour in exchange for the use of land. They had no personal freedoms. This system had died out in most of Europe by the late 17th century. 19thC change made little real difference. Church (The Russian Orthodox Church) Close links between the Church and the government. The Tsar was the head of the Church and the Church taught that 'God commands us to love and obey the Tsar'. Army The Tsar was head of the army which was used to put down any rebellions against the government Bureaucracy The Tsar maintained a huge public service to carry out his policies. Most of these bureaucrats came from the nobility. Notorious for corruption, delays and inefficiency. Secret Police They were used to check on political opponents and revolutionaries. 7
    8. 8. Government: Autocracy • The system of the Tsars (Czars) was called Autocracy: – no legal restrictions on the Tsar’s power – a top down form of Government designed to keep the Nobility powerful. – No elected representation. – developed to prevent the huge empire from breaking up. 8
    9. 9. • By 1900 it was obvious that Russia lagged far behind Western Europe and modernisation became an issue for each Tsar. • No-one seemed to have the ability, the desire or the will to begin the process. • The small size of the Government bureaucracy meant it unable to assist and like most groups had little reason to support the process. 9 Autocracy
    10. 10. Forces of Change Forces of change Forces of continuity • Intelligentsia (Educated) • Illiterate peasantry • Education (Spread of new ideas) • Censorship • Revolutionary Ideas (Challenges to established ideas) • Conservative ideas of nobles and peasants (favoured status quo) • Liberal ideas of Tsars • Repressive policies of the Tsars • Gradual growth of middle class • Weak middle class due to economic structure • Gradual growth of working class • Weak working class due to no industrial development • War • Poor military leadership and lack of industrial development • Industrialisation • Serfdom and bonds which tied peasants to the land • Nationalism among oppressive minority groups • Russian nationalism and Russification policies of the Tsars
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    12. 12. Local Authority: Zemstva • The nobility had administering local affairs on their estates • A new body was needed to organise: – maintenance of roads and bridges; – upkeep of hospitals, prisons; – promotion of industry and agriculture; – prevention of famine; – responsibility for public health and education; and – the welfare of the poor. • Elected local governments, Zemstva were introduced in 1864: – All classes could elect members to the Zemstva but system heavily favoured nobility – In1866 - 74% of delegates in Zemstva were nobles. 12 Village council
    13. 13. Enforcing the Tsars Will: Cossacks & Army • The Cossacks were a nomadic people who lived on the fringes of Russian society. • The Tsars exploited their position as outsiders and used them as their enforcers. • Whenever and wherever there was an uprising the Cossacks arrived to enforce the Tsar’s will. • They were considered cruel and barbaric, and were widely hated. • The Army also held a special place and owed their privileges to the Tsar. • Whenever needed the Army could be relied upon to support the Tsar. 13
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    15. 15. The Okhrana: the Secret Police • The Tsar relied on the Secret Police to track any dissent. • Opposition groups were often targeted and once convicted could face death or exile to Siberia. • By 1905 a number of dissident (Revolutionary) groups had formed amongst the small Middle classes. • Many fled abroad to avoid persecution. 15
    16. 16. Revolutionary Groups (NAP.M) Nihilists 1. rejected all forms of authority. 2. a movement of ideas (rather than a political organisation). 3. it helped to undermine tsarist authority. Anarchists (took Nihilists ideas a step further) 1. Localised government instead of central government. 2. To this end they favoured terrorism. Populism 1. Landowners to lose their land for re-distribution among the peasantry. 2. The tsarist government would be overthrown and replaced with a democratic republic. 3. The Tsar was the ‘little father’ of the peasants and they blamed the landowners and the bureaucrats for their problems. Marxism 1. Based upon the ideas of a German, Karl Marx and the control of the “means of production”. 2. Socialism could only be achieved by class conflict, or revolution, between the industrial working class and their employers. 16 These two groups appealed only to a very small number of educated Russians.
    17. 17. The Russian Orthodox Church • The Tsar was the head of the Church. • The Church had been a government department since 1721. • It receiving a fifth of its income from the government and enjoying a privileged position in Russian society. • In return the Church preached that obedience to the Tsar was a religious duty. • It supported the notion of the Divine Rule of Kings- that this was part of God’s great plan, that ‘God commands us to love and obey the Tsar’. • Many Peasant referred to the Tsar as ‘father’ such was their regard for the position. 17
    18. 18. A Force for Change: Industrialisation & Class Structure • Industrialisation led to changes in the class structure including: – the rise of the bourgeoisie (commercial and intellectual middle class) – the decline of the aristocracy – the rise of the proletariat (industrial working class) – the need for an educated workforce. • The Tsarist governments faced many problems as they attempted to modernise Russia's backward economic and social structure as such changes had the potential to affect the position of the Tsar. 18
    19. 19. Lionel Kochan’s Russia • This meant that no matter how fast industry grew, it could not handle the sheer influx of people needing work • “As late as 1913, industry employed not much more than five per cent of the entire labour force and contributed only about one-fifth of the national income” • Because of the government’s policy of getting the peasants to pay for the industry through high tariffs on imported goods, there were large famines in 1891 and 1898 19
    20. 20. Lionel Kochan’s Russia #2 • There was a “virtual prohibition on strikes and trade unions.” • Any time people tried to strike or protest they were dealt to by police or troops (Cossacks) • The Tsar did not know how to deal with his new environment • “It will never be possible to estimate at its full extent the contribution made to the, Russian crisis by the policy of Russification and the enforced conversion to Greek Orthodoxy of Catholics, Jews, Moslems, Lutherans and Uniates.” 20
    21. 21. FACTS and STATS St Petersberg Moscow 1881 928,000 753,500 1890 1,033,600 1,038,600 1900 1,439,600 1,345,000 21 Population growth in Russia’s main cities, 1881 - 1900 Only 11% of adults were able to write in 1881 Only 2% of total population was at school in 1881 The profits from industrialisation double between 1890 and 1900 Between 1867 and 1896 the population went from 63 million to 99 million! By 1913 the population was 122 million!!!!!!!!
    22. 22. 22
    23. 23. Harvesters 23
    24. 24. Peasant Village 24
    25. 25. Peasant Home 25
    26. 26. 26 Urban Workers “Home”.
    27. 27. The 1903 Menshevik-Bolshevik Split • Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, better known as Lenin, insisted that the Socialist Revolutionaries be: • small, elite, disciplined; • strongly centralised; • consisting of professionals whose lives were devoted to the cause of communist revolution. • Most of the party (including Trotsky) disagreed, preferring a movement that was: • large • working class • democratically-organised. 27
    28. 28. The Bolsheviks When the party split, Lenin adopted the term Bolshevik, the Russian word for ‘majority’ to his small group, while labelling the rest of the Democrats ‘Menshevik’, or ‘minority’. He claimed that on a minor matter relating to the party newspaper, his supporters were in the majority. The effect of this word game was to give the impression that his views were widely accepted. 28 Lenin. He should have been in advertising…
    29. 29. Marxism vs Socialism vs Communism vs Bolshevism • Marxism, social and political theory based on the works of Karl Marx and his followers, associated with the socialist and communist movements. • Socialism, concept and party-based political movement, originally based in the organized working class, generally antagonistic towards capitalism. While the final aim of socialists was a communist or classless society (see Communism), they increasingly concentrated on social reforms within capitalism. As the movement developed, the concept itself acquired different meanings in different times and places. • Communism, term in political science denoting either a society where all property is held in common or a political movement whose final aim is the establishment of such a society. • Bolshevism is the term used to describe the Bolsheviks’ version of Communism (especially it includes specifics such as organizing the party in a strongly centralized hierarchy that sought to overthrow the Tsar and achieve power, a rigid adherence to the leadership of the central committee, general refusal to co-operate with liberal or radical parties (which they labeled "bourgeois"). 29
    30. 30. Nicholas – Personality portrait • Lacked intelligence and imagination to meet the enormous challenges of Russia • Did not want the job • He was firm in his desire to continue the autocratic legacy of his family • Described as shy and weak-willed • Often found the work boring • Great family man, loved his wife and children • Under the thumb of his German wife Alexandra 30 “I am not prepared to be Tsar. I never wanted to become one. I know nothing of the business of ruling. I have no idea of even how to talk to ministers.” - Nicholas II to his cousin
    31. 31. The Last Romanov Nicholas II (1894 - 1917) • In 1894 Nicholas II married German princess Alexandra, Queen Victoria’s granddaughter. • She was a strong-willed, deeply religious woman who became a strong influence over her husband. • They had four daughters and one son (Alexei, who had haemophilia) • Nicholas was an unintelligent and unwilling ruler but was determined to uphold the system. 31
    32. 32. The 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War • Both Russia and Japan because wanted to expand into Manchuria and Korea. • Russia was willing to risk an armed conflict believing that Japan was bound to be defeated and that a Russian victory would head off the growing threat of internal revolution in Russia. • Initially the prospect of war was greeted with support as jingoism and racial superiority meant that many expected a quick victory. • In February 1904 negotiations broke down. • Two days later, without warning, the Japanese attacked Port Arthur. • The Russian Pacific Fleet was effectively destroyed while still at anchor. 32
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    34. 34. 34
    35. 35. The Wars Progress. • A series of quick Japanese victories, which astounded the world, culminated in the fall of Port Arthur (Jan., 1905). • The victory of troops under General Oyama at Shenyang (Feb.– Mar., 1905). • The destruction of the Russian fleet at Tsushima by Admiral Togo’s fleet (May, 1905). • U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt mediated a peace treaty was in September 1905 (the Treaty of Portsmouth) • The disastrous outcome of the war for Russia was one of the immediate causes of the Russian Revolution of 1905. • Japan gained the position of a world power, becoming the first non-European and non-American imperialist modern state. 35
    36. 36. Port Arthur 36
    37. 37. 37
    38. 38. 38
    39. 39. 39
    40. 40. Reaction to the War • This war made Russians angry with their government because… – Defeat after defeat saw many blame the Generals leading the Army. – 89,000 Russians were killed in the battle for Shenyang alone. – National pride was dented. No Western Nation had lost a war in Asia before. – the worst naval disaster in Russian history in Tsushima. – The complete failure to win the war saw many blame the government. – 100,000 in St Petersburg went on strike when they heard news of the Port Arthur surrender 40
    41. 41. 41
    42. 42. 1905 Bloody Sunday • The Russian people continued to blame the losses in the war and their poor conditions on the Bureaucrats. • They turned to the their ‘Little Father”. • On 9th Jan 1905: 200,000 people, led by a priest, Father Gapon, marched to the Winter Palace to petition the Tsar (who wasn’t even there) for: – Better working conditions – The right to join unions – The right to vote for a parliament – An end to the war with Japan. 42
    43. 43. Bloody Sunday: Petition • The petition began: ‘Sire, we workers and our wives, children and helpless old parents, have come to you, our ruler, to seek justice and protection. We have become beggars… We are treated not as human beings, but as slaves. We have reached that awful moment when death is better than the continuation of unbearable suffering.’ 43
    44. 44. A young Alexander Kerensky watched the march: ‘It was an amazing sight. From the direction of the working-class districts came row upon row of orderly workers, all dressed in their best clothes. [Father] Gapon marched in front, carrying a cross and a number of workers were holding pictures of the Tsar.’ 44
    45. 45. 45 Gapon described what happened next: ‘Suddenly the company of Cossacks galloped rapidly towards us with drawn swords. So then, it was to be a massacre after all. There was no time for giving orders. A cry of alarm arose as the Cossacks came down upon us. Our front ranks broke before them, opening to right and left, and down this lane the soldiers drove their horses, striking on both sides. I saw the swords lifting and falling, the men, women and children dropping to the earth like logs of wood, while moans, curses and shouts filled the air… Without any warning the dry crack of many rifle- shots was heard… I turned to the crowd and shouted to them to lie down… another volley was fired, and another, and yet another.’
    46. 46. Alexandra Kollontai, a marcher, wrote: ‘At first I saw the children who were hit [by rifle fire] and dragged down from the trees… We heard the clatter of hooves. The Cossacks rode right into the crowd and slashed with their sabres like madmen. A terrible confusion arose.’ 46
    47. 47. The official report of events was different: ‘Gapon… excited the workers. In some places bloody clashes took place between workers and troops because of the stubborn refusal of the crowd to obey the command to go home, and sometimes even because of attacks upon the troops.’ 47
    48. 48. 48
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    50. 50. 50
    51. 51. 51
    52. 52. 52
    53. 53. W. Sablinki in his book, "The Road To Bloody Sunday", quotes an eyewitness' account as evidence for his opinion that Bloody Sunday was a turning point in the revolution: "I observed the faces around me and detected neither fear nor panic. No, the reverend and almost peaceful expressions were replaced by hostility and even hatred. The revolution had been truly born, and it had been born in the very core, in the very bowels of the people. In that one vital moment the popular myth of a Good Tsar which had sustained the regime through the centuries was suddenly destroyed. Only moments after the shooting had ceased an old man turned to a boy of 14 and said to him with his voice full of anger 'Remember, son, remember and swear to repay the Tsar. You saw how much blood he spilled did you not? Then swear son, swear.' " 53
    54. 54. Domestic Trouble 54
    55. 55. Internal Discontent 55
    56. 56. The 1905 Revolution • News of Bloody Sunday spread quickly. • Workers and Peasants who had been unhappy about the war and their own situation rose up in protest. • Peasants supported by the SR rioted. • The Tsar was criticised at Zemstva meetings. • Urban Workers went on strike. • Government officials were assassinated, including the Tsars Uncle. • Nationalist rebellions broke out. (Poles Ukrainians). • More worryingly Military units joined the strikes. (battleship Potemkin, the Kronstadt naval base) • Nicholas tried to use the Cossacks to break up the protests. • In some places the Cossacks refused to follow orders. 56
    57. 57. 57
    58. 58. 58
    59. 59. 59
    60. 60. Timeline of Events in 1905 To show that they were occurring simultaneously • Bloody Sunday was the start of a year of murders, strikes and protests which forced Tsar Nicholas to promise changes in the government of the Empire. Historians have called these events the Revolution of 1905. • 8th Jan – 100,000 workers strike in St Petersburg • 9th Jan – Bloody Sunday • February – Grand Duke Sergei Aleksandrovich assassinated (Tsar’s Uncle) • March – 89,000 Russian soldiers killed in battle for Shenyang • May – ‘Union of Unions’ set up and St Petersburg Soviet established • 27th May – Tsushima naval disaster • June – Crew of battleship Potemkin mutinied • June – Street fighting resulting in the deaths of 2,000 people • 5th September Treaty of Portsmouth concluded. • 14th September – Union of Unions co-ordinated strike of all workers • 17th October 1905 – October Manifesto issued 60
    61. 61. What options did the Tsar have? FIGHT BACK •The tsar initially tried this option by using the army and especially the Cossacks to crush rebellions BUT since nearly every sector of society (excluding the 1.5% of nobles) supported the protests and strikes this was an impossible task •Unrest would likely happen again •Although the army remained loyal to him the Tsar’s position of power was undermined by the naval mutinies MAKE CONCESSIONS •By October things were very bad for the Tsar. In order to remain in power he would have to agree to some of the demands upon him and give away some of his power. •This is what the Tsar did. He issued the October Manifesto. 61 OR ‘There were only two ways open: to find an energetic soldier to crush the rebellion by sheer force. There would be time to breath then , but likely as not one would have to use force again in a few months, and that would mean rivers of blood and I the end we should be where we started. The other way would be to give the people their civil rights, freedom of speech and press, also to have all laws agreed by a Duma’ - Nicholas in a letter to his mother
    62. 62. The October Manifesto • Protests were supported by almost every sector of society (apart from the Nobles). • Protests and strikes were co-ordinated by the Soviets. • The Middle Class called for a democraticly elected Parliament. (Duma) • St Petersburg was controlled by the Mensheviks led by Trotsky. • Nicholas had no choice and issued the October Manifesto. – elected representation, – to consult on new laws, – made political parties legal, – allow freedom of speech, – limit the power of the Okhrana. • While the middle classes were happy, workers and peasants were not. 62
    63. 63. Broken Promises Nicholas had agreed to the creation of a Duma (parliament). However as soon as the unrest had died down he began to undermine it: • Voting system fixed – landowners votes worth more than peasants and workers. • While the Duma was being established he passed the Fundamental Laws: – The Tsar alone made laws – The Tsar alone controlled foreign affairs – The Tsar alone could appoint and dismiss ministers – The Tsar could dissolve the Duma and use emergency powers to rule the Empire until a new Duma was elected – The Duma had no say in military matters – The Tsar kept his title of Autocrat 63
    64. 64. The Duma Nicholas had agreed to the creation of a Duma (parliament). However as soon as the unrest had died down he began to undermine it: – When the 1st Duma met in 1906 and presented its demands - he closed it. – He closed the 2nd Duma 3 months later. – He arrested many socialists and changed the franchise, weakening workers’ right to vote. – The 3rd Duma was less disruptive and lasted a full term. 64
    65. 65. The significance of the 1905 Revolution The liberal view: The changes introduced as a result of the 1905 revolution show that Russia had embarked on a path of social and economic reform that would lead to stability in the countryside and the towns and thus to the stability of the regime itself. The traditional Soviet view: The 1905 revolution had not answered the disenchantment of revolutionary groups within Russia. Little had changed and there was no indication that the regime was capable of or willing to implement any reform. Consequently it was doomed to face further similar disturbances. 65
    66. 66. Stolypin • Nicholas appointed Petyr Stolypin as his Prime Minister, a reactionary who: – executed 2000 terrorists and exiled many more; – eased demands on peasants (ending redemption payments) allowing the buying and selling of land; – wanted to create a wealthy middle class of peasant (Kulaks); – encouraged industrialisation and the building of railroads. • Stolypin was assassinated in 1911. 66
    67. 67. Lena Goldfields Massacre 1912 • The working conditions at the goldfields were extremely harsh. • The miners had to work 15 to 16 hours a day. For every thousand workers, there were more than 700 traumatic accidents. • Workers wer subject to fines. Wages were given in the form of scrip to be used in stores owned by the company. • The distribution of rotten meat at one of the stores sparked a strike • All the members of the strike committee were arrested. • Some 2500 people marched towards the goldfield to deliver a complaint of the arbitrariness of authorities to the prosecutor's office. • The workers were met by soldiers, who began shooting at the crowd resulting in 270 dead and 250 wounded (as reported by a local newspaper Zvezda). • News of the massacre provoked nationwide strikes and protest meetings totaling more than 300,000 participants, with 700 political strikes during the month of April, and 1000 strikes on May 6 in the St. Petersburg area alone. 67
    68. 68. Rasputin • The position of Grigory Rasputin as the closest advisor to the Royal family undermined what little support the Romanovs still had. • The key to Rasputin’s position with the royal family was based on the remarkable success he had with treating Alexei's (secret) haemophilia. • The Tsarina’s belief in him was obsessive and soon she allowed Rasputin insight into affairs of state, and developments with the war against Germany. • His position undermined that of previous royal favourites and caused concern in the aristocratic class. • Soon he appeared to control the Tsarina. 68
    69. 69. Ra Ra Rasputin, Russia’s Greatest Love Machine… Prince Yussupov descibes his first meeting with Rasputin “As he talked I studied his features closely. There was something really extraordinary about his peasant face. He was not in the least like a holy man; on the contrary he looked like a lascivious, malicious satyr. I was particularly struck by the revolting expression in his eyes, which were very small, set close together, and so deep-sunk in their sockets that at a distance they were invisible. But even at close quarters it was sometimes difficult to know whether they were open or shut, and the impression one had was that of being pierced with needles rather than of merely being looked at. His glance was both piercing and sullen; his sweet and insipid smile was almost as revolting as the expression of his eyes. There was something base in his unctuous countenance; something wicked, crafty and sensual. Mlle G. and her mother never took their eyes off him, and seemed to drink in every word he spoke.” 69
    70. 70. Rasputin 70
    71. 71. Rasputin and the Romanovs 71
    72. 72. 72
    73. 73. 73
    74. 74. Death of Rasputin 2 74
    75. 75. 75 This cartoon reveals how some saw Rasputin as a figure, larger than life who had captured the royal family. The Tsar is portrayed as a simpering fool.
    76. 76. Russia and World War I 76
    77. 77. WWI : The original Domino Effect 77
    78. 78. World War I • Russia entered the war as part of its agreement to back Serbia in a war with Austria- Hungary. • The declaration of war was greeted with enthusiasm. • Russia was ill prepared for this conflict despite a rearmament program. • At the first major battle, at Tannenberg , 95,000 Russians were captured and 30,000 killed. General Samsonov committed suicide. • Defeat followed defeat. The Russian Army appeared to be constantly in retreat. • Initially, as in 1905, Russians blamed the Army Commanders. • Foolishly Nicholas decided to take charge of the Army, leaving the Tsarina in charge at home. 78
    79. 79. Russian Troops 79
    80. 80. Nicholas Blesses the Troops 80
    81. 81. Germans inspect a Russian Trench 81
    82. 82. The Russian Steamroller • The Tsar had always relied on the Army to back him. Within 4 months of the war starting, most of his best & loyal troops were gone, the end of 1914 he had lost 1,000,000 men. • Losses of this magnitude could not be sustained. • By 1917 1,700,000 soldiers were dead, 8,000,000 wounded and 2,500,000 taken prisoner. • By 1917 untrained peasants were sent into battle often without weapons. • Soldiers began to desert…. • With so many peasants conscripted into the army, production of grain fell. • Shortages of basic foods became common. • Unrest began to grow, especially after 1915 when Nicholas took charge of the Army. This was a major mistake as Nicholas become personally responsible for the Army’s performance. • No longer trusting the bureaucrats Nicholas left Alexandra in charge. • Government became unstable, Ministers came and went. • Alexandra became more and more reliant upon Rasputin, whose advice she even gave to Nicholas. 82
    83. 83. Burying Russian Dead 83
    84. 84. 84
    85. 85. On the shoulders of the People – Bolshevik anti-war propaganda 85
    86. 86. The Blackest Devil in Russia • By the end of 1916 many within St. Petersburg were so unhappy with Rasputin that they plotted to kill him. • Seen as a philanderer, a spy and a seducer of the Tsarina, he had to die. • On the agreed night Rasputin was invited to dinner and fed poisoned cakes. • After several hours when this did not work one of the conspirators shot him. • Although he appeared dead, he suddenly sprang up and ran outside. • The conspirators ran after him shooting him twice more. • Bundled up he was then taken to the River and thrown into a hole in the ice. • A police search eventually found him. • An autopsy found the cause of death as drowning…. 86
    87. 87. The Death of Rasputin: Jan 1917 87
    88. 88. The 1917 February Revolution • By the start of 1917, Russia’s situation became unbearable. • The Army was a shadow of its 1914 self. It was now a conscript army with no loyalty to the Tsar. • Unrest grew, made worse by food shortages and worsening news from the frontline. • Thousands of Women marched through Petrograd (renamed because it was too German) for ‘International Women’s Day’ on Feb 23rd . They sang revolutionary songs, carried banners, and called for an end to Tsardom. • They were joined by thousands of male Workers. • By the 25th Petrograd had ground to a halt. • Even the Duma seemed frozen and failed to respond.. • Alexandra called on Nicholas to be strong, he called on the Garrison to suppress the uprising – the soldiers refused, some joined the protest. 88
    89. 89. • Peasants freed (1861) • Industrialisation (Witte – 1890s) • Bolshevik-Menshevik split (1903) • Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) • Revolution (1905) • WWI • Rasputin killed (1916) • February Revolution • April Thesis • July Offensive • Kornilov Revolt 89 October Manifesto Stolypin Soviets Elected Duma Liberties (Okhrana power limited, political parties legal, freedom of speech) 4 mill dead in 1914 Working class increases Nicholas goes to the front in 1915 Nicholas abdicates Prov Govt vs Pet’d Soviet 1917 ‘All power to the Soviets’ & ‘peace, bread, land’ Kerensky  crackdown on agitation Bolsheviks released from prison
    90. 90. • Revolution!! (6-8 Nov) • Reform (early reform) • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) • Civil War (1918-22 – war communism) • Kronstadt Mutiny (March 1921) • Famine (1921-22) • NEP • Lenin dies (replaced by Stalin) 90 Lenin announces fall of Prov Govt and all power to the Soviets All of Russia under Bols control within 1 month
    91. 91. The end of the Autocracy • When the marchers approached the Duma, many of its members fled. • One member, Kerensky met the crowd, with several others he formed a new Provisional Government. • It was only intended to rule until proper elections could be held. • A renewed Petrograd Soviet had agreed to support the Provisional Govt. but was in reality also a rival seat of power. • Russia had Dual Authorities. (But who was in charge?) • Nicholas tried to return from the frontline. • His train was stopped and he was forced to abdicate. • The Tsarist Autocracy was over. 91
    92. 92. Dual Authority • The immediate problem for the revolutionaries was what to do…. And who should do it. 92 The Provisional Government Supported by middle class Conservatives, the Army leadership & moderate Socialists Favoured slow, considered change Petrograd SovietPetrograd Soviet Supported by workers, commonSupported by workers, common soldiers, the SR, and both thesoldiers, the SR, and both the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. AlsoMensheviks and Bolsheviks. Also part of a national network ofpart of a national network of Soviets.Soviets. Wanted rapid, sweeping changesWanted rapid, sweeping changes
    93. 93. The Provisional Government • The PG freed all political prisoners, allowed freedom of speech, allowed labour unions, abolished the Okhrana and gave the vote to everyone. • The Soviet criticised it for failing to address the problems of food, fuel, working conditions and land. • The biggest problem was land and the war. • When the Government moved too slowly, the peasants began to take land for themselves. • The Government also wanted to fulfill Russia’s obligation to the Allies and continue the war but the Soviet preferred to negotiate a peace settlement. • Without clear direction the Army had no idea what they were supposed to do. • Peasants in the army wanted to return to their homes, especially as land grabbing continued. 93
    94. 94. The Petrograd Soviet • The Soviet had real power as it controlled the army, the railway, the telegraph, and could call on thousands of workers. • On March 1st it issued Order No. 1 enforcing the army’s loyalty to the Soviet. Officers now had to clear orders with committees elected by their men. • Its huge size and constant in-fighting meant that the Soviet was never in a position to seize power. • Lenin had been exile in Switzerland and did not return until April. • The Germans agreed to transport him to Russia if he would withdraw Russia from the war. • The Bolsheviks were smaller but better organised than other socialist groups in the Soviet. • Lenin immediately began to work toward a second revolution. 94
    95. 95. Prince Lvov • ‘The soviet has power without authority; the [provisional] government has authority without power’. 95
    96. 96. Lenin Trotsky and Kerensky • Lenin’s main themes were summed up by his slogans: “Peace! Bread! Land!” and “All power to the Soviets” • Trotsky returned from exile in the USA and joined the Bolsheviks after he heard Lenin speak. (a huge boost for the Bolsheviks as Trotsky was a brilliant strategist). • Kerensky was initially a hero but his esteem as Minister for War was weakened after several events: 1. He led a disastrous campaign against the Germans in June; 2. He used the army to crush Bolsheviks at the Kronstadt Naval Base who had risen in revolt in July. Many Bolsheviks (including Trotsky) were arrested and Lenin fled to Finland. This period of time is known as The July Days. 3. In August, Commander of the Army, General Kornilov led a counter-revolution. Kerensky panicked and freed the Bolsheviks calling on the people to support the revolution. It was Trotsky’s Red Guard who prepared to defend Petrograd. Lack of support from the army or railway workers meant Kornilov’s threat evaporated. • Kerenksy’s weakness saw people turn to Bolshevik strength. 96
    97. 97. 97
    98. 98. Dual Authority fails. • Despite Kerensky’s efforts, the Provisional Government was falling apart. • Kerensky hoped the November election would settle the political situation. • Counter-revolutionaries (the far right – Kornilov’s former supporters, and the far left - Bolsheviks) remained a real threat to stable Government. • Support for the Bolsheviks continued to grow – Food remained in short supply – The Army’s resistance to the German advance was negligible. • Kerensky made the mistake of wanted to fulfil Russia’s commitment to the Allies. • Meanwhile Lenin continued to call for “Peace Bread and Land” 98
    99. 99. • In October, Lenin called for revolution. He and Trotsky recognised workers and soldiers as key to any uprising. They campaigned hard for their support. • The Bolshevik revolution was a carefully organised takeover that occurred in the quiet of the night (compared to the February revolution): On Oct 24 the Red Guard occupied key points around the city (railway, telegraph, bridges, banks). • The Winter Palace was defended by Kadets but fell with only the loss of 5 lives. • Kerensky tried to get support from the Army but could get none, even though only a few hundred troops could have stopped the uprising. 99 The October Revolution
    100. 100. The Bolsheviks in Power: Immediate Changes • Now the Bolsheviks were in charge but their hold on power was precarious: – They controlled the largest cities but had little interest in or influence on the peasants that made up 85% of the population. – The economy was in a shambles. Germany was continuing to advance. • Almost immediately Lenin: – called for an end to the war; – set up the Soviet of People’s Commissars (Sovnarkom) with Lenin as Chairman, Trotsky in charge of International Affairs and Stalin in charge of nationalities. – allowed peasants to keep land for the time being (but intended that this would change as there should be no private property). 100
    101. 101. The Bolsheviks in Power: Early Reform Communism meant everyone was equal and the State would controlCommunism meant everyone was equal and the State would control thethe Means of ProductionMeans of Production.. 101 Early Bolshevik Reform Titles were reduced to simply “Comrade”. Factories were transferred to the State and run by workers committees. Social Welfare was introduced, including pensions and maternity leave, and divorce procedures were eased. The Russian Orthodox Church lost its lands and wealth. Religious imagery was removed. Schools were run by student vote.Lenin announced any of Russia’s subject states could voluntarily break away. The Army was disbanded. Copy the following star diagram, including a little pictorial symbol for each one:
    102. 102. The Bolsheviks in Power The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • Trotsky was the negotiator who was charged with ending the war. • He refused German demands but Lenin intervened and the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk was signed in March 1918. • Russia lost ¼ of its population, ½ its industry and ¾ of its coal and iron, and had to pay reparations of 300 million gold roubles. • Lenin had left Trotsky to take any blame for these concessions. 102
    103. 103. 2.4 Perspectives Prep Work • Identify 5 different people who are involved with or affected by the Bolshevik Revolution. These people can be real (eg Kerensky) or they can be fictional/representative of a group (eg Josef a peasant). 103
    104. 104. “Dictatorship of the Working Class” • Dictatorship of the Working Class was Marx’s term for the temporary period after a revolution whereby a government would step in to prevent a return of the old rulers and to set up the new society. After this the dictatorship would step aside and things would run themselves. • Before Lenin could stop them, the November elections took place. The SR won because of peasant support. • Lenin used the Red Guard to shut the Duma down. • To impose total communist control: – freedom of the press was abolished, – other political parties were banned; and – the Cheka was established with wider powers than the Okhrana. 104
    105. 105. Civil War • By the middle of 1918 opposition began to grow especially amongst: – SR’s and Mensheviks who were unhappy that they did not share power and they disliked the Treaty. – Middle classes and Army Officers who were also unhappy about the treaty and wanted the Tsar returned. – The British, French US and Japanese Governments who wanted Russia back in the war and to halt the spread of Communism. – Also the former POW’s (Czech Legion) who became involved and controlled the Trans-Siberian Railway) • Combined, these became the WHITE Armies. 105
    106. 106. 106
    107. 107. Trotsky and the Red Army • With no army and only militias to defend the revolution, Trotsky was ordered to create a new army. • He created the RED ARMY, reintroducing discipline and including the badges and rank of the old army: – He used Cheka units to enforce discipline by shooting deserters. – Conscription boosted numbers to 800,000 by the end of 1918 and 3,000,000 by 1920. – He used a special train to move from battlefront to front, encouraging soldiers. – Each unit had a special commissar appointed to promote communism and to watch out for dissent. • Luckily the opposition lacked co-ordination or direction. • With Trotsky’s organisation the Red Army became stronger and stronger. 107
    108. 108. Red Army • Conscription was enforced with the taking of hostages to prevent opposition • Trotsky got former Tsarist officers to come into the Red Army as military specialists • By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex- Tsarist soldiers 108
    109. 109. Order of the Revolutionary war council, 24 November 1918, No. 65 ‘Every scoundrel who urges anyone to retreat, desert or not obey an order, will be shot. Every soldier who throws away his rifle or sells part of his equipment, will be shot. Houses in which deserters are found will be burnt down.’ 109
    110. 110. Trotsky’s Operations • Trotsky directed the war from a special train, which enabled him to race from front to front. On board it had ‘…a printing press, a telegraph station, a radio station, an electric power station, a library, a garage with cars and a bath… a squad of hand-picked sharp shooters and machine gunners occupied the trucks.’ 110
    111. 111. Instructions from Cheka leaders ‘Do not demand incriminating evidence to prove that the prisoner has opposed the Soviet government by force or words. Your first duty is to ask him to which class he belongs, what are his origins, his education, his occupation. These questions should decide the fate of the prisoner.’ 111
    112. 112. Totsky on Guard 112
    113. 113. To Horse Proliterian! 113
    114. 114. Casualties • WW1: 3,300,000 • Civil War: 7-10,000,000 • In other words, more the double the amount of people died in the Russian Civil War than in World War One. • Both the Whites and the Reds executed a lot of people • Estimates are that up to 200,000 people were executed around this time • At this time there were lots of pogroms taking place – Communists found it easy to blame Jews just as the Tsars had. 114
    115. 115. War Communism • The Civil War was brutal. Both sides used terror to enforce their beliefs. • The use of secret police by the Communists was called the Red Terror (late 1918 – early 1922) and many thousands were killed. The Tsar and his family were executed by a Cheka detachment in July 1918 because of fears they would be rescued. • Lenin enforced a policy called War Communism, demanding that all parts of society work towards winning the war. – All businesses & factories were taken over – the government controlled production. – Buying and selling for profit were banned. – Workers were told where to work. – Food was strictly rationed in the cities. – Hyper-inflation made money worthless. People traded goods instead. – Peasants were forced to sell produce to the State. They were often treated badly and many killed their stock rather than give them up. • The Red Army grew more powerful while the White Armies could not agree on a strategy or co-operate effectively. • Some nationalities attempted to break free but were brought back by force when they chose not to form Communist Governments. • By 1921 peasant rebellions showed the discontent that the measures were creating. 115
    116. 116. Many orders were passed, such as… ‘All citizens are subject to compulsory labour… except persons under 16 or over 50, persons who are disabled by injury or illness, pregnant women for a period of eight weeks before and after confinement.’ 116
    117. 117. Troops were ordered to take grain by force… ‘Grain voluntarily surrendered is to be paid for at a fixed price… hidden grain is subject to confiscation…’ ‘every food requisition group is to consist of not less than 75 men and two or three machine guns.’ 117
    118. 118. Even so, seizing grain was not easy… ‘A small company was sent to a village to requisition the bread reserves… They were disarmed by the peasants… Another company with two machine guns was sent, and they returned without the machine guns. A third company was ordered out… the peasants opened fire and killed six… A fourth and much better armed force was sent and recaptured the machine guns (but not the bread).’ 118
    119. 119. Consequences of War Communism • Not enough food reached the towns and there was strict rationing. Workers and soldiers received most food, the middle class and formerly wealthy people got almost nothing. At times even the workers’ ration was below starvation level. Many people could keep themselves alive only if they had something to trade for food on the illegal market (the black market)… • Thousands of workers and their families left the towns and fled to the countryside in search of food. • Fuel was in short supply • Output of industry fell sharply and inflation went mad – money was worthless (eg a train journey in Nov 1922 was 4 million times higher than in June 1917). 119
    120. 120. Lenin & Trotsky in Red Square 120
    121. 121. The Cheka • A new intensity to the Cheka’s activities resulted from the attempt to assassinate Lenin in August 1918. • Lenin was seriously wounded. On the same day, in Petrograd, the Chairman of the Petrograd Cheka was shot dead. • The Red Terror lasted from late 1918 until early 1922. • The Cheka began to attract people with an intense hatred of capitalists and the bourgeoisie. • They were often sadists, people quite happy to use torture to extract confessions or information. • Former officials, landlords and priests were executed and whole families were wiped out for no other reason than that they had once been rich. 121
    122. 122. The 1921 Crisis • By 1921 the war was effectively won. The cost was enormous: – 10 million may have died in the conflict and through disease – Industrial output fell to 1/5 of 1913 production – Hyper-inflation increased prices by 1 million times – Coal production was down by 2/3 – Sugar production fell by over 95% – Iron production fell by 95% – Only 1/3 of trains were still working – Petrograd’s population fell by 75% as people fled to the countryside in search of food. • Opposition grew throughout the country as people questioned the need for continued harsh policies and noticed party members were not ‘doing without’. • Workers called for a return to the 1917 system of free elections. • The worst famine in a century killed another 5 million people. • People were so desperate, cannibalism was seen as an option. • The Communists were forced to accept foreign aid. 122
    123. 123. War Communism: Starvation 123
    124. 124. Traders in Human Flesh 124
    125. 125. The (2nd ) Kronstadt Mutiny • The most serious revolt against the Communists was in March 1921 at the naval base of Kronstadt. • They took over the base and demanded ‘… new elections to the Soviets with a secret vote, freedom of speech and press… freedom to meet for trade unions and peasant groups … freedom for peasants to farm their land.’ • Lenin refused (the Communist Party had to be in complete control if the revolution was to survive). • When the sailors and workers refused to surrender, Trotsky ordered the Red Army to attack – by marching across the frozen sea. 125
    126. 126. • General Takhachevsky, in command of the attack, wrote ‘The sailors fought like wild beasts… Each house had to be taken by storm. An entire company fought for an hour to capture a house, it contained 2 or 3 men at a machine gun. They seemed half-dead, but they snatched their revolvers and gasped “too little did we shoot at you scoundrels”.’ • When the Red Army won it showed little mercy: ‘The city ran red with the blood of Kronstadt men, women and children. For several weeks the Petrograd jails were filled with hundreds of Kronstadt prisoners. Every night small groups of them were taken out by the Cheka and disappeared.’ 126
    127. 127. The (2nd) Kronstadt Mutiny • The Red Army was able to cross the frozen sea to attack the base. • When the Red Army won it showed little mercy. • 15,000 died. • This military mutiny, along with the widespread famine, made Lenin realise War Communism had to end. • But how was he to persuade the peasants to produce more food for the town workers? • NEP was his answer. 127
    128. 128. Trotsky V Stalin - 1924 • Stalin had quietly worked his way to the position of Party Secretary. • Lenin had planned for Trotsky to succeed him, but his prolonged illness stopped this. • This gave Stalin the ability to place his own men into positions of power. • Although Lenin had written a letter denouncing Stalin, this was kept secret. • Upon taking power, Stalin began to undermine his rival. • Trotsky was expelled from the Party and eventually exiled. • In 1940 Trotsky was assassinated by GPU agents. 128
    129. 129. Now you see him 129 Now you don’t
    130. 130. The New Economic Policy 1921-9 • The New Economic Policy (NEP) represented a major departure from War Communism • Restrictions were lifted on trading. • The Market was allowed to operate. • Profit-making became the main aim of those in industry. • Taxes were lowered. • The economy began to approach pre-war levels. • Recovery was accompanied by the emergence of a "capitalist" class in both the countryside (the kulaks) and the towns (NEPmen) • By 1929 Stalin decided that Collectivisation could achieve the same without sacrificing socialism. • The 5 Year Year plans were introduced. • Stalinism had arrived. 130