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New Zealand: The Contact Period Revision

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A short Slideshow for Revision of the Contact Period 1800-1840 in New Zealand.

A short Slideshow for Revision of the Contact Period 1800-1840 in New Zealand.

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New Zealand: The Contact Period Revision New Zealand: The Contact Period Revision Presentation Transcript

  • The Contact Period 1800 - 1840 REVISION
  • Maori before 1800: Mana
    • Maori life was centered on Mana
      • Mana was measured in terms of birthright, achievements or knowledge.
      • Important concepts included Utu(Reciprocity) and Tapu. (Forbidden)
      • Both used to control relationships and behaviour.
  • Maori before 1800: Whanau
    • Maori relationships were based on belonging:
      • Whanau – Extended Family
      • Hapu – Whanau joined by marriage (sub-tribe)
      • Iwi – Hapu joined by marriage (Tribe)
      • Tribes maintained their Rangatiratanga over their Rohe. (Chieftainship over land)
    View slide
  • Maori before 1800: War
    • Warfare was endemic (Ballara)
      • Hapu could fight Hapu and Iwi could fight Iwi.
      • Alliances could be made and broken.
      • Utu played a large role in most disputes.
      • Pre-musket most fighting was non-lethal.
    View slide
  • Explorers
    • Abel Tasman 1642
      • Searching for Staten Landt.
      • Misunderstood Maori challenge.
      • 4 Crewmen killed and eaten.
      • Reports discouraged further exploration
  • Explorers 2
    • James Cook 1769
      • Searching for Terra Incognita.
      • Had Tupaia as Interpreter.
      • Relations with Maori generally good
      • Spent 6 months surveying country.
      • Reported favourably on Maori.
      • Reported on resources especially Timber and Flax.
  •  
  • Explorers 3
    • Jean-Francois Surville 1769
      • Arrives 2 weeks after Cook.
      • Makes similar observations to Cook.
      • Kidnaps Maori chief.
      • Both die of scurvy on return voyage.
  • Explorers: Overview
    • Cook had reported favourably on New Zealand.
    • It had significant natural resources especially flax and timber.
    • He considered Maori a noble race with a stratified society and a culture adapted to trade.
    • Later explorers generally supported his view.
  • Australia
    • Britain needed a convict settlement.
    • Other places had been unsuitable (to close or too dangerous)
    • Cooks report on Australia made it more suitable than New Zealand.
    • In 1788 the First Fleet arrived.
    • Almost immediately trade with Maori began.
  • Sealers
    • Seals skin were valued in Britain and China.
      • Sydney merchants began to exploit Australian seals.
      • In 1792 the first sealing gang arrived in Doubtful Sound.
      • Gangs were usually former convicts.
      • Life was hard, Gangs were left with limited food for long periods.
  • Sealers 2
    • Gangs quickly killed off the Seals.
      • By 1812 the trade had emptied most seal colony’s on the mainland.
      • Gangs could easily kill 5-20,00 gangs in a season.
      • One ships took 100,000 skins to Sydney in a single trip.
      • Some gangs were marooned.
      • One gang was rescued after 4 years.
  •  
  • Sealers 3
    • Sealing Gangs and Maori
      • Sealers were terrified of being attacked and eaten.
      • Most sealers had little worth trading except their own tools/weapons.
      • Because of this Maori often viewed them as thieves a source of iron and food.
      • James Caddells gang were eaten and he became a Pakeha-Maori
      • Another gang were forced to eat each other by their Maori captors.
      • Gangs around Southland did trade with Maori and provided them with muskets.
  •  
  • Sealers Overview
    • Sealers decimated Seals by 1812
    • They helped in the exploration of NZ
    • Few made any real impact on Maori as they either had little contact or had nothing to trade.
    • Some were killed and eaten.
    • In Southland and Stewart island some relationships developed,
    • There Sealers acquired land traded and married into local Iwi.
  • Timber
    • An extraction Industry:
      • Timber was major industry from the early 1800’s.
      • New Zealand Timber was of a high quality.
      • It helped build Sydney and was useful cargo for returning Convict ships.
      • Ships called into the Hokianga Harbour to cut or employ Maori to provide suitable lumber.
      • Hokianga Ngapuhi benefited from this trade.
  • Whaling
    • Whale oil was valuable.
      • Whale oil was used to lubricate machinery or in street lighting.
      • By 1790 Whales were harder to find in the Atlantic.
      • In 1799 the first Whalers (American) arrived and reported large Whaling fields.
      • Quickly more ships followed them into the Pacific.
  •  
  • Whalers 2
    • Ocean Whaling ships needed supplies.
      • Ships were at sea for 2-3 years.
      • They needed fresh food and water.
      • Sydney did not allow American ships.
      • Fees and taxes in Sydney were also high.
      • The Whalers sought an alternative.
      • They began to call into the Bay of Islands.
  • Whalers 3
    • Ocean Whalers and the Maori.
      • From 1806 Kororareka became a favourite port of call for Whalers.
      • By the late 1820’s dozens of ships were using the port with crews of 20-50.
      • Ngapuhi quickly realised the value of having access to European trade goods.
      • This gave them Mana and trading power with other tribes.
      • They diversified their crops to include European foods.
      • They offered women for sex.
      • Increasingly the trade centred on Muskets.
  •  
  • Whalers 4
    • The Hellhole of the Pacific.
      • Missionaries who arrived in 1814 deplored the effect that contact with Whalers had on Maori.
      • Drunken brawls and prostitution were common.
      • After the mission at Paihia was set up they began to compare their Heaven to Kororarekas Hell.
      • Ocean Whalers began to decline after 1840.
  •  
  • Shore Whalers
    • The Shore Whalers
      • From the late 1820’s Whaling Stations were established around the coast. (Jacky Guard)
      • This was cheaper than equipping a ship.
      • Long term relationships developed.
      • Often Maori were employed and some marriages occurred.
      • Increased trade meant the supply of muskets was opened up to other tribes (Ngati Toa)
  • Ocean Whalers Overview
    • Ocean whalers increased contact with Maori.
      • Their impact was concentrated in just the Far North.
      • Whalers introduced many new ideas to Maori including the cash economy, new foods and technology.
      • Many Maori (Ruatara) travelled the world on Whalers and brought back stories of what they had seen. (incl. British Imperial power)
      • Negative effects include prostitution, disease, alcohol and the musket. (=> Musket Wars)
      • Some Whalers also began to buy land (Jacky Guard)
  • Shore Whalers Overview
    • Shore Whalers increased contact with Maori from 1829.
      • They settled a wider area along the East Coast to the Cook Strait, often for years.
      • They cooperated with local Iwi, often marrying local women.
      • They employed Maori in their Stations.
      • They diversified as traders and farmers.
      • Their trade in muskets helped to end the Musket Wars.
  • Missionaries
    • Evangelical Imperialism.
      • As Britain expanded it took its religion with it.
      • The Anglican Church was represented by the Church Mission Service (CMS)
      • In Sydney this was led by Samuel Marsden.
      • In 1806 Marsden met Ruatara a Ngapuhi chief. (And leter Te Pahi)
      • He decided that Maori would make good converts.
  • Missionaries 2
    • A Mission at Rangihoua.
      • Marsdens plans were put on hold by the 1809 Boyd Incident.
      • About 1810 Ruatara returned to learn agricultural skills at his farm.
      • In 1814 Marsden received permission to establish a mission in New Zealand.
      • Rutara accompanied him to Rangihoua.
      • Marsden planned to civilise and convert Maori
  • Missionaries 3
    • Civilise and Convert
      • Marsdens plan was to introduce Maori to British technology which would convince them of its superiority and lead them to accept Christianity.
      • The first missionaries included Kendall Hall and King.
      • The were not a success.
      • They fought and Kendall was not a strong leader.
  •  
  • Missionaries 4
    • Hongi Hika
      • Ruatara died shortly after the mission was established.
      • Hongi Hika replaced him as protector of the Missionaries.
      • He had a low opinion of their religion but valued the trade their presence encouraged.
      • Without his support no conversions could take place.
  • Missionaries 5
    • Kendalls Downfall.
      • Kendall started a school but it failed.
      • He lacked the mana to impress Maori.
      • Hika went to London with Kendall in 1820
      • Hika took the chance to buy more muskets.
      • In 1822 Kendall was expelled for having an affair with a Maori student
      • In 1823 he was replaced by Henry Williams.
  •  
  • Missionaries 6
    • Henry Williams
      • Williams was a former naval officer.
      • He was more forceful than Kendall and acquired more mana.
      • He changed the focus and began to actively evangelise.
      • He encouraged learning of Te Reo and built a schooner to spread the message.
      • The Weslyans arrived in 1823.
      • He was joined by his brother and Colenso.
  • Missionaries 7
    • Conversions Begin:
      • In 1827 the New Testament was published in Maori. (Wm. Colenso)
      • In 1829 Hika died.
      • Within a year local Maori began to convert.
      • They were weary of war, their confidence was undermined by disease and alcohol.
      • 1838 Catholics under Pompallier arrived.
      • By 1840 30,000 converts had been achieved.
  •  
  • Missionaries 8
    • Missionaries and the Treaty
      • Missionaries were central to the treaty discussions.
      • They had translated Hobsons instructions, and assisted in translating the views of Maori on the first day. (Feb 5 th )
      • They stressed the “Covenant” between Maori and the Queen.
      • They took most of the copies around the country seeking more signatures.
  •  
  • Missionary Overview
    • Initially Maori only saw Missionaries as conduits for trade.
    • 1814 -1829 there were no converts.
    • Kendall was a poor choice as leader.
    • Civilising did not lead to Conversion.
    • Williams changed to evangelising and improved status through encouraging Te Reo.
    • Conversions after 1830 led to major changes in Maori culture.
    • No cannibalism, slaves, tattooing or polygamy.
    • From 1833 many freed slaves spread Christianity ahead of the Pakeha Missionaries. (Ngati Porou)
  • Government Officials
    • Humanitarianism and Imperialism.
      • Colonial Office officials (Stephen) were concerned about the welfare of Native peoples.
      • Reports of poor behaviour (Kororareka) and violence (1809 Boyd & 1834 Harriet) concerned them.
      • European inlfuences appeared to be corrupting Maori
      • The 1830 Elizabeth affair also highlighted a gap in their jurisdiction.
      • Missionaries also warned of growing French interest in New Zealand. (Yates in 1830)
  • Government Officials 2
    • Britain is dragged into New Zealand.
      • 1814 Kendall was appointed as Magistrate.
      • In 1830 the Petition to King William was accepted as recognition of some form of Government in New Zealand.
      • In 1833 Busby was appointed as Resident.
      • In 1834 he creates a Flag which is recognised by the Admiralty.
      • In 1835 he creates the Declaration of Independence which the Colonial Office also recognises.
  •  
  • Contact Period: Government Officials 2
    • Britain seeks a Treaty.
      • The Colonial Office became concerned that a more formal presence was needed.
      • In 1837 Hobson arrived to review the situation.
      • He called for Factories to be established.
      • Wakefields “Systematic colonisation” promised thousands of migrants, seeking land.
      • Factories would not solve this issue.
      • Continued concerns about French intentions.
  • Contact Period: Government Officials 3
    • The Annexation of New Zealand.
      • The Colonial Office could not simply invade New Zealand.
      • Recognition in 1830,1834 and 1835 made this legally difficult
      • They gave orders that the Chiefs of New Zealand be asked to give their assent freely.
      • Hobson returned with brief instructions for a Treaty.
  • Contact Period: Government Officials 4
    • Drafting the Treaty.
      • Hobson asked Wm. Williams to assist.
      • He had difficulty with the term Sovereignty and Governorship.
      • In the Maori version he used Kawanatanga instead of Rangatiratanga or Mana.
      • He attempted to make the meaning clearer in the discussions on Feb 5 th .
      • 35 Chiefs signed the Treaty on Feb 6 th .
      • By September almost 500 had added their own marks to it.
  • Contact Period: Government Officials
  • Maori by 1840
    • Maori were familiar with Europe & Europeans.
      • Many were Christian. (Protestant or Catholic) and literate in Maori.
      • They had abandoned tattooing, slavery, cannibalism and polygamy.
      • Many had adopted European clothes, smoking and drinking.
      • Maori travelers had seen the power of Gt. Britain.
      • In many areas they were successful traders and agriculturalists.
      • Many welcomed GB and the hope that this would ease both Race Relations and Land Sales disputes
      • Land was already being traded especially in the North & increasingly in the South.
  • Changes in NZ to 1850
    • Thousands of migrants began to arrive. (14,000 from NZ Co.)
    • Settlers wanted land and believed NZ was now wholly British.
    • Maori believed they still maintained their Rangatiratanga.
    • Initially Maori did accept some sales but disputed others (Nelson, New Plymouth).
    • Disputes arose at Wairau(1843) over land and in Bay of Islands (1845-6) over Authority.
    • Fitzroy sided with Maori in 1843 and Heke/Kawiti effectively made their point without loss of land or mana in 1846.
    • Grey established his authority in Cook Strait in 1846-7 by imprisoning Te Rauraparaha and defeating Rangihaeta.
    • In 1848 Te Atiawa returned to the Waitara.
  • Race Relations 1860 1
    • Grey and McLean acquired almost 3m of land during this period.
    • Some sold willingly to ensure safety and trading opportunities.
    • Some acquired through the Flour & Sugar policy or by exploiting Iwi/Hapu disunity.
    • Resistance to loss of land began to grow.
    • 1852 Constitution disenfranchised Maori.
    • Te Rauaparaha and Te Whiwhi began to seek a unifying King to represent Maori in discussions with Pakeha.
  • Race Relations to 1860 2
    • Increasing numbers of migrants increased pressure to acquire Maori land.
    • Settlers viewed Kingitanga as a threat to acquiring land and Browne saw it as threat to British sovereignty and government income.
    • New Plymouth settlers resented Te Atiawa possession of Waitara.
    • 1856-8 Inter-Iwi fighting between land holders and land sellers occurred around Waitara.
    • Te Teira offered 600 acres to Gore Browne to spite Wiremu Kingi who had offended him.
    • Browne believed Kingi was supported by Kingitanga.
  • Race Relations to 1860 3
    • Increasingly Waitara became an opportunity to prove the sovereignty of Britain over the King.
    • Browne knew Teira’s offer was invalid but chose to confront the ‘land league’.
    • Settlers believed Kingi was bullying Teira and using intimidation to stop the sale.
    • He sent in surveyors whose pegs were removed.
    • He supported the surveyor with troops.
    • Kingi responded with by building a pa at Te Kohia.
    • On March 17 th Browne attacked the Pa.
    • The NZ wars had started.
  • Te Kohia Pa 2010