Level 2 NCEA History: Politics and Sport - NZ and SA


Published on

The politics of apartheid era rugby tours and the effects upon New Zealands internal and external politics

Published in: Education

Level 2 NCEA History: Politics and Sport - NZ and SA

  1. 1. Level 2 History
  2. 2. Contents• Achievement Standards • 1981• Sport & Politics• SA and Apartheid• The Place of Rugby in NZ• Rugby Rivalry Runs Deep• 1921 : 1949 Humiliation• 1956 Revenge• The Greatest Rivalry – 2• 1960: No Maori, No Tour• 1965 Repeat• 1970 Honorary Whites 2
  3. 3. Achievement Standards• AS 91229 Carry out a planned Inquiry of an historical event or place of significance to New Zealanders. (4 Credits) Internal• AS 91230 Examine an historical event or place of significance to New Zealanders. (5 Credits) Internal• AS 91231 Examine sources of an historical event or place of significance to New Zealanders. (4 Credits)• AS 91232 Interpret different perspectives of people in an historical event of significance to New Zealanders. (5 Credits) Internal• AS 91233 Examine causes and consequences of a significant historical event. (5 Credits).• AS 91234 Achievement Examine how a significant historical event affected New Zealand society 3
  4. 4. Topics in 2012• Sport and Politics: Causes and Consequences of the 1981 Tour.• Assasination at Sarajevo: Causes and Consequences of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.• Revolution in Russia: Causes and Consequences of the Russian Revolutions• Crossing the Mangatawhiri: Causes and Consequences of the Waikato Invasion 4
  5. 5. Sport Vs. Politics• Politics and Sport is a controversial issue.• Many people feel that the two should never mix.• Somehow sports is considered ‘pure’ in its pursuit of personal excellence.• Politics is somehow ‘grubby’ often attracting baser instincts of greed and manipulation.• Many people and organisations would argue that they should never combine.• In New Zealand, Rugby is where the two have regularly collided. 5
  6. 6. South Africa1900 2000
  7. 7. South Africa and Apartheid• By the 1940’s South Africa was a country where the majority were Black (Zulu, Xhosa etc) or Coloured (Mixed Race) with a significant White minority.• Most Whites were Afrikaans (Dutch) with some English.• The Boers War 1899-1902 meant that many Dutch Afrikaaners hated the “English”• Many Afrikaans were extremely Nationalist and had objected to supporting GB in both World Wars.• After WWII they began to support the National Party which wanted to further separate the Races, physically and economically.• This became a policy of “Grand” Apartheid which would place Blacks and White into totally separate areas.• However they later allowed for “Petty” Apartheid, with some mixing for work. (Rubbish Cleaning Cooks 7
  8. 8. Apartheid• Apartheid was a policy of separating the Black and White populations of South Africa.• Begun in 1948 it forced Blacks to live in Homelands.• Apartheid stopped different races from marrying.• It dictated where they could live.• It restricted Black ability to vote.• It restricted Black access to transportation and education.• Any Resistance was met with violence.• Nelson Mandela was imprisoned.• Steve Biko was murdered. Apartheid Laws 8
  9. 9. BBC Apartheid Video Original Video Location 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. The Place of Rugby in New Zealand• First played in Nelson in 1870• Quickly spread through towns and rural areas.• Rugby Clubs became social centres in many small towns and urban areas.• It provided a strong sense of identity for schools, club, provincial and national identities. Rod Derret: Rugby, Racing• The All Blacks became important and Beer to many peoples idea of national success. Howard Morrison: My Old Mans an All Black 11
  12. 12. • By 1900 Rugby was beginning to dominate almost every other topic, including the Boer War and Chinese Immigration. 12
  13. 13. 1905 : The ALL BLACKS 13
  14. 14. Nice Game... Using Rugby• Read the article by David Kirk. • Read the article about the1. What is NZ well known for? Exhibition.2. What makes us unique? 9. Describe how Murray Ball viewed3. How and why might Clinton ‘bond’ rugby and the All Blacks? Use with NZ? examples.4. How does Sandra Coney view 10.How have Cartoonists viewed rugby? rugby?5. Why is rugby bad for other sports? 11.How have they depicted the All Blacks?6. What burden do rugby players carry? 12.What themes did the exhibition divided into?7. How does the 1 legged stool fit our self esteem? 13.How did South Africa change the focus of rugby cartoons?8. What does he think we should do? 14
  15. 15. Rugby Rivalry runs deep.• In South Africa the game of the White minority was Rugby. Blacks preferred football.• Their greatest foe were the All Blacks.• For many years both sides were acclaimed World Champions.• Series have been filled with controversy, penalties or tries awarded or not, thuggery and referees who made questionable decisions.• In 1949 New Zealand lost 4-nil in South Africa.• For many New Zealanders defeating the Springboks at home & in Africa became an obsession.• The 1956 series became war. Kevin Skinner, Peter Jones and Don Clarke became household names as we strove for revenge.• Defeat was unacceptable. 15http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&cl=search&d=NZTR19210917.2.32&srpos=4&e=-------10--1----0springboks+natives--
  16. 16. Springbok V All Blacks• 1919 NZ defeat SA• 1921 SA draw series 1-1 in NZ• 1928 NZ draw series 2-2 in SA• 1937 SA win series 2-1 in NZ• 1949 NZ lose series 4-0 in SA• 1956 SA lose series 3-1 in NZ• 1960 NZ lose series 3-1 in SA• 1965 SA lose series 3-1 in NZ• 1967 Tour cancelled by Union• 1970 NZ lose series 3-1 in SA• 1973 Tour cancelled by NZ Govt.• 1976 NZ lose series 3-1 in SA• 1981 SA lose series 2-1 in NZ• 1983 Tour cancelled by NZ High Court 16
  17. 17. A 1921 Report for a SA paper• “Bad enough having play team officially designated New Zealand natives, but spectacle thousands Europeans frantically cheering on band of coloured men to defeat members of own race was too much for Springboks, who frankly disgusted.” 17
  18. 18. 1949 Touring Team• Based around the successful 1946 ‘Kiwis’ army team which had defeated the best of Europe this team was expected to do well against the Boks.• Losing the series 4 nil was viewed as a catastrophe. 18
  19. 19. 1949 19
  20. 20. 1956• “...we’ll have some of the Springboks here tomorrow to help out”• Even as early as 1956, security was becoming an issue.• The Greatest Rivalry 21
  21. 21. 1956 Universities Win 22
  22. 22. Taranaki celebrated a 3-3draw with the tourists.Waikato and Canterburyhad already defeatedthem.Defeating the Springbokswas a huge honour forany provincial team. 23
  23. 23. 1956• Several Provinces found the Boks could not cope with the “Up’n’Under” or ‘bomb’ which they used to terrorise the tourists.• Inflicting as much injury on the tourists was considered a part of the campaign to ‘soften’ them up for the Test matches. 24
  24. 24. 1956 – Maori Lose• Maori affairs minister Ernest Corbett told the 1956 Maori All Blacks they must not beat the Springboks.• Maori All Black fullback Muru Walters, now an Anglican bishop in Otaki, said Mr Corbett visited the team in their Eden Park dressing- room and told them if they won the All Blacks would never be invited back to South Africa. 25
  25. 25. Greatest Rugby Rivalry pt. 2 26
  26. 26. 1956 Series Won• It was with a real sense of relief that the Nation celebrated the defeat of the Springboks as revenge for 1949.• For the moment we could call ourselves World Champions. 27
  27. 27. 1960: No Maoris, No Tour• In 1928,1949 the 1960 Maori players were excluded from these touring SA, which finally raised protest in 1960.• New Zealanders began to realize the implications of this over-riding desire to play South Africa at any cost: – It discriminated against Maori – It meant we sent a weaker team.• International pressure began to What was the issue being protested about? build in the 1970’s and several Springbok tours to Australia and the UK were blighted by protests, violence and 30 cancellation.
  28. 28. 1960: NZRFU attitude 31
  29. 29. 1960: The Sydney Herald 32
  30. 30. NZ lost the 1960 Series 33
  31. 31. 1960• As often happens with an All Black loss, children began to drift to other sports. The Ballad of Peter Snell 34
  32. 32. 1965• The 1965 Springbok team was unlucky to meet one of the strongest All Black teams, just starting a 4 year run of success. 35
  33. 33. 1965Wellington Win 36
  34. 34. 37
  35. 35. 1965• Despite being outplayed by several provinces the 1965 Springbok team was still able to approach the final test with the chance of drawing the series.• A draw meant they lost the series. 38
  36. 36. 1967 Tour Cancelled. 39
  37. 37. 1970: Honorary White?• Despite protests, the 1970 tour to the Republic saw Maori and Pasifika players finally allowed to tour, as ‘Honorary Whites”.• Several Maori players were happy to tour.• 19 year old Samoan Bryan Williams starred.• Lacking talent in some key positions and a consistent kicker the All Blacks lost the series. 40
  38. 38. 1972 – Politics? 41
  39. 39. 42
  40. 40. 1973 43
  41. 41. 1973 : Laugh 44
  42. 42. 1976: Rugby Vs Olympics• In 1976 NZ was due to return to the Republic.• By now South Africa was subject to a number of sporting bans including since 1964, from the Olympics.• New Zealand had signed the Gleneagles Agreement to ‘discourage’ sporting contact with South Africa.• The Government decided it could not stop its citizens from travelling.• African nations threatened to boycott the Olympics if New Zealand was allowed to attend.• Rugby was no longer an Olympic sport so the IOC had no control over the sport.• New Zealand attended, 28 African nations boycotted. 45
  43. 43. 46
  44. 44. 47
  45. 45. Soweto Riots• An important issue amongst Blacks was education. There was little equality.• The Government also made classes in Afrikaans compulsory.• In 1976 the children of Soweto marched in opposition to this policy.• They were fired upon and rioting broke out.• The riots lasted only briefly, right in the middle of the All Black tour.• Several All Blacks even visited the township during the riots. 48
  46. 46. Hector PetersenSeveral hundred children were killed by SApolice. Estimates range from 200 to 700. 49
  47. 47. All Blacks visit Soweto... 50
  48. 48. 1977 Gleneagles Agreement• New Zealand was a strong supporter of the ...the urgent duty of each of their Governments vigorously to combat the British Commonwealth of Nations. evil of apartheid by withholding any• Our most popular sports were played against form of support for, and by taking the Commonwealth. every practical step to discourage• Several agreements had been made contact or competition by their supporting campaigns against apartheid and nationals with sporting organisations, teams or sportsmen from South Africa racism.• It agreed to discourage sporting contact with South Africa, without stipulating what that ...each Government to determine in meant. accordance with its law the methods by which it might best discharge• Some countries were prepared to deny visas, these commitments. But they refuse leave for players or to work with recognised that the effective organisations to stop further contact. fulfilment of their commitments was• New Zealand signed the agreement. essential to the harmonious development of Commonwealth sport. 51
  49. 49. 1981 –A banacing Act 52
  50. 50. 53
  51. 51. 54
  52. 52. 1981: Individual Rights v Law & Order• The 1981 tour by the Springboks is considered a watershed in our national & international politics.• It changed everything.• The previous year it had signed the Gleneagles agreement to ‘discourage’ South African tours.• The Govt. claimed it had no right to stop the tour from proceeding.• HART and CARE led the protests• Initially about apartheid, the Government turned it into a “Law and Order” issue.• Games in Gisborne and Hamilton were abandoned.• The final game in Auckland turned the suburb of Mt Eden into a battlefield. 55
  53. 53. 56
  54. 54. 57
  55. 55. 58
  56. 56. 59
  57. 57. 60
  58. 58. 61
  59. 59. 62
  60. 60. Protest and Violence: Hamilton 63
  61. 61. 64
  62. 62. 1981 Videos 1: Sport 3: New Tactics 652: Molesworth St 4: the Final Test
  63. 63. Patu 66
  64. 64. 1981 Aftermath• New Zealand society was shocked at the violence and divisions that occurred during the 1981 tour.• Rioting protestors and over vigorous police were both condemned.• Friendships, families and entire communities were split over the tour.• Some took years to reconcile, some never have.• Racism became a topical and hotly debated issue.• Rob Muldoon won the 1981 election on the back of support for his “law and order’ campaign.• In 1985 a return tour to SA was cancelled after a High Court Challenge by two rugby players. 67
  65. 65. 68
  66. 66. 69
  67. 67. 1985 – Cez Blazey 70