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Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
Communication skills
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Communication skills

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Models of Communication, the Lasswell Transition Model

Models of Communication, the Lasswell Transition Model

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  • 1. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communication skillsPrince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communication skills COMMUNICATIONCOMMUNICATION SKILLSSKILLS TOPIC 2: Models OfTOPIC 2: Models Of CommunicationCommunication Prince J. K. WasajjaPrince J. K. Wasajja
  • 2. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Definition: A ModelDefinition: A Model  the simplified description in graphic form of athe simplified description in graphic form of a piece of reality.piece of reality.  It seeks to show the main elements of anyIt seeks to show the main elements of any structure or process andstructure or process and  the relationship between those elements.the relationship between those elements.  models help us understand the relationshipmodels help us understand the relationship between the sender and the receiver andbetween the sender and the receiver and  what other elements that are involved in thewhat other elements that are involved in the communication process such as channel tocommunication process such as channel to mention but a few.mention but a few.
  • 3. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica A communication ModelA communication Model  models help us understand the relationshipmodels help us understand the relationship between the sender and the receiver andbetween the sender and the receiver and  what other elements that are involved in thewhat other elements that are involved in the communication process such as channel tocommunication process such as channel to mention but a fewmention but a few  A model plays an organising functionA model plays an organising function  ordering and relating the systems to each otherordering and relating the systems to each other  providing us with the images of the wholes thatproviding us with the images of the wholes that we might otherwise fail to perceive.we might otherwise fail to perceive.
  • 4. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Other function of modelsOther function of models  help in explaining, by providing in simplified wayhelp in explaining, by providing in simplified way information which could otherwise beinformation which could otherwise be complicated or ambiguous.complicated or ambiguous.  This enables us to understand the key points ofThis enables us to understand the key points of a process or system of communication.a process or system of communication.  The third advantage of a model is that it canThe third advantage of a model is that it can enable scholars of communication predictenable scholars of communication predict outcomes or the course of events.outcomes or the course of events.  It is the basis for assigning probabilities to theIt is the basis for assigning probabilities to the various outcomes and forming hypothesis ofvarious outcomes and forming hypothesis of what may or may not occur given a set ofwhat may or may not occur given a set of conditions.conditions.
  • 5. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Categories of ModelsCategories of Models structural modelsstructural models;; those that describe thethose that describe the structure of the phenomenon.structure of the phenomenon. For example the model may describe howFor example the model may describe how the telephone works and nothing else, bythe telephone works and nothing else, by showing the main components of a phoneshowing the main components of a phone and how these components relate to eachand how these components relate to each other in the communication process.other in the communication process.
  • 6. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Functional ModelsFunctional Models These describe the systems in terms ofThese describe the systems in terms of energy, forces and their direction, theenergy, forces and their direction, the relationship between parts and therelationship between parts and the influence of one part on the other parts.influence of one part on the other parts. For example, a model that explains thatFor example, a model that explains that noise interference affects thenoise interference affects the effectiveness of communication is aeffectiveness of communication is a functional model.functional model.
  • 7. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Reliability of ModelsReliability of Models one should beware that they areone should beware that they are sometimes incomplete, oversimplified andsometimes incomplete, oversimplified and involve some concealed assumptions.involve some concealed assumptions. There is no model that is suitable for allThere is no model that is suitable for all purposes and levels of analysis ofpurposes and levels of analysis of communication.communication. Therefore, one should choose a correctTherefore, one should choose a correct model for the purpose he/she is trying tomodel for the purpose he/she is trying to study.study.
  • 8. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Basic Models of CommunicationBasic Models of Communication
  • 9. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Lasswell; an American political scientistLasswell; an American political scientist suggested five key questions to ask and tosuggested five key questions to ask and to be answered about the communicationbe answered about the communication process.process.  ‘‘who’ says ‘what’ in which ‘channel’ towho’ says ‘what’ in which ‘channel’ to ‘whom’ and with what ‘effect’.‘whom’ and with what ‘effect’. Lasswell’s Transmission ModelLasswell’s Transmission Model
  • 10. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Harold Dwight Lasswell,Harold Dwight Lasswell, (February 13,(February 13, 1902 —1902 — December 18,December 18, 1978)1978)
  • 11. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Graphical RepresentationGraphical Representation OrOr Com Message Medium Receive Effect
  • 12. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Scholars’ ReactionsScholars’ Reactions (Braddock 1958); found the Lasswell(Braddock 1958); found the Lasswell model useful but somehow simplisticmodel useful but somehow simplistic This prompted him to make adjustmentsThis prompted him to make adjustments by adding two more aspects.by adding two more aspects.
  • 13. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Braddock’s AdjustmentsBraddock’s Adjustments The circumstances under which aThe circumstances under which a message is sent. This includes themessage is sent. This includes the conditions under which the communicationconditions under which the communication event takes place.event takes place. For example the consideration of theFor example the consideration of the physical and emotional conditions in whichphysical and emotional conditions in which the communication is to take place.the communication is to take place.
  • 14. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica AdjustmentsAdjustments  Take for instance an angry mob, is not likelyTake for instance an angry mob, is not likely to be reasoned with because it is emotionalto be reasoned with because it is emotional charged and any attempt to do so will fail.charged and any attempt to do so will fail.  In a similar way if one is to communicate to aIn a similar way if one is to communicate to a crowd in an iron-roofed hall while it is raining,crowd in an iron-roofed hall while it is raining, such an activity may not deliver thesuch an activity may not deliver the anticipated results because of theanticipated results because of the interferences from nature.interferences from nature.  Therefore, the circumstances under which theTherefore, the circumstances under which the message is sent are crucial to the successfulmessage is sent are crucial to the successful delivery of the message.delivery of the message.
  • 15. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica the purpose of the communicator.the purpose of the communicator. What does the communicator wish toWhat does the communicator wish to achieve by engaging in the communicationachieve by engaging in the communication process?process? The purpose or intention of theThe purpose or intention of the communicator is crucial to the way thecommunicator is crucial to the way the message is structured.message is structured.
  • 16. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica PurposePurpose For example, a communicator whoseFor example, a communicator whose intention is to persuade will constructintention is to persuade will construct his/her message differently from that whohis/her message differently from that who is simply reporting. The purposeis simply reporting. The purpose determines what is and how it is said.determines what is and how it is said.
  • 17. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica Under What Circumstance?Under What Circumstance? For What Purpose?For What Purpose? With What Effect?With What Effect? Who What What Whom
  • 18. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica StrengthStrength  It is very useful by asking questions of each of theIt is very useful by asking questions of each of the main elements.main elements.  For example, it speaks in terms of "Communicator"For example, it speaks in terms of "Communicator" rather than simply "Sender".rather than simply "Sender".  This suggests that the message is communicatedThis suggests that the message is communicated effectively.effectively.  It also asks who he is — and where he is comingIt also asks who he is — and where he is coming from.from.  In a similar way it asks about who the Receiver is.In a similar way it asks about who the Receiver is.  It asks what kind of Channel is being used —It asks what kind of Channel is being used — because that will have an impact on what thebecause that will have an impact on what the Sender says and how he says it,Sender says and how he says it,
  • 19. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica The Lasswell (Linear) model;The Lasswell (Linear) model; weaknessesweaknesses  "Propaganda" model since it put much emphasis"Propaganda" model since it put much emphasis on the resulting impact (effect).on the resulting impact (effect).  communication assumes that the intention of thecommunication assumes that the intention of the communicator is to influence the receiver.communicator is to influence the receiver.  primary function of communication according toprimary function of communication according to Lasswell was persuasion.Lasswell was persuasion.  the model exaggerates the effects ofthe model exaggerates the effects of communication which explains its propagandacommunication which explains its propaganda usage in political communication.usage in political communication.
  • 20. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica WeaknessesWeaknesses The model omits the element of feedback.The model omits the element of feedback. The assumption that the speaker is centralThe assumption that the speaker is central to communication is erroneous since theto communication is erroneous since the audience is critical in the process ofaudience is critical in the process of communication.communication. the communication process to be fruitful,the communication process to be fruitful, the audience must put in its input in thethe audience must put in its input in the process.process.
  • 21. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica summarysummary  This model is about process ofThis model is about process of communication and its function tocommunication and its function to society, According to Lasswell there aresociety, According to Lasswell there are three functions for communication:three functions for communication:  Surveillance of the environmentSurveillance of the environment  Correlation of components of societyCorrelation of components of society  Cultural transmission betweenCultural transmission between generationgeneration  Advantage of lasswell model:Advantage of lasswell model:  Disadvantage of lasswell model:Disadvantage of lasswell model:
  • 22. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica AdvantagesAdvantages It is Easy and SimpleIt is Easy and Simple It suits for almost all types ofIt suits for almost all types of communicationcommunication The concept of effectThe concept of effect
  • 23. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica DisadvantagesDisadvantages Feedback not mentionedFeedback not mentioned Noise not mentionedNoise not mentioned Linear ModelLinear Model
  • 24. Prince Wasajja, Nabutayi Edgar, 2010; Module Communica EndEnd

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