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Communication skills

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Models of Communication, the Lasswell Transition Model

Models of Communication, the Lasswell Transition Model

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Communication skills Presentation Transcript

  • 1. COMMUNICATION SKILLS TOPIC 2: Models Of Communication Prince J. K. Wasajja
  • 2. Definition: A Model
    • the simplified description in graphic form of a piece of reality.
    • It seeks to show the main elements of any structure or process and
    • the relationship between those elements.
    • models help us understand the relationship between the sender and the receiver and
    • what other elements that are involved in the communication process such as channel to mention but a few.
  • 3. A communication Model
    • models help us understand the relationship between the sender and the receiver and
    • what other elements that are involved in the communication process such as channel to mention but a few
    • A model plays an organising function
    • ordering and relating the systems to each other
    • providing us with the images of the wholes that we might otherwise fail to perceive.
  • 4. Other function of models
    • help in explaining, by providing in simplified way information which could otherwise be complicated or ambiguous.
    • This enables us to understand the key points of a process or system of communication.
    • The third advantage of a model is that it can enable scholars of communication predict outcomes or the course of events.
    • It is the basis for assigning probabilities to the various outcomes and forming hypothesis of what may or may not occur given a set of conditions.
  • 5. Categories of Models
    • structural models ; those that describe the structure of the phenomenon.
    • For example the model may describe how the telephone works and nothing else, by showing the main components of a phone and how these components relate to each other in the communication process.
  • 6. Functional Models
    • These describe the systems in terms of energy, forces and their direction, the relationship between parts and the influence of one part on the other parts.
    • For example, a model that explains that noise interference affects the effectiveness of communication is a functional model.
  • 7. Reliability of Models
    • one should beware that they are sometimes incomplete, oversimplified and involve some concealed assumptions.
    • There is no model that is suitable for all purposes and levels of analysis of communication.
    • Therefore, one should choose a correct model for the purpose he/she is trying to study.
  • 8. Basic Models of Communication
  • 9.
    • Lasswell; an American political scientist
    • suggested five key questions to ask and to be answered about the communication process.
    • ‘ who’ says ‘what’ in which ‘channel’ to ‘whom’ and with what ‘effect’.
    Lasswell’s Transmission Model
  • 10. (February 13, 1902 — December 18, 1978) Harold Dwight Lasswell,
  • 11. Graphical Representation
    • Or
    Com Message Medium Receive Effect
  • 12. Scholars’ Reactions
    • (Braddock 1958); found the Lasswell model useful but somehow simplistic
    • This prompted him to make adjustments by adding two more aspects.
  • 13. Braddock’s Adjustments
    • The circumstances under which a message is sent. This includes the conditions under which the communication event takes place.
    • For example the consideration of the physical and emotional conditions in which the communication is to take place.
  • 14. Adjustments
    • Take for instance an angry mob, is not likely to be reasoned with because it is emotional charged and any attempt to do so will fail.
    • In a similar way if one is to communicate to a crowd in an iron-roofed hall while it is raining, such an activity may not deliver the anticipated results because of the interferences from nature.
    • Therefore, the circumstances under which the message is sent are crucial to the successful delivery of the message.
  • 15.
    • the purpose of the communicator.
    • What does the communicator wish to achieve by engaging in the communication process?
    • The purpose or intention of the communicator is crucial to the way the message is structured.
  • 16. Purpose
    • For example, a communicator whose intention is to persuade will construct his/her message differently from that who is simply reporting. The purpose determines what is and how it is said.
  • 17.
    • Under What Circumstance?
    • For What Purpose?
    • With What Effect?
    Who What What Whom
  • 18. Strength
    • It is very useful by asking questions of each of the main elements.
    • For example, it speaks in terms of "Communicator" rather than simply "Sender".
    • This suggests that the message is communicated effectively.
    • It also asks who he is — and where he is coming from.
    • In a similar way it asks about who the Receiver is.
    • It asks what kind of Channel is being used — because that will have an impact on what the Sender says and how he says it,
  • 19. The Lasswell (Linear) model; weaknesses
    • "Propaganda" model since it put much emphasis on the resulting impact (effect).
    • communication assumes that the intention of the communicator is to influence the receiver.
    • primary function of communication according to Lasswell was persuasion.
    • the model exaggerates the effects of communication which explains its propaganda usage in political communication.
  • 20. Weaknesses
    • The model omits the element of feedback.
    • The assumption that the speaker is central to communication is erroneous since the audience is critical in the process of communication.
    • the communication process to be fruitful, the audience must put in its input in the process.
  • 21. summary
    • This model is about process of communication and its function to society, According to Lasswell there are three functions for communication:
    • Surveillance of the environment
    • Correlation of components of society
    • Cultural transmission between generation
    • Advantage of lasswell model:
    • Disadvantage of lasswell model:
  • 22. Advantages
    • It is Easy and Simple
    • It suits for almost all types of communication
    • The concept of effect
  • 23. Disadvantages
    • Feedback not mentioned
    • Noise not mentioned
    • Linear Model
  • 24. End