Chinese Culture Approached Through Touch

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Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer nonChinese participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning, fun, and cultural authenticity. While this form of tangible computing proved engaging, it raises technical issues of how to convey appropriately the interactive elements without the help of the evaluator, and how to evaluate user satisfaction. We also briefly discuss more embodied and spatial possibilities for projection and interaction.

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  • literally means the “surrounding game”.black and white, represent the two primary aspects of the world, “Yin” (negative) and “Yang” (positive).
  • Figure 13 shows that the game “Hua” received the highest score of all four games in the aesthetically pleasing “Graphics” aspect, which is 55 out of 60, while the “Qin” game was rated the lowest (46 out of 60) score. In this section, there was a difference of nine points between the highest and lowest score.GraphicsThe conversations with the participants after the game suggest that the “Hua” game provided more appealing visual elements in the game, for example, the stained canvas of the painting scroll and the Chinese ink painting samples appeared during the game play. On the other hand, in the “Qi” game there was an identical “Go!” game board in the center of the screen with some black and white pieces, which appeared to be less visually stimulating than the other three games.
  • Figure 13 shows that the game “Hua” received the highest score of all four games in the aesthetically pleasing “Graphics” aspect, which is 55 out of 60, while the “Qin” game was rated the lowest (46 out of 60) score. In this section, there was a difference of nine points between the highest and lowest score.GraphicsThe conversations with the participants after the game suggest that the “Hua” game provided more appealing visual elements in the game, for example, the stained canvas of the painting scroll and the Chinese ink painting samples appeared during the game play. On the other hand, in the “Qi” game there was an identical “Go!” game board in the center of the screen with some black and white pieces, which appeared to be less visually stimulating than the other three games.
  • Figure 13 shows that the game “Hua” received the highest score of all four games in the aesthetically pleasing “Graphics” aspect, which is 55 out of 60, while the “Qin” game was rated the lowest (46 out of 60) score. In this section, there was a difference of nine points between the highest and lowest score.GraphicsThe conversations with the participants after the game suggest that the “Hua” game provided more appealing visual elements in the game, for example, the stained canvas of the painting scroll and the Chinese ink painting samples appeared during the game play. On the other hand, in the “Qi” game there was an identical “Go!” game board in the center of the screen with some black and white pieces, which appeared to be less visually stimulating than the other three games.
  • Figure 13 shows that the game “Hua” received the highest score of all four games in the aesthetically pleasing “Graphics” aspect, which is 55 out of 60, while the “Qin” game was rated the lowest (46 out of 60) score. In this section, there was a difference of nine points between the highest and lowest score.GraphicsThe conversations with the participants after the game suggest that the “Hua” game provided more appealing visual elements in the game, for example, the stained canvas of the painting scroll and the Chinese ink painting samples appeared during the game play. On the other hand, in the “Qi” game there was an identical “Go!” game board in the center of the screen with some black and white pieces, which appeared to be less visually stimulating than the other three games.
  • Chinese Culture Approached Through Touch

    1. 1. Chinese Culture Approached Through TouchLI WANG, MASSEY UNIVERSITY NZ, NOW CHINAERIK CHAMPION, DIGHUMLAB DK AND AARHUS UNIVERSITY TOUCH OF TAOISM 3 SEPTEMBER 2012 LI WANG AND ERIK CHAMPION
    2. 2. Chinese calligraphy 2006 2
    3. 3. Journey to the west 2006 3
    4. 4. Lessons badly learnt• Very difficult to recreate original action scenes and moments of discovery as game devices.• Chinese players, familiar with a distorted version of the original, not aware their cultural knowledge was not accurate, did not appreciate being told this.• Recreating linear narrative via game design is torturous.• OR: simulate the procedural knowledge of rituals and symbol-making via thematically-akin interaction.. 4
    5. 5. New media http://chinablog.cc/2009/10/siyi-four-arts-of-the-chinese-scholar/• For example, some critics have argued that new media “…offers enormous possibilities for the enhancement and enrichment of heritage experience and interpretation…” . Y. E. Kalay, T. Kvan, & J. Affleck, New Heritage: new media and cultural heritage. New York: Routledge, 2008. 5
    6. 6. daoism – Daoism (Taoism) is an ancient Chinese combination of religion, philosophy, and folk beliefs, including ritual healing. Its different strands of belief date far back in history. Daoism is deeply entwined with Chinese culture and history. – (J. Roberts, Chinese Mythology A to Z. New York: Chelsea House, 2009.)http://chinablog.cc/2009/10/siyi-four-arts-of-the-chinese-scholar/ 6
    7. 7. • In ancient Chinaan to be a scholar or a master is to be artist, measured by one’s grasp of the “Four Arts”.• The “Four Arts”: Music (“Qin”), the board game (“Qi”), calligraphy (“Shu”), and brush painting (“Hua”).• Helped “perceive the ultimate doctrine of the heavens”, “make themselves [be] enlightened”, “express their emotions/their understanding of the doctrine”, and “inspire others” so that their lives achieve peace and harmony.• Z. Dainian, Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2002. 7
    8. 8. questions• could games engage and educate both types of audience?• NB in pilot study of 12 people, found marked differences between Chinese- speaking and non-Chinese speaking participants. 8
    9. 9. Touch Screen Taoism
    10. 10. Intro movie 10
    11. 11. Flow effect 11
    12. 12. The interface 12
    13. 13. The music in the interface• “Qin” literally refers to a unique seven- string Chinese music instrument “Guqin”, which was invented 3,000 years ago in ancient China• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvhKTFzQ G8Y http://chinablog.cc/2009/10/siyi-four-arts-of-the-chinese-scholar/• https://eee.uci.edu/programs/rgarfias/sound- recordings/qin/index.html 13
    14. 14. explanations 14
    15. 15. MUSIC or “qin” 15
    16. 16. Calligraphy or “Shu” 16
    17. 17. GO! Or “Qi” 17
    18. 18. Painting or “Hua” 18
    19. 19. participantsAge Gender Native Language54 Female English43 Male German38 Female English21 Female English20 Male English21 Male English50 Female Chinese24 Female Chinese23 Male Chinese24 Female Chinese33 Male Chinese 9 Male Chinese/English 19
    20. 20. memory What are the Five Elements in the 25 traditional Chinese culture?Q2: What are the Five Basic Tones in the traditional Chinese music? 20Q3: What are the traditional Chinese philosophical concepts revealed 15 by Go? NCHSGQ4: Which one of the following CHSG features is one of the main 10 Overall features of Chinese character writing system?[ ] Cuneiform / [ ] Alphabet / [ ] Pictography / [ ] Phonology? 5Q5: What are the tools for Chinese traditional painting? 0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 20
    21. 21. Enjoyment criteria 50• enjoyment of the game 45 play. 40• the usability of the 35 game design. 30• the graphic and the NCHSG visual elements in the 25 CHSG games 20 Overall• the perceived cultural 15 authenticity of the 10 games. 5 0 Qin Qi Shu Hua• “1” poor -“5” excellent.
    22. 22. usability• The Chinese- 60 speaking group scored “Qin” a 24 for 50 usability, as opposed to18. 40• the Chinese- NCHSG speaking 30 CHSG participants could Overall recognize the 20 Chinese music notes (for those notes are 10 written in Chinese characters). 0 Qin Qi Shu Hua 22
    23. 23. graphics• “Hua” was the most 60 aesthetically pleasing. 50• “Qin” game was the least. 40• “Hua” game provided more NCHSG 30 CHSG appealing visual Overall elements in the 20 game. 10 0 Qin Qi Shu Hua 23
    24. 24. overall250200150 Qin Qi Shu100 Hua 50 0 Enjoyment Usability Graphic design Cultural Authenticity Overall 24
    25. 25. Overall-non Chinese speaking12010080 Qin60 Qi Shu40 Hua20 0 Enjoyment Usability Graphic design Cultural Authenticity Overall 25
    26. 26. Overall- Chinese speaking120100 80 Qin 60 Qi Shu Hua 40 20 0 Enjoyment Usability Graphic design Cultural Authenticity Overall 26
    27. 27. Conclusion• A more comprehensive pre-test and post-test questionnaire.• The general questions are too vague.• Consider changing from rating games to ranking them.• Test extrapolated knowledge rather than memory of simple facts.• Examine how tacit knowledge can be learnt and evaluated.• Compare tests between touch-screen and non-touch screen games.• A more 3D interface: sculptures, HD projection on rice paper or liquid media, with 3D audio effects and ambient movies that project on the background environment.• Ambient movies react to the player’s physiological changes -by biosensors.• However, how can interactive digital media convey tacit knowledge and how this tacit knowledge can be evaluated. 27
    28. 28. Burning issuesHow can we increase awareness and understanding of other cultures usinginteractive digital visualizations of past civilizations?In order to answer the above question, this book first examines the needs and requirements of virtual travelers and tourists. Is there a market for virtual travel?• Why are computer games and simulations so much more successful than other types of virtual environments?• Arguments that virtual environments are impeded by technological constraints or by a paucity of evaluation studies can only be partially correct, for PC games / simulations are also virtual environments.• Many of the underlying issues are caused by a lack of engagement with the philosophical underpinnings of culture, presence and inhabitation, and there are few exemplars that engage the public with history and heritage using interactive media in a meaningful and relevant manner.• Help designers and critics understand the issues involved in creating virtual environments that promote and disseminate historical learning and cultural heritage through a close study of the interactive design principles at work behind both real and virtual places. Topics discussed include the design of virtual environments, especially virtual heritage environments, virtual place-making, cultural presence, the pros and cons of game-style interaction, augmented reality projects, and appropriate evaluation methods. 28
    29. 29. biofeedback 29
    30. 30. • html5 http://mudcu.be/sketchpad/• tutorial http://www.html5rocks.com/en/mobile/cross- device/• msdn and touchscreen http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/hh563503.aspx• with flash http://www.2morodocs.com/2010/05/think- outside-the-computer-touchscreens-html5-flash/• html 5 game examples http://html5games.com/category/iphoneipadmobile/• html 5 drawing on an iPad http://tenderlovingcode.com/blog/web-apps/html5- canvas-drawing-on-ipad/ 30
    31. 31. DIGHUMLAB launchhttp://dighumlab.dk• Rector Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen• Danish Minister for Science, Innovation and Higher Education, Morten Østergaard• Dean of Arts, Aarhus University and Head of DHL Steering Group Mette Thunø• DIGHUMLAB 1: Professor Bente Maegaard: Language Tools and CLARIN• DIGHUMLAB 2: Professors Niels Ole Finnemann & Niels Brügger: NetLab• DIGHUMLAB 3: Professor Johannes Wagner: Interaction and Design Studies• Sally Chambers, Secretary General, DARIAH-EU Coordination Office• Steven Krauwer, Executive Director, CLARIN ERIC• Professor Patrik Svensson, HUMlab, Umeå University• Professor Lorna Hughes, University of Wales• Associate Professor Palmyre Pierroux, InterMedia, University of Oslo• Professor Lily Díaz-Kommonen, Media Lab, Aalto University• Erik Champion nzerik@gmail.com or echa@adm.au.dk• Li Wang (Neil) neil.cnz@gmail.com 31

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