Leipzig eHumanities 23 October 2013 talk

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  • LBP1+2: Expressive game 8 million user created levels
  • http://archaeogaming.wordpress.com/2013/06/09/what-is-archaeogaming/
  • Also at http://www.mawsons-huts.org.au/wp-content/mhf_virtual_tour/Mawson's_Huts_Web.html
  • Violence in Virtual Heritage: objects, representations of people, beliefs, historical accuracy, reputation and understanding
  • ..computer game mod designed to teach about Depression-era Ybor City, Florida history and culture titled the Turkey Maiden Educational Computer Game (Underberg, 2008). The area is known for its historic cigar industry and Latin immigrant population. The game itself is based on a Spanish folktale collected from Ybor City, Florida and was adapted into a video game mod using the popular Role Playing Game (RPG) Neverwinter Nights. Center for Digital Ethnography, Florida Natalie Underberg

Transcript

  • 1. Interacting With History Using Virtual Environments Erik Champion erik.champion@curtin.edu.au Curtin University Perth Australia
  • 2. Brief bio Background in architecture, (art history) and philosophy PhD with Lonely Planet in VEs for travel and tourism Taught interaction design and game design Project Manager for a Digital Humanities Network (Denmark) Professor of Cultural Visualisation, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia
  • 3. 3D Cultural Visualisation? Feature Science Art Culture Reusable data Yes No Important Standard tools Yes Seldom Thematic & communal Clear research question Yes Seldom Depends Null hypothesis Yes No Extensible Mostly Seldom Important Falsifiable Yes Seldom Difficult Stored Typically Unlikely Vital Not often
  • 4. Abstract  Where historians wish to develop digital environments to teach and disseminate, I suggest that the crucial issue is interaction and the learning that results from that interaction (Mosaker, 2001).  In order to improve interaction, designers and historians could examine games and why they are so successful; a considerable amount of literature has argued that interactive engagement in a computer medium is best demonstrated by games (Champion, 2008).
  • 5. Central point 1. Games are great learning environments 2. Except for Cultural Significance, history and heritage  Good and bad examples 1. Conclusion: problems and solutions  Technology=barrier but not the issue: learning is the problem.  What historical principles are used, learnt and applied?  Inhabitants’ points of view (heritage) missing  Scholarly cycle incomplete, community cycle inextensible
  • 6. Games as tools Creatorverse
  • 7. LBP1+2 http://www.mediamolecule.com/blog/article/kareems_talk_from_learning_without_frontie
  • 8. Games for history 1. Play and and answer questions 2. Play and classroom discuss authenticity 3. Role-play with games, puppets, or narrators 4. Mod cities, empires events based on theories 5. Film events etc. using machinima tools 6. Combine images or panoramas with other media 7. Design past artefacts, events, rituals or customs 8. Create VEs using games and game mods or using VR
  • 9. 1. Playing History Plague – Slave trade - Vikings Challenge: ..the belief that it is exciting to learn about history. The game integrates learning and playing in a way that engages pupils and gives them a concrete feel for the historical time and setting Solution: The game can be compared to a journey through time and space Platform: Mac/PC, single player, browser Technology: 3D Unity game engine Playtime: Per game 60 minutes Target group: 9-14 years old
  • 10. 2. Discuss and debate http://proteus.brown.edu/romana Watch the movie, ‘Gladiator’ ..Identify an item of material culture (building, object, ‘thing’) that is important to the plot and structure of the movie, and.. NOTE http://www.playthepast.org
  • 11. 3. Role-play http://publicVR.org OR video at http://vimeo.com/25901467
  • 12. 4. Mod cities empires Kurt Squire: “We are interested in: the processes by which players develop an interest in history, what historical understandings develop, and if participation has consequences for activities such as school.”
  • 13. 5. Film Events (Machinima) http://www.sourcefilmmaker.com/ http://www.thesims.com/de-de http://moviesandbox.com
  • 14. 6. Combine images, panos http://www.petermorse.com.au/vrar/vr/ Iphone: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9sBtuCuju0 Technical description http://paulbourke.net/dome/UnityiDome/ Other pano examples http://paulbourke.net/transient/Beacon/beacontour.html
  • 15. 7. Design past artefacts
  • 16. 8. Create VEs via game mods http://cryve.id.tue.nl
  • 17. 8b. OR VEs from VR systems http://www.ntnu.no/ub/omubit/bibliotekene/gunnerus-1/mubil
  • 18. Games: Pros and cons Factors Weaknesses Strengths Interaction Agency destroys historic causality. Simplistic interaction, may be difficult for older audiences. Helps teach interaction design. Engagement Educational games: worst of both worlds? Well-known & popular. Learning How to promote heritage & knowledge transfer. Learn by trial and error. Leveling allow for skills learnt Technical issues Often contains many bugs. Often platform specific. Speed, lighting, avatar design, peripheries, networking Support Support by the actual company can be slow, and they may avoid listing intended future features. Community support (internet forums). Game development Non proprietary formats, changing game engine code may require extremely good levels of programming. Education discounts available, some games are easily “modded”. Access/ cost Expensive software development kits and commercial licenses. Expensive as classroom set. Take them home, personalize modify and share them. Institutional value Not taken seriously. Employability for students.
  • 19. Games and learning  Today, electronic games are an important vehicle for learning (Anderson, 2010; Dondlinger, 2007).  A game is an activity that  (1) ..has some goal in mind, .. the player works to achieve  (2) has systematic or emergent rules, and  (3) is considered a form of play or competition (Oxford, 2010).  While this encompasses “skill and drill” types of games, many of today’s digital games are much more complex, providing an interactive narrative in which the player must test hypotheses, synthesize knowledge, and respond to the unexpected (Dondlinger, 2007).  Rule-finding interactive challenges, requiring judgment, priority selection + direction towards goal completion (Champion, 2011).
  • 20. Games are culturally significant? For evoking +communicating historical situations or heritage values we must deeper understandings rather than simply memorizing facts (Bloom, 1956). 1.What is the cultural significance of what is represented and interacted with? 2.Cultural presence, a feeling in a virtual environment that people with a different cultural perspective occupy or have occupied that virtual environment as a ‘place’.
  • 21. Problem: Narrative/Interaction How do we interact with history over time? How does the GOD view interact with inhabitants? (Glory of Rome)
  • 22. Problem: Interaction /History 1. Ritual knowledge: Match artefacts with events to progress through time 2. Memetic Cause &effect (Guess results or memes to progress history) 3. Extrapolate from clues in NPC dialogue 4. Role-play minor characters, “History” not affected 5. Counterfactual histories (create many possible worlds) 6. Augment virtual world with historical or current media 7. Sentiment analysis (observe the emotional impact of events on NPCs) 8. Separate lies from truth to progress 9. Mimic NPCs (as a kind of reverse Cultural Turing Test)
  • 23. Problem: Inhabitants’ point of view  Can users learn via interaction the meanings and values of others, do we need to interact as the original inhabitants did?  How can we find out how they interacted?  Can the limited and constraining nature of current technology help interaction become more meaningful, educational and enjoyable (Handron & Jacobson, 2010)?  How do we even know when meaningful learning is reached?
  • 24. Problem: Avatars Eric Fassbender: Macquarie Lighthouse  Realistic depiction  Social behaviour  Interface issues  How to advance story http://www.interactivestory.net/
  • 25. Problem: Rituals Lacking •Social judgement •Perceived social hierarchies •Sense of being watched •Territoriality •Social Proxemics •Nuanced behaviour •Intimacy and ceremony •Changes in physiology •Symbolic effects http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MqMXIR Image: http://www.virtualtripping.com/google-earths 2008
  • 26. Problem: Sensory Immersion
  • 27. Affective Process
  • 28. Biofeedback middleware
  • 29. Kinect 1/2: voice + skeleton
  • 30. Vocal Joystick surfs the Web  Listen in as someone uses Vocal Joystick to browse the Web.  Eight vowel sounds move the cursor in different directions.  Louder noises move the cursor more quickly.  The sounds “k” and “ch” simulate clicking and releasing the mouse buttons. http://uwnews.washington.edu/ni/article.asp?articleID=37134
  • 31. Problem: Integrate Text+Model http://gap.alexandriaarchive.org/gapvis/index.html#index
  • 32. Problem: Violence  No realistic humans  No social judgement  No time to think  Gun based genres are commonplace  Weaponry skill can be easily leveled up  Typical single player  Demographics
  • 33. Alternatives to Violence            Reflexivity: A reflective space, where players are encouraged to relax and consider the consequences of their actions Performativity: The player, if in a class situation, could be asked to perform or orate and present their experience of the VE Role-playing Virtue Ethics: Take on characters in role playing games and see how their characters change in relation to perceived development of virtue ethics.. Consequentialism: Players could be allowed to be violent, but the consequences of their actions could affect their future gameplay. through the game. Alternative Strategies: Violence could be offered as a strategy, but it could be offered as a long-term destructive strategy. Creative Uses For Weapons: used as tools to construct. NPC distaste and disparagement: they discourage violence. Biofeedback: Performance based on calmness Expressive and embodied modes of interaction Emphasis on non-violent competition Players become morally accountable for their actions
  • 34. Alternative game modes Turkey Maiden Educational Computer Game http://digitalethnography.dm.ucf.edu/ The Journey http://www.thenightjourney.com/statement.htm
  • 35. Gaming through touch Shown at Vsmm2012 conference Chinese Taoism Touch Screen by Neil Wang and Erik Champion Opening - http://youtu.be/gFYG4zTn4Js Game Hua - http://youtu.be/DiGDezTM8hY Game Qi1 - http://youtu.be/jP9nfdUFDTU Game Qi2 - http://youtu.be/orCga2CQBjs Game Qin - http://youtu.be/iC2BGT5IbDE Game Shu - http://youtu.be/dv_TOnl_sbc
  • 36. Problem: Scholarly knowledge Scholarly knowledge does not easily translate to audience knowledge; nor does it always best engage the public. IF we can use digital worlds for teaching +learning about heritage &history, is it preferable to learn about a collection of culturally situated past experiences, or an academic procession of historical events? Smith: history as meaning the past, OR history as being something produced by historians. Given that even philosophers such as Goldstein (1964) and Gale (1962) disagreed on what constitutes history and what constitutes recollection of the past; how can students or the general public reliably distinguish between the two? How it can be or should be accessed?
  • 37. Problem: Book-based? Technology or evaluation is the not the fundamental problem. Skeates (2000) warned that archaeologists need to reconsider their field as a communication medium, and not just as a closed scientific discipline. For while these books presuppose a vast domain of knowledge, a certain learnt yet creative technique of extrapolation they typically do not cover the experiential detective work of experts that visit the real site (Gillings, 2002). Academic disciplines are typically book-based and do not see that an academic publication is also a simplification and metaphorical extension of the remains and ruins it describes.
  • 38. Problem: Augmenting Ideally, Ves help the general public to  create, and share and discuss hypothetical or counterfactual places  meet virtually in these places with colleagues to discuss them,  work in these recreations to understand limitations forced on their predecessors,  develop experiential ways to entice a potential new audience to both admire the content and the methods of their area of research. script
  • 39. Problem: Evaluation Using media such as game engines to represent the past or digital places that represent the future, it is all too easy to be taken in by the lure of technology and forget to concentrate on enhancing the user experience. There is also a school of thought in archaeology that views digital media as purely a shop façade for the serious and scholarly past time of reading and writing books (Parry 2005; Gillings, 2002). Yet if we avoid teaching with digital media, how will the changing attention spans and learning patterns of new generations be best addressed (Mehegan, 2007)? Even if we decide on what we are evaluating, it is not clear how to evaluate. The ethnographic techniques used by researchers may be effective in recording activity, but they do not directly indicate the potential mental transformations of perspective that result from being subjectively immersed in a different type of cultural presence (Benford et al, 2002).
  • 40. Evaluating VES - People  Task performance (quantitative or qualitative)  Likert or statistical evaluation  Extrapolated understanding  Personal ‘sense’ of cultural presence  What do they choose next (exit strategies)  Excitement recorded from biofeedback  ‘Teach the teacher’ et al methods
  • 41.  Collaborative learning: HACK4LT, VILNIUS LITHUANIA
  • 42. Mixed Reality http://ael.gatech.edu/lab/research/arsecondlife /using-the-ar-second-life-client/ http://virtual.vtt.fi/virtual/proj2/multimedi a/projects/mrconference.html
  • 43. 3D 1. Show design features based on scale and senses 2. Reveal limitations or principles of historical 2D images 3. Provide a heightened sense of difficulty, occasion, ritual, social proxemics (social hierarchies) 4. Afford a sense of place: peripherality, centre directionality 5. Fix locations in the memory iSphere copyright Paul Bourke
  • 44. Warping
  • 45. The HIVE@CURTIN
  • 46. The cost of Stereo VR
  • 47. Conclusion 1. Game conventions work but do not necessarily lead to meaningful learning. 2. Background research required for public versus scholar needs. 3. We lack interactive and immersive digital history projects that are meaningful and engaging learning experiences. 4. Games as Virtual Environments may connect more people, more thematically without competing with book learning. 5. Mixed reality has many advantages but few exemplars.
  • 48. References           BBC Ancient History Section. (Undated). Death in Sakkara: An Egyptian Adventure, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/ir onage_roundhouse/index.shtml Benford, S., Fraser, M., Reynard, G. Koleva, B., and Drozd, A. (2002). Staging and Evaluating Public Performances as an Approach to CVE Research, Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Collaborative virtual environments, ACM New York. Bloom, B. S. (1956). ‘Taxonomy of Educational Objectives’, Book 1 Cognitive Domain. New York: Longman Inc. Champion, E. (2008). ‘Otherness of place: Game-based interaction and learning in virtual heritage projects’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 14(3), 210-228. Dondlinger, M. J. (2007). ‘Educational Video Game Design: A Review of the Literature’, Journal of Applied Educational Technology, 4(1), 21-31. Handron, K., & Jacobson, J. (2010). Extending Physical Collections Into the Virtual Space of a Digital Dome,. Paper presented at the 11th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST), Paris, France. Hight, J. (2006). ‘TEXT: Narrative Archaeology: reading the landscape’, newmediafix, http://newmediafix.net/daily/?p=638 Leader-Elliott, L. (2003). ‘Community Heritage Interpretation Games: A Case Study from Angaston, South Australia’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 11:2, 161-71. Gale, R.M. (1962). ‘Dewey and the Problem of the Alleged Futurity of Yesterday’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 22(4), 501-511. Gillings, M. (2002). Virtual archaeologies and the hyperreal, in P. Fisher, D. Unwin, (eds.), Virtual Reality in Geography (London & New York: Taylor & Francis, 2002), 17-32.           Goldstein, L. (1964). ‘The "Alleged" Futurity of Yesterday’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 24(3), 417-420. Jacobson, J. (2011). ‘The Effect of Visual Immersion in an Educational Game; Gates of Horus’, International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 3(1), 13-32. Mehegan, D. (2007). Young People Reading a Lot Less: Report Laments the Social Costs. The Boston Globe, 19 November (2007), http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/11 /19/young_people_reading_a_lot_less/. Mosaker, L. (2001). ‘Visualizing Historical Knowledge Using VR Technology’, Digital Creativity S&Z 12(1), 15-25. Oxford English Dictionary (2010). Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Oxford Dictionaries website: http://oxforddictionaries.com. Parry. R. (2005). ‘Digital Heritage and the Rise of Theory in Museum Computing’, Museum Management and Curatorship, 20:4, 333-48. Skeates, R. (2000). Debating the archaeological heritage, (London: Duckworth), 109-111. Smith, B. G. (1995). ’Whose Truth, Whose History?', Journal of the History of Ideas, 56(4): 661-668. http://blip.tv/learning-without-frontiers/game-basedlearning-2009-terry-deary-author-horrible-histories1916837 http://archaeogaming.wordpress.com/