Materi 8-ob

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Matakulia Kepemimpinan STPM SANUR Ende FLORES NTT>

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Materi 8-ob

  1. 1. MATERI 8 PERILAKU ORGANISASI KEPEMIMPINAN:EFEKTIVITAS & KEKUASAAN
  2. 2. DEFINISI PEMIMPIN & KEPEMIMPINAN• A Leader is an individual who influences others to act toward a particular goal or end-state (Judith R. Gordon)• Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals (Stephen P.Robbins)• Managerial Leadership is a process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group (Ralph M. Stogdill)
  3. 3. BEBERAPA STUDI AWAL TENTANG KEPEMIMPINAN• IOWA LEADERSHIP STUDIES (1937) Tujuan : melihat pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan terhadap kepuasan, frustrasi dan agresi.• OHIO STATE LEADERSHIP STUDIES (1945) : Melihat dimensi kepemimpinan.• EARLY MICHIGAN STUDIES ON LEADERSHIP STYLES (1947) : melihat gaya kepemimpinan dan produktivitas.
  4. 4. PERKEMBANGAN STUDI KEPEMIMPINAN1. The Great Man Theory2. Trait Theory3. Group & Exchange Theory4. Situational Theory5. Path- Goal Theory
  5. 5. THE GREAT MAN THEORY• Menurut teori ini orang bisa berhasil menjadi pemimpin yang baik, karena memang dilahirkan demikian.• Sebab kemunculan The Great man theory : 1. Anggapan / keyakinan sebagian masyarakat. 2. Sebagai konsekwensi dari anggapan studi awal tentang kepribadian yang diyakini sifatnya bawaan.
  6. 6. TRAIT THEORY (KEITH DAVIS)• 4 CIRI UTAMA PEMIMPIN YANG BERHASIL1. INTELEGENSIA2. KEMATANGAN SOSIAL3. INNER MOTIVATION4. HUMAN RELATION ATTITUDE
  7. 7. CIRI-CIRI PEMIMPIN SUKSES ( STOGDILL; 1974)• Adaptable to situations• Alert to social environment• Ambitious and achievement oriented• Assertive• Cooperative• Decisive• Dependable
  8. 8. CIRI-CIRI PEMIMPIN SUKSES (Lanjutan)• Dominant (desire to influence others)• Energetic (high activity level)• Persistent• Self-Confident• Tolerant of Stress• Willing to assume responsibility
  9. 9. SKILLS PEMIMPIN SUKSES (STOGDILL; 1974)• Clever• Conceptually skilled• Creative• Diplomatic and tactful• Fluent in speaking• Knowledgeable about group task• Organized (administrative ability)• Persuasive• Socially Skilled
  10. 10. GROUP & EXCHANGE THEORY• Hubungan antara pemimpin dan pengikut pada dasarnya bersifat “exchange” pertimbangan untung/rugi.• Komitmen akan muncul dari pengikut jika pemimpin memberikan exchange positif (rewards).• Pemimpin harus lebih banyak memberikan rewards daripada beban (cost).
  11. 11. SITUATIONAL THEORY (FIEDLER)• Efektivitas pemimpin tergantung pada situasi.• Situasi kepemimpinan : 1. Favorable 2. Unfavorable• Dalam situasi yang sangat favorable dan sangat unfavorable yang efektif adalah gaya “task directed”.• Dalam situasi yang moderate Favorable dan moderate unfavorable yang efektif adalah gaya “human relations”.
  12. 12. PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP THEORY (ROBERT HOUSE)• Menjelaskan dampak gaya kepemimpinan terhadap motivasi, kinerja dan kepuasan.• Gaya kepemimpinan : Directive, Supportive, Participative, Achievement Oriented.• Seorang pemimpin dapat saja menunjukkan tipe kepemimpinan yang berbeda dalam situasi yang berbeda.
  13. 13. EFEKTIVITAS KEPEMIMPINAN1. KEPRIBADIAN2. PENGALAMAN3. HARAPAN PEMIMPIN4. HARAPAN DAN PERILAKU ATASAN5. KEBUTUHAN TUGAS6. HARAPAN DAN PERILAKU REKAN7. KARAKTERISTIK, HARAPAN & PERILAKU BAWAHAN8. IKLIM DAN KEBIJAKAN ORGANISASI
  14. 14. POWER & INFLUENCE DALAM KEPEMIMPINAN• Influence is merely the effect of one party (the “agent”) on another (the “target”).• Power refers to an agent’s capacity to influence a target person.• Hubungan : 1. Pengaruh muncul karena ada power 2. Kekuatan Pengaruh tergantung besarnya Power / Kekuasaan yang dimiliki.
  15. 15. KETERLIBATAN POWER DALAM ORGANIASI• REORGANIZATIONS• PERSONAL CHANGES• BUDGET ALLOCATIONS• PURCHACE OF MAJOR ITEMS• ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARDS• RULES AND PROCEDURES
  16. 16. SUMBER POWER DALAM ORGANISASI• POSITION POWER• PERSONAL POWER• POLITICAL POWER
  17. 17. POSITION POWER• Formal Authority : Legitimate Power• Control Over Resources and Rewards : Reward Power• Control Over Punishment : Coercive Power• Control Over Information• Control Over The Physical Work Environment.
  18. 18. PERSONAL POWER• Expertise : Expert Power• Friendship / Loyalty : Referent Power• Charisma• Reputation• Performance
  19. 19. OUTCOME PENGGUNAAN POWER• COMMITMENT :- Internally agree - Enthusiastic - Great Effort• COMPLIANCE : - Willing to do - Apathetic - Minimal Effort• RESISTANCE
  20. 20. BENTUK-BENTUK RESISTANCE• Make excuses about why the request cannot be carried out.• Try to persuade the agent to withdraw the request.• Ask higher authorities to overrule the agent’s request.• Delay acting in the hope that the agent will forget about the request.• Make a pretense of complying but try to sabotage the task• Refuse to carry out the request.
  21. 21. POWER & OUTCOMESPower Komit Patuh NolakReferent Likely Possible PossibleExpert Likely Possible PossibleLegitimate Possible Likely PossibleReward Possible Likely PossibleCoercive Very Possible Likely Unlikely
  22. 22. PROCES POLITIK UNTUK MEMBANGUN POWER• CONTROL OVER DECISION PROCESS• COALITIONS• CO-OPTATION (By. Gary A. Yukl)
  23. 23. STRATEGI & TAKTIK MEMBANGUN POWER• BEING IN THE RIGHT UNIT• ENERGY AND PHYSICAL STAMINA• FOCUS• SENSITIVITY TO OTHERS• BEING EARLY & MOVING FIRST• “THE WAITING GAME”• CHANGING THE STRUCTURE• PHYSICAL SETTING
  24. 24. TAKTIT MEMBANGUN PENGARUH• RATIONAL PERSUASION• EXCHANGE TACTICS• LEGITIMATE REQUEST• PRESSURE TACTICS• PERSONAL APPEALS
  25. 25. SAAT POWER HILANG DARI SEORANG PEMIMPIN• TIME CHANGE- PEOPLE DON’T• EASY COME, EASY GO• BAD REPUTATION AND PERFORMANCE.

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